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It increases routing overhead over the network

Dynamic cluster based intrusion detection system in mobile ad-hoc networks

Dynamic cluster based intrusion detection system in mobile ad-hoc networks

Advanced Encryption Standard and message authentication code based message digest 6 (MAC-MD6) algorithms for secure transmission of data over the MANET with AODV routing protocol.This proposed model will provide better performance in terms of Throughput, packet delivery ratio (PDR) and minimizes routing overhead as well as effective bandwidth utilization.
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QOS/POLICY/CONSTRAINT BASED ROUTING PPTX

QOS/POLICY/CONSTRAINT BASED ROUTING PPTX

information is maintained in the routers regarding the state of the flow. In short, to provide QoS, both connection and state information are needed. To provide QoS in the Internet, many techniques have been proposed and studied, including Integrated Services(IntServ)[ RFC1633 ], Differential Services(DiffServ)[ RFC2475 ], MPLS(MultiProtocol Label Switching)[ MPLS ], Traffic Engineering and QoS-based Routing. Specific working groups are also organized under IETF(Internet Engineering Task Force)[ IETFWG ]. In this paper, we will focus on QoS-based routing, which is an important component in the whole QoS framework in the Internet. In the next section, the definition of QoS-based routing is given. Some related concepts(constraint-based routing and policy-based routing) are also introduced. Then the objectives of QoS-based routing and main issues of it are discussed. In section 3, three types of QoS-based routing algorithms are examined and compared. Qos-based routing for multicast and wireless network are also discussed. Relations between QoS-based routing and some relevant QoS techniques are discussed in section 4. In section 5, we discuss policy-based routing, which is similar to QoS-based routing but different. Finally, a summary is given.
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CÂU HỎI ÔN THI FINAL CCNA2

CÂU HỎI ÔN THI FINAL CCNA2

Which two statements are true about the EIGRP successor route? (Choose two.) It is saved in the topology table for use if the primary route fails. It may be backed up by a feasible successor route. It is used by EIGRP to forward traffic to the destination. It is flagged as active in the routing table.
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NETWORK FUNDAMENTALS–CHAPTER 2 DOC

NETWORK FUNDAMENTALS–CHAPTER 2 DOC

•A reference model is not intended to be an implementation specification or to provide a sufficient level of detail to define precisely the services of the network architecture. •The primary purpose of a reference model is to aid in clearer understanding of the functions and process involved.
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A study on coarse granular routing elastic optical networks

A study on coarse granular routing elastic optical networks

We have studied coarse granular routing elastic optical network that is based on our recently developed coarse granular OXC architecture. The network can exploit both elastic optical networking and coarse granular routing technologies to cope with the trade-off between the link cost and the node cost in order to build a spectrum-and-cost efficient solution for future Internet backbone networks.
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REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL RFP – FINANCIAL AUDIT SERVICES ISSUE DATE: OCTOBER 28, 2011 PDF

REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL RFP – FINANCIAL AUDIT SERVICES ISSUE DATE: OCTOBER 28, 2011 PDF

OFFICE EXPENSE 43 MEETING EXPENSE 44 TOTAL GENERAL OVERHEAD 45 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ANNUAL ONGOING OVERHEAD IT HARDWARE 46 IT SOFTWARE 47 TRANG 12 12 LOCAL IT SUPPORT 48 OTHER IT COSTS[r]
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FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

The ability to offer high data rates, equivalent to core network type services, over ISLs, while offering access network service data rates over the user to satellite link is an attracti[r]
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THE ILLUSTRATED NETWORK  P48 PDF

THE ILLUSTRATED NETWORK P48 PDF

It is common for many large ISPs to stack three labels in front of an IP packet. Often, the end of two LSPs is at the same router and two labels are pushed or popped at once. The current limit is eight labels. There are several instances where this stacking ability comes in handy. A larger ISP can buy a smaller ISP and simply “add” their own LSPs onto (outside) the existing ones. In addition, when different signaling protocols are used in core routers and border routers, these domains can be nested instead of discarding one or the other.
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Lecture Computer networks 1: Lecture 7 - Phạm Trần Vũ

Lecture Computer networks 1: Lecture 7 - Phạm Trần Vũ

Lecture Computer networks 1 - Lecture 7: Network layer in the internet has contents: The network layer in the internet, the IP protocol, IP addresses, internet control protocols, OSPF – The interior gateway routing protocol,... and other contents.
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Lecture Computer networks 1: Lecture 5 - Phạm Trần Vũ

Lecture Computer networks 1: Lecture 5 - Phạm Trần Vũ

Lecture Computer networks 1 - Lecture 5: Network layer has contents: The network layer design issues, routing algorithms, congestion control algorithms, quality of services... and other contents.
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC    RESEARCH ARTICLE A SOCIABILITY BASED ROUTING SCHEME FOR DELAY TOLERANT NETWORKS  DOC

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC RESEARCH ARTICLE A SOCIABILITY BASED ROUTING SCHEME FOR DELAY TOLERANT NETWORKS DOC

Consider now the 2nd plot of Figure 4(a) . 2-hop based sociability indicators still show few best forwarders. How- ever many other nodes have non-negligible indicators. In particular, a large subset has sociability around 0 . 5. Now imagine a bundle is originated by one such node. According to the algorithm, the latter will automatically exclude from the list of potential next-hop relays all its peers (i.e., those having equal or smaller indicator—a great percentage). The key implication is that there is no initial flooding. Instead, the origin node tends to wait to meet one of the 2 or 3 strong forwarders before initiating a transmission. Thus, while in the 1-hop case all nodes are almost equally likely to potentially receive the bundle, this di ff erent definition of
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MODULE 8  ROUTING AS A SOLUTION FOR PRIVATE NETWORK CONNECTIVITY

MODULE 8 ROUTING AS A SOLUTION FOR PRIVATE NETWORK CONNECTIVITY

Exercise 1 Designing a Router Solution In this exercise, you are presented with the task of designing a routing solution for an engineering firm. This engineering firm has a headquarters, four field offices, and customer offices where the field engineers work. Your instructor will assign you to design the headquarters or a field office. You will work in teams to design a routing solution that supports an organization’s requirements. You will design your solution for your assigned location by using a white board, flip chart, or other presentation medium. Review the scenario, the design requirements, and the diagram for the assigned location. Follow the instructions to complete the exercise. At the end of the exercise, be prepared to provide a justification for your design decisions and to provide feedback to the other teams.
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Module 2-3 – Implementing and Verifying EIGRP pptx

Module 2-3 – Implementing and Verifying EIGRP pptx

• Reply (R): This code applies if the router is generating a reply for this network or is waiting for an acknowledgment for the reply packet. • Stuck-in-active (SIA) status: This code signifies an EIGRP convergence problem for the network with which it is associated.
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OUTSOURCING THE NETWORK II - GREEN IT AND SAN

OUTSOURCING THE NETWORK II - GREEN IT AND SAN

Outsourcing the Network II – Green IT and SAN
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Charging for Network Security Based on Long-Run Incremental Cost Pricing

Charging for Network Security Based on Long-Run Incremental Cost Pricing

Charging for Network Security Based on Long-Run Incremental Cost Pricing Pricing for the use of the networks is essential in the way that it should be able to reflect the costs benefits imposed on a network when connecting a new generator or demand and to provide forward-looking message to influence the site and size of future network customers. Studies have been extensively carried out over the years to achieve this pricing goal. Few methodologies can directly link nodal generation/demand increment to network long-run marginal/incremental costs.
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Internetworking with TCP/IP- P19 pot

Internetworking with TCP/IP- P19 pot

One disadvantage of transparent routers is that they only work with networks that have a large address space from which to choose host addresses. Thus, they work best with class A networks, and they do not work well with class C networks. Another disadvantage is that because they are not conventional routers, transparent routers do not provide all the same services as standard routers. In particular, transparent routers may not participate fully in ICMP or network management protocols like SNMP. Therefore, they do not return ICMP echo requests (i.e., one cannot easily "ping" a transparent router to determine if it is operating).
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THI HK II  G 11   KEY

THI HK II G 11 KEY

transformer then increases the number of volts over 400.000.The electricity goes through cables to different parts of Scotland, England and Wales. The inside of the power station was very clean because it doesn’t burn coal or gas. It was also very quiet. I was very surprised. It was just like being in a hospital, really.
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OPTICAL NETWORKS: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE - PART 43 DOC

OPTICAL NETWORKS: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE - PART 43 DOC

Routing and Forwarding IP was one of the earliest packet-switching protocols. IP transports information in the form of packets, which are of variable length. An IP router is the key network element in an IP network. A router forwards packets from an incoming link onto an outgoing link. Figure 6.15 illustrates how packets are forwarded in an IP network. The nature of this routing is fundamental to IP. Here we describe the classical routing mechanism used by IP. Each router maintains a routing table. The routing table has one or more entries for each destination router in the network. The entry indicates the next node adjacent to this router to which packets need to be forwarded. The forwarding process works as follows. The router looks at the header in a packet arriving on an incoming link. The header contains the identity of the destination router for that packet. The router then does a lookup of its routing table to determine the next adjacent node for that packet, and forwards the packet on the link leading to that node. In the example shown in Figure 6.15, consider a packet from node 1 destined for node 4. Node 1 looks at its table and forwards this packet to node 5. Node 5 forwards the packet to node 3, which in turn forwards the packet to node 4, its ultimate destination.
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OPTICAL NETWORKS: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE - PART 50 POT

OPTICAL NETWORKS: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE - PART 50 POT

When the routing is not fixed, estimating the blocking probabilities or reuse factors is analytically intractable, and in practice, the best way to estimate R even for small networks is by simulation. It is possible to analytically calculate the maximum value of R when the number of wavelengths is very large for small networks; this has been done in [RS95] and serves as an upper bound on the reuse factor for practical values of the number of wavelengths. When the number of wavelengths is small, simulation techniques can be used to compute the reuse factor. To this end, we summarize some of the simulation results from [RS95]. We will also compare the simulation results with the analytically calculated upper bound on the reuse factor. We will use randomly chosen graphs to model the network, assume a Poisson arrival process with exponential holding times, assume a uniform traffic distribution, and use the following RWA algorithm.
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A novel solution of QoS routing with multi constraint algorithm

A novel solution of QoS routing with multi constraint algorithm

In providing new telecommunication (telecom) services, the requisition for quality of network is more and more popular and sophisticated with high bandwidth, small value of delay time or packet loss etc. To assure the quality of network, the scheme of Quality of Service (QoS) routing algorithm based on local state information have recently been researched as a promising alternative to the currently deployed global QoS routing schemes.
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CCNA 2 CHAPTER 4 PPT

CCNA 2 CHAPTER 4 PPT

4. Which of the following methods does split horizon use to reduce incorrect routing information? Routing updates are split in half to reduce the update time. Information learned from one source is not distributed back to that source. New route information must be learned from multiple sources to be accepted. The time between updates is split in half to speed convergence.
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AUTOMATION POTX

AUTOMATION POTX

Once defined the development environment, the implementation models were developed according to the modular structure of the conceptual models, as follows: (i) UFO.owl; (ii) BusinessProcess.owl; (iii) ITService.owl; (iv) ITComponents.owl and finally (v) ConfigurationItem.owl. Due to the expressivity restrictions inherent in the implementation languages, the main issue concerning the mapping from conceptual models into implementation models is related to the treatment of the reduction in semantic precision. In order to maintain this reduction at an acceptable level, the most relevant losses that were found were related to the transformation of all ontologically well-founded concepts and relations into OWL classes and properties, respectively. Regardless of the application scenario, this mapping must consider the information contained in the notation used for the development of the conceptual models, such as cardinality, transitivity, domain and range. With respect to cardinality and transitivity, in OWL it is not possible to represent them simultaneously (Bechhofer et al., 2004). As a result, this work considers that the representation of cardinality restrictions is more relevant to the implementation models developed in this section. In addition, to represent the cardinality restrictions in both directions inverse relations were used. For instance, the relation “requests” is represented by the pair of relations “requests” and “is requested by”. However, according to Rector and Welty (2001), the use of inverse relations significantly increases the complexity of automated reasoning. Thus, they should be used only when necessary. With respect to domain and range, an issue that should be considered is how to organize and represent many generic relations. For example, if a generic relation “describes” is created, it is not possible to restrict the domain and the range. In this case, the design choice was to use specific relations like “describes_Software_ComputerProcess”, which is represented as a sub-relation of a generic relation “describes”. Finally, with respect to SWRL restrictions, this language has neither negation operators nor existential quantifiers (Horrocks et al., 2003). In addition, the SWRL language might lead to undecidable implementation models. Nevertheless, this issue may be worked around by restricting the use of rules and manipulating only those that are DL- safe (Motik et al., 2005). As an attempt to make this tangible, consider an implementation of the axiom A7, which concerns the competence question QC2, discussed in Section 4. This implementation is represented by the rule R7a.
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CCNA 2 CHAPTER 5 POT

CCNA 2 CHAPTER 5 POT

Refer to the exhibit. The Ethernet interface on Router2 goes down and the administrator notices that the route is still in the Router1 routing table. How much longer will Router1 keep the down network in its routing table before marking it as possibly down? 30 seconds 90 seconds
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BÀI GIẢNG MẠNG MÁY TÍNH VÀ INTERNET  CHƯƠNG 4   TRẦN QUANG HẢI BẰNG

BÀI GIẢNG MẠNG MÁY TÍNH VÀ INTERNET CHƯƠNG 4 TRẦN QUANG HẢI BẰNG

GIAO THỨC TẦNG MẠNG 19 23/08 - 10/10/2010 THE INTERNET TCP/IP NETWORK LAYER routing table _NETWORK LAYER ĐƯỢC THỰC THI TẠI END SYSTEM CŨNG NHƯ TẠI ROUTER!_ Routing protocols •path select[r]
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A study of blackhole and wormhole attacks in mobile adhoc networks

A study of blackhole and wormhole attacks in mobile adhoc networks

In the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), there are several ways of attacking network operation bypassing fault routing information between malicious and normal nodes. It will degrade efficiency of the network so we cannot archive the purposes of the designed MANET. Since it is deployed in an open network environment with characteristics of high mobility, lack of physical security and independent management, the network is vulnerable to attacks. In related works, we have seen a lot of works focusing on single type of attacks but in our paper, we study how routing attacks work and study how we can simulate combination of blackhole and wormhole attacks. Our code will be open to community so others can use to test with its security mechanism or secure routing protocols.
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A study of blackhole and wormhole attacks in mobile adhoc networks

A study of blackhole and wormhole attacks in mobile adhoc networks

In the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), there are several ways of attacking network operation bypassing fault routing information between malicious and normal nodes. It will degrade efficiency of the network so we cannot archive the purposes of the designed MANET. Since it is deployed in an open network environment with characteristics of high mobility, lack of physical security and independent management, the network is vulnerable to attacks. In related works, we have seen a lot of works focusing on single type of attacks but in our paper, we study how routing attacks work and study how we can simulate combination of blackhole and wormhole attacks. Our code will be open to community so others can use to test with its security mechanism or secure routing protocols.
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SIEMENS MULTI PANEL

SIEMENS MULTI PANEL

- Pre-configured message display, message window and message line • Archiving messages and process values (on PC/CF card or network drive through Ethernet) - Various archive types: re-circulating and sequence archive - Storing of archive data in standard Windows format (CSV) - Online evaluation of process value archives using trend curves - External evaluation with standard MS Excel and MS Access tools • Message log and shift log
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A survey on malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc network

A survey on malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc network

The existing intrusion detection system has gives more network overhead to MANET. Here, we analyze and find a new efficient intrusion detection system Hybrid Cryptography Technique (BECDH) for reducing network overhead and enhance the security level of MANET.
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SIGNALING SYSTEM NO 7 PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE AND SEVICES PART 23 PPSX

SIGNALING SYSTEM NO 7 PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE AND SEVICES PART 23 PPSX

In this example, the number translates to a subtending line of SSP B, which checks the line to determine whether it is available. An ACM is built and sent to SSP A, notifying that the call can be completed and is proceeding. At this point, the speech path in the backward direction (from SSP B to SSP A) should be cut through to allow the ring-back tone to be sent over the bearer channel from the terminating exchange to the originating exchange. This indicates that the terminator is being alerted.
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Dynamic inventory routing problem: Policies considering network disruptions

Dynamic inventory routing problem: Policies considering network disruptions

In this paper, we introduce an inventory routing problem with network disruptions. In this problem, not only decisions on inventory levels and vehicle routing are made simultaneously, but also, we consider disruptions over the networks in which a number of arcs are vulnerable to these disruptions, leading to an increase in travel times.
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THE COMPLETE IS-IS ROUTING PROTOCOL- P3 PPT

THE COMPLETE IS-IS ROUTING PROTOCOL- P3 PPT

Figure 2.3 shows essentially how modern routers are structured. The router is parti- tioned into a dedicated control plane and a forwarding plane. The control plane holds the software that the router needs to interact with other routers and human operators. Routers typically employ a powerful command line interface (CLI), which is used for provision- ing services, configuration management, router troubleshooting and debugging pur- poses. Operator actions are written down in a central configuration file. Changes of the configuration file are propagated to the routing processes that “speak” router-to-router protocols like OSPF or IS-IS or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). If the same routing protocol is provisioned on both ends of a direct router-to-router link, then the routers start to discover each other in their network. Next, IP routing information is exchanged. The remote network information is entered in the local routing table of the route processor . Next, the forwarding table entries in the control plane and the packet forwarding plane have to be synchronized. Based on this routing table, the forwarding plane starts to program the router hardware, which consists of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), with a subset of the rout- ing table, which is now called the forwarding table . The forwarding table is usually a concise version of the full routing table containing all IP networks. The forwarding table only needs to know routes useful for packet forwarding.
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COMPTIA NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION STUDY GUIDE PART 14 PPT

COMPTIA NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION STUDY GUIDE PART 14 PPT

NoTES FroM ThE FIEld… Multiplexing defined Multiplexing is defined as the sending of multiple sig- nals over one communications channel at the same time. The cable television system is a perfect example of multiplexing in action. Cable TV is a simple technol- ogy where your available channels are all sent along a single cable, and you are able to select a channel to view a specific program based on your numbered selection. In the world of data transmission, the tech- nology is very much the same. If you have a T1, for example, and you need to break that 1.544 Mbps of bandwidth down to smaller amount, you can do so with a fractional T1 .
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PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING  P54 PPTX

PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING P54 PPTX

This gives an indication of the performance of the server/host memory. This information should be gathered continuously and then used to set up alarms for each measuring point. Typical alarm points should be set to about 10% of the averages recorded for each statistic gathered.
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Báo cáo hóa học:

Báo cáo hóa học: " Research Article Field Division Routing" potx

In reactive protocols, a node initiates route discovery only when it forwards a packet. Frequently used routes are cached. Reactive protocols are suitable for highly dynamic networks where node mobility renders the cost of proactive protocols prohibitive [ 10 – 12 ]. The topology of WAHNs is closely related to the relative positions of nodes. Geographically assisted protocols exploit this property by making localized decisions on forwarding routes. Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) [ 2 ] reduces the network topology to a planar graph. It forwards messages in the direction of an intended receiver while avoiding areas without forwarding nodes—as a consequence, GPSR cannot guarantee successful message delivery (see Figure 1 ). An extension to GPSR deals with realistic connections that often do not correspond to typically assumed unit graph network representations [ 13 ]. LAR [ 14 ] and CarNet [ 15 ] use node locations and a grid to limit the search for new routes. The main drawback of reactive protocols is increased message latency and tra ffi c overhead due to route discovery for each noncached route.
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INTERNETWORKING WITH TCP/IP- P76 POT

INTERNETWORKING WITH TCP/IP- P76 POT

subnet addressing An extension of the IP addressing scheme that allows a site to use a single IP net- work address for multiple physical networks. Outside of the site using subnet ad- dressing, routing continues as usual by dividing the destination address into a net- work portion and a local portion. Routers and hosts inside a site using subnet ad- dressing interpret the local portion of the address by dividing it into a physical net- work portion and a host portion.
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Achieving energy efficiency in manets by using load balancing approach

Achieving energy efficiency in manets by using load balancing approach

Energy Efficient Load Balanced (EFLBAODV) and compared it to the traditionally existing reactive routing protocol Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) thus using the load balancing technique to improve the node to node communication in our network. Also our routing protocol will be energy efficient as it will minimize the communication time and overheads thus utilizing the energy resources. Some important metrics like route discovery time, route errors, MAC delay, network load, end-to-end delay and throughput have been taken to evaluate the overall improvement in the novel protocol.
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Lecture Computer networks 1: Lecture 6 - Phạm Trần Vũ

Lecture Computer networks 1: Lecture 6 - Phạm Trần Vũ

Lecture Computer networks 1 - Lecture 6: Network layer has contents: The network layer design issues, routing algorithms, congestion control algorithms, quality of services, the network layer in the Internet,... and other contents.
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The dependence of the nonlinear absorption coefficient of strong electromagnetic waves caused by electrons confined in rectangular quanfum wires on the  emperafure of the system

The dependence of the nonlinear absorption coefficient of strong electromagnetic waves caused by electrons confined in rectangular quanfum wires on the emperafure of the system

coefficient increases until it reached the maximum value (peak) and then it decreases. At different values of the size L' and L, of wire the temperature T of the s[r]
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