Thảo luận văn hóa anh: The economy and everyday life

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Thảo luận văn hóa anh: The economy and everyday life Thảo luận văn hóa anh: The economy and everyday life Thảo luận văn hóa anh: The economy and everyday life Thảo luận văn hóa anh: The economy and everyday life Thảo luận văn hóa anh: The economy and everyday life Thảo luận văn hóa anh: The economy and everyday life THUONGMAI UNIVERSITY ENGLISH FACULTY -o0o - DISCUSSION BRITISH CULTURE Topic: The economy and everyday life Teacher : Nguyễn Thị Xuân Phương Group : 04 Class : 2076ENTI0411 HANOI – 2020 CONTENTS I II Introduction: .3 Body Earning money: Work organization: .6 The structure of trade and industry 3.1 Agriculture 3.2 Construction 3.3 Manufacturing 3.4 Services The distribution of wealth 11 Finance and Investment 14 Spending money: shopping .18 III Conclusion 21 I Introduction: The UK is one of the most globalized economies in the world In the 18th century the UK was the first country to industrialize and during the 19th century it had a dominant role in the global economy, accounting for 9.1% of the world's GDP in 1870 The Second Industrial Revolution was taken place rapidly in the United States and the German Empire, this presented an increasing economic challenge for the UK In the 21st century the UK retains the ability to project power and influence around the world In 2019, the UK was the fifth-largest exporter in the world and the fifth-largest goods importer It also had the second-largest inward foreign direct investment, and the third-largest outward foreign direct investment The service sector dominates, contributing around 80% of GDP; the financial services industry is particularly important, and London is the second-largest financial center in the world The UK-Vietnam bilateral relationship has developed greatly since the establishment of full diplomatic relations in 1973 The UK is one of the largest EU investors in Vietnam UK companies are building up a good reputation and are contributing to Vietnam’s economic development II Body Earning money: “The one thing the English will never forgive the Germans for is working too hard” was a statement which was written by Hungarian humourist This statement is not literally true but it does reflect a certain lack of enthusiasm for work in the UK Because leisure has always been the main outward sign of aristocary and Britain’s class system has had its effects throughout society The classic formulation of social class in Britain is to see Britain as being divided into three classes: working, middle and upper class Social class Working class Middle class Upper class Features Those individuals engaged in manual work, often having low levels of educational achievement The classic, traditional working class jobs include heavy labouring and factory based work Those individuals engaged in non-manual work, often having higher levels of educational achievement Classic middle class jobs include everything from doctors and lawyers to clerical workers The elite class that controls the majority of wealth and power in British society The fact that skilled manual (or blue-collar) workers have been paid more highly than the lower grades of white-collar (non-manual) workers for several decades has only slightly changed this social perception This anti-work outlook among the working class has led to a relative lack of ambition or enthusiasm and a belief that high earnings are more important than job satisfaction Working time for manual workers begins at o’clock and o’clock for non-manual workers and they work from Monday to Saturday Politicians work from Monday to Thursday and start business from 2.30 pm to 10.30 pm On Friday, their work starts early morning and finishes in early afternoon for the week They often start working later compares with most European countries These attitudes are slowly changing For example, at least half of the workforce now does non-manual work, and yet a majority describe themselves working class Therefore, it would seem that there is the weaker connection between being middle class and doing non-manual work Nevertheless, the connection between class distinctions and types of work lives on in some ways Measured by the number of hours worked in a week, the British reputation for not working hard enough appears to be false The normal lunch break is an hour or less and most people (unless they work part-time) continue working until five or later Many people often work several hours overtime a week In addition, a comparatively large proportion of British people stay in the workforce for a comparatively large part of their lives More people between the ages of twenty-five and sixty, especially women, stay in the job market than they in most other European countries Moreover, they spend lots of time to enjoy holidays: about weeks for Christmas, weeks for Easter, week for Whitsun and weeks for summer holidays There are three main ways in which people look for work in Britain: through newspapers, through the local job center and though privately-run employment agencies The overall trend in employment over the last quarter of the twentieth century has been basically the same as elsewhere in Western Europe The level of unemployment has gradually risen and most new job opportunities are in the service sector (in communication, health care and social care) The decline of heavy industry means fewer jobs in stereotypical men’s work, while the rise in service occupation means an increase in vacation for stereotypical women’s work When the law against sex discrimination in employment was passed in 1975, it was intended mainly to protect women In 1970 around 65% of all those in work in Britain were men In 1993 men made up only 51% of the workforce The average full-time male employee earned about 50% more than the average full-time female worker Momentous legislation such as the Equality Act 2010 and consistent additions to the Employment Act 1996, such as the Shared Parental Leave Regulations 2014, have perhaps helped women to feel better represented in the workplace - empowering them to juggle careers and families, seek promotions and enter professions previously dominated by men The Equality Act was first introduced in 1970, and prohibited less favourable treatment between men and women, in terms of pay The Act was amended in 2010 to consolidate several pieces of legislation, ensure equal pay for both genders for equal work and protect employees from discrimination Despite these positive movements, the fact that three-quarters of firms were paying men more than women, and men were more often in more senior jobs and receiving higher bonuses The most common sectors of employment for women in the UK are health and social work, the wholesale and retail trade and education Previously, women could retire at 60, whilst men retired at 65 Then in 2007, legislation changed to increase the age and to create a timetable to ensure both men and women retired at the same age – 65 Compare with Vietnam: Vietnamese people, on the whole, are very hard working and enthusiastic about work, interested in their work and attentive to their duties People who are in some big cities as Hanoi, Danang, Saigon seem busy in building, reparing, sewing serving and carrying The working day starts rather early Many people rise at dawn, work from 10 to 12 hours, days a week The pression “Your face to the earth, your back to the sun” describes the hard working Vietnamese farmer Local offices are usually open from 7:30/8:00 am to 4:30/5:00 pm International organizations, international NGOs or foreign companies usually follow international working standards Vietnam has many public holidays, big and small, but time is short: to days for Lunar New Year, day for Victory Day (30/4), day for International Labor Day (1/5), day for National Day (2/9) and day for Commemorative Celebration of Vietnam’s Forefather - Kings Hung (10/3 of the lunar year) Vietnam promulgated the Law on Gender Equality in 2006, requiring Government agencies and People’s Committees at all levels to perform State management responsibilities in gender equality Since the law was issued and took effect, the system of policies and laws on gender equality has been continuously supplemented and completed, contributing to forming a solid legal corridor on gender equality After 10 years of implementing the law, several proud achievements in the issue were highly appreciated and recognised by the international community For example, the percentage of female deputies of the current National Assembly reached 26.8 per cent, higher than the average rate of 19 per cent in Asian countries and 25 per cent globally The gender structure of the labour force is relatively balanced, with 52.7 per cent of the workforce male and 47.3 per cent female A Labour Force Survey in Vietnam reveals that for a job requiring the same qualifications, the average pay for female workers is 10.7% lower than that of their male colleagues This gap is higher among high-skilled worker groups The compensation of unskilled female workers is 8.1% lower than that of their male colleagues, but the gap increases to 19.7% for workers having a bachelor’s or higher degree Vietnamese women have fewer opportunities than men in the workplace They form a large majority of the working poor, earn less income, and are more often affected by under- and un-employment and precarious working conditions than men Women in Viet Nam are principally found in lower paid occupational sectors or in vulnerable employment The majority of women work as unpaid family workers, and in largely "invisible" areas of informal employment as migrant domestic workers, homeworkers, street vendors and in the entertainment industry Women's position in the labour market is largely affected by socio-economic disadvantages caused by gender-based discrimination Vietnamese women often have less access to productive resources, education, and skills development and labour market opportunities than men Work organization: Content Overview Britain _Most British unions are connected with particular occupations _Many belong to the Labour party to which their members pay a political “levy” _Unions have local branchies, some of which are called “chapels” _However, the unions themselves are not usually formed along party lines; that is, there is usually only one union for each group of employees rather than a separate one for each poliyical party within that group Vietnam _The union is “a socio-political organization of the working class and of the employees _It’s established on a voluntary basis, representing the employees, taking care of and protecting protection of the rights and legitimate and legitimate interests of employees _The organization which represents employers in private industry is called the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) _Most employers belong to CBI _The Vietnam Union of Cooperatives (VCA) is another employer organization that includes 17,000 cooperative members and small businesses nationwide _ Members include companies as well as trade association members, from the perspective of their leadership Described by the Financial Times as "Britain's biggest business lobby group" _ Its mission is to promote the conditions in which businesses of all sizes and sectors in the UK can compete and prosper for the benefit of all _CBI’s advice to trade unions and the government quite influential _ It is a collective economic organization, co-owned, has legal status, is voluntarily established by at least 07 members and cooperates with each other in production, business and job creation activities to meet the general needs of members, on the basis of autonomy, selfresponsibility, equality and democracy in cooperative management _The Trade Unions Congress (TUC) is a volunatry association of the country’s trade unions There are more than a hundred of these, representing employees in all types of business _ The TUC describes its role as to support trade unions to grow and thrive, and to stand up for everyone who works for a living They campaign for more and better jobs, and a more equal, more prosperous country _1994, TUC declared that it was loosing its contact with the Labour party and was going to forge closer contacts with other parties _The Vietnam General Confederation of Labor (VGCL) is the governing body of the Trade Union at all levels _The Vietnam General Confederation of Labor on behalf of workers, employees and workers _Its mission: The leader directs the employee movement to wish labor and activities at all levels of the trade union throughout the country _Represent, take care of, and protect the legal and legitimate rights and interests of members and employees _The National Farmers’ Union (NFU): not belong to the TUC _ It is the largest farmers' organisation in the countries, and has over 300 branch offices Made up mostly of agricutural _The Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI) plays an important role on behalf of the business community (private, public and foreign companies) The Unions employers and independent _Is a member of the International farmer Organization of Employers _Have a remarkably large dynamic (IOE) influence (reason: special fascination that “the land” holds for most British people + many members: wealthy => relatively easy for the NUF to make its demand heard) =>Reason: Because of the differences in economic, political and historical institutions, it leads to the different between British and Vietnames about working style and labour organizations The industriousness: _ Both British and Vietnamese seem to spend a lot of time for work although they may not like work very much _ Women still tend to stay in “the job market” _ However, in terms of productivity, Vietnamese labours can’t catch up with British =>Reason: + UK economy has a high level of development Although there are many lowskill jobs in major economic sectors, the productivity of this group is not inferior to that of the highly skilled workforce + The really productive parts of the UK economy are probably in financial services and software development – which can make profit in the short time The nurses worked long hours and even were not rewarded + Confusion about productivity: Productivity is producing more in the same amount of time, not the number of hours you work Because of this mistake, in some developing countries, many low-wage workers try to work overtime or work overtime This is only detrimental to health and does not create real productivity Labour relations: _When there is a dispute between employees and management, the matter sometimes goes to arbitration _Refusing the work in the normal way is generally referred to as industrial action One of these is a ‘work to rule’, another is a ‘go slow’, and finally is ‘go on strike’ _Compared to Vietnam, the labours if have dispute with their management, they usually tend to be patient and find the ways to concord with their boss Because they believe that “A bad compromise is better than a good lawsuit” The structure of trade and industry  The modernization of business and industry happened later  Large scale organization had been more common in Britain than in other European countries for quite a long time  The economic system is a mixture of private and public enterprise  By 1980s “pure” capitalism formed a smaller part of the economy than any other country in Western Europe  From 1980, the trend started going in the other direction  In 1980s “market forces” rules - a major part of philosophy of the conservative government  Turn to state – owned company into companies owned by individuals  1980 – 1988, more shareholders in the country than there were members of unions  Local government authorities were encouraged to “contact out” their responsibility for the services to commercial organization The privatization of the services has necessitated the creation of various public “watch dog” organization with regulatory powers over the industries which they have monitor ● A quick look at the UK structure of trade and industry today 3.1 Agriculture Agriculture in the UK is intensive, highly mechanized and efficient by European standard, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 1.6% of the labour force (535.000 workers) It contributes around 0.6% of British Gross value added 3.2 Construction The construction industry of the United Kingdom contributed gross value of more than 110 billion (7% GVA) to the UK economy in 2020 This industry accounts for approximately million jobs with 282 000 businesses And a quarter of construction output is public sector and three-quarters is private sector 3.3 Manufacturing The manufacturing sector is hugely important for the UK economy, trade and investment UK manufacturing employment stands at over 2.7 million people and manufacturing accounts for nearly half of all UK exports Manufacturing also contributes 10% of all Gross Value Added 3.4 Services The service industries include the retail sector, the financial sector, the public sector, business administration, leisure and cultural activities In 2019, the service industries accounted for 81,4% of total UK economic output (Gross Value Added) with about more than 23000 firms Services accounted for 81% of workforce jobs in April-June 2020 Compared with Vietnam Britain Vietnam The economy Britain is the six largest national Vietnam is a developing country structure economy in the world planned economy and market economy Economic Britain owned free market Market in Vietnam oriented system economy GDP per GDP of Britain reached 45.041 GDP in Vietnam was recorded capital USD (in 2019) 3000 USD in 2020 Labour force Agriculture: 1,3% Agriculture: 40,3% by occupation Industry: 15,2% Industry: 25,7% Services: 83,5% Serves: 34% (in 2014) (in 2017) Investment -Britain has rich and diverse -Vietnam market has fast growth, market cheap share price and good -The policy for investment is completion environment creative and innovative - Investment accounted for 26,8% -Trading nation/ Investment (in 2019) accounted for 13,5% GDP ( in June 2020) Budget Total public revenues were 820,8 Revenues: billion Government Revenues in The expenditure of the united Vietnam increased to 1551076 Kingdom government to be VND billion (~52 billion British around 928 billion British pounds pounds) The expenditure of Vietnam increase to 390051 VND billion (~ 13 billion British pounds) The distribution of wealth  Definition of wealth: A large amount of money, property, etc that a person or country owns  Distribution of wealth: In the early 1970s Britain had one of the most equitable distributions of wealth in the western Europe By the early 1990s, it had one of the least equitable In 1994, the gap between 20% richest and 20% poorest was 4,5 pound, about 4,5 times The gap was as great as it had been in the late nineteenth century and that the large number of house-holds were living below the “property line”, which mean that they did not have enough money for basic things such as food and heating Class and Wealth not run parallel in Britain Class differences come from the fact that the differences of attitudes and daily habits, not just relative wealth or the appearance When it comes to Class differences, there are some signs that Britain uses to guess reliably the class The most obvious and immediate sign comes when a person opens his or her mouth, giving the listener clue to the speaker’s attitudes and interests, both of which are indicative of class The English grammar and vocabulary which used in public speaking, radio… is known as “standard English Most working-class people use lots of words and grammatical forms in their everyday speech which regarded as “non-standard” But nearly everybody in the country is capable of using standard English when they judge that the situation demands it Therefore, the clearest indication of a person’s class is often his or her accent (most people can not change this convincingly to suit the situation) Thats reason why people are generally not shamed to be poor Of course they don’t like being poor but they not feel obliged to hide the fact This can sometimes lead to an acceptance of poverty which is surprising for an “advanced” country An other reason: The rate of income tax change For a short period in the 1960s the basis rate was 40% By the early eighty it was 30% and it then went down to25% During the same period, the top rate of income tax fell from a high of 98% to 40% During the 1980s, rates of pay for the best-paid jobs increased faster then those for badly-paid jobs People in the best-paid jobs now take home about ten times as much as those in the lowest paid jobs The rich had got richer but the poor had not Unlike Britain, in the past Viet Nam is a poor country with an invaded-thousands year history During 12 centuries from the resistance against the Qin dynasty in the 3rd century B.C until late 20th century, the Vietnamese had to endure hundreds of wars and uprisings against foreign aggression Civilization in Vietnam had been built on agriculture and the feudal dynasties always considered agriculture as the main economic base After the complete liberation of the south and reunification of the country in 1975, The Government had implemented many plans to improve the Vietnamese economy In 1986, the government introduced “Đổi Mới”, a series of economic and political reforms, and steered the country to becoming a “socialist-oriented market economy” The country open its doors up to capitalism, Economic and political reforms under Đổi Mớ have spurred rapid economic growth, transforming what was then one of the world’s poorest nations into a lower middle-income country After the country had implemented “Đổi Mới”, rich populations are growing faster than any economy in lower middle-income country World Bank Data shows that income inequality in Vietnam has increased in the last two decades, and more importantly, the richest are taking a disproportionate share of income In 2012, the Palma ratio for Vietnam was 1,74 times higher than the poorest 40 percents The gap between the richest 20 percent and the rest has also been widening since 2004, and the number of ultra-wealthy individuals is also on the rise In 2014, there were 210 super-rich individuals (those with more than $30M) in Vietnam and their combined wealth was around $20bn equivalent to 12 percent of the country’s GDP, or ½ GDP of Ho Chi Minh City The richest man in Vietnam earns more in a day than the poorest Vietnam earns in 10 years and his wealth is so great that he could spend $1m everyday for six years before exhausting it And with great wealth comes great earning potential from savings and assets In an hour, the richest Vietnamese can earn from their wealth almost 5,000 times more than what the poorest 10 percent of Vietnamese spend everyday on their basic needs Finance and Investment a Finance: Wealth ( and poverty ) are relative concepts Despite its relative economic decline, Britain is still one of the wealthies place in the world The impire has gone, the great manufacturing industries have nearly gone, but London is still one of the centres of the financial world The Finance Times -Stock Exchnage Index of the 100 largest British companies is one of the main indicators of world stock market prices The reason for this is not hard to find The same features that contributed to the company’s decline as a great industrial and political power- the preference for continuity and traditional rather than change, the emphasis on personal contact as opposed to demonstrated ability when deciding who gets the important jobs- are exactly the quanlities that attract investors When people want to invest a lot of money, what matters to them is atmosphere of stability and a feeling of personal trust There are the qualities to be found in the “square mile” of the old city of London, which has one of the largest concentrations of insurance companies , merchant banks , jointstock banks and stockbrokers in the world As regards stability , many of the insitutions in what is known as “the City” can point to a long and uninterrupted history Some of them have directors from the same family which started them perhaps over 200 years ago Although there have been adaptations to modern conditions, and the stereotpyed bowler-hatted “city gent” is a thing of te past, the sense of continuity, epitomized by the many old building in the square mile, is still strong As regards trust, the city has a reputation for habits of secrecy that might be thought of as undersirable in other aspects of public life, but which in financial dealings become an advantage In this context, “secrecy” means “discretion” Although more than half of the British population has money invested in the city indirectly ( because the insurance companies and pension funds to which they have entrusted their money invest it on the stock market ), most peolpe are unware of what goes on in the world of “high finance” To most people, money is just a matter of the cash in their pockets and their account with one of the “high street” banks Not every adult has a bank account In 1970, only about 30% used these banks But with the increasing habit of paying wages by cheque and the advent of cash dispensing machines, a majority now so Many, however, still prefer to use their National Savings account at the post office or one of the country’s many building societies An indication of the importance of bank accounts in people’s lives is the strong dislike of the banks that has developed During the 1990s newpapers carried horror stories about their practices In the years 1988 to 1993 banking profits rose by 50% while charges to customers rose by 70% It is often difficult for people to anything about bank charges- if they try to discuss them with their bank, they get charged for the phone calls and letters! So far, the one clear improvement has been in bank opening times These used to be from nine- thirty to three-thirty, Mondays to Fridays only Now, many banks stay open later and also open on Saturday mornings The old lady of Threadneedle Stresst This is the nick name of the Bank of England The bank has been described as “fascinated by its own past” It is also notable that the people who work there are reported to be proud of the nick name The high street banks The so-called “big four” banks, which each has a branch in almost every town in Britain The bank of Scotland also has a very large number of branches Currency and Cash The currency of Britain is the pound sterling Informally, a pound is sometimes called a ‘quid’, so £20 might be expressed as “twenty quid” The one pound coin has four different designs an English one, Scottish one, a Northern Irish one and a Welson one ( on which the inscription on the side is in Welsh, on all the others it is in Latin ) In Scotland, banknotes with a Scottish design are issued These notes are perfectly legal in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, but banks and shops are not obliged to accept them if they don’t want to and nobody has the right to demand change in Scottish notes Meanwhile, The national currency of Vietnam is Dong This is one of the smallest denomination of currency in the world Referred to as the Dong VND, D, or the official symbol is ₫ The cash in Vietnam is issued in banknotes and in coins Coins are hardly used, but if you fell into the hands of the coin, consider yourself lucky In circulation are banknotes in denominations of 500000, 200000, 100000, 50000, 20000, 10000, 5000, 2000, 1000, 500 dongs Bills of large denomination (10,000) is made not of paper but of a thin plastic material, which greatly prolongs their treatment: they are not afraid of water and not torn On the front side of the banknote is a portrait of uncle Ho Chi Minh, on the reverse sides of the figures are different: The temple of literature in Hanoi, the Japanese bridge in Hoi An, the Bay of Ha Long, the house where he was born, Ho Chi Minh, oil offshore platform, is the ancient capital city of Hue Are also in circulation coins in 5000, 2000, 1000, 500 and 200 VND, but to meet them in real turnover is almost impossible If you find this coin, be sure to save it as a numismatic rarity Before 1971, Britain used the “LSD” system There were twelve pennies in a shillings in a pound If you read any novels set in Britain before 1971, you may come across the following: A farthing = a quarter of a penny A penny = half of a penny A threepenny bit = threepence A tanner = an information name for a sixpenny coin A bob = an informal name for a shilling A half crown = two – and- a-half shillings In Vietnam, Vietnamese cash is a cast round coin with a square hole that was an official currency of Vietnam from the Đinh dynasty in 970 until the Nguyễn dynasty in 1945, and remained in circulation in North Vietnam until 1948 The same type of currency circulated in China, Japan, Korea, and for centuries Though the majority of Vietnamese cash coins throughout history were copper coins, lead, iron (from 1528) and zinc (from 1740) coins also circulated alongside them often at fluctuating rates (with copper cash being worth 10 zinc cash in 1882) A main point is that Britain were not enthusiastic about the change to what they called new money For a long time afterwards, the question “what ‘s that in old money?” was used to imply that what somebody had just said was too complicated to be clear In fact, money provides frequent opportunities for British conservatism to show itself When the one-pound coin was introduced in 1983, it was very unpopular People said they were sad to see the end of the pound note, which it replaced and that a mere coin didn’t seem to be worth as much How much you want ? On tins and packets of food in British shops, the weight of an item is written in the kilos and grams familiar to people from continential Europe However, most British people have little idea of what these terms mean Therefore, many of their packets and tins also record their weight in pounds and ounces Moreover, nobody ever asks for a kilo apples or 200 grams of cheese Shoe and clothing sizes are also measured on different scales in Britain The people who work in shops which sell these things usually known about continential and American sizes too, but most British people don’t b Investment: Transportation Energy In UK In Vietnam There are many options for transport in UK You can choose to travel by bus, ferry, train, taxi, airplane or even drive on your own The British transport network is one of the most advanced in the world, boasting in a large number of paved roads, modern railways, airports and so on… It’s estimated that over 75% households in UK own a car and a huge number of them also use other driving machines like trucks, buses and motorcycles The UK is the first country that comes to your mind when talking about driving on the left side of the road The fact is that the UK is one of 50 countries in the world where cars move this way Being one of the most densely populated nations in the south East Asia, main mode of transportation at Vietnam are buses, Rickshaw, and bicycles, etc Besides, taxis, cars or motorbikes are popular in Vietnam… Vietnam is among the few countries in the world where motorbikes are still used widely In Vietnam, motorbike or scooter is the most commonly used means Meanwhile, Vietnamese people all drive on the right side of the road Energy Investment Portfolio will not only create jobs in the energy sector, but will reduce energy costs for hardworking British families and have widespread benefits for the environment With the objective of ensuring energy security towards sustainability, Vietnam would continue to review the sector’s structure for greater diversification of energy sources In addition to renewable energy, Vietnam also focuses on generating power from LNG to replace As the data suggests, the UK authorities financed nearly two and half billion pound in 2008 to generate eco-friendly power and half of it went on the wind power sector Next year budget for wind Science power almost trebled while a small portion was spent on energy smart technologies and solar power The UK has a number of world-class life sciences clusters across the country and delivers on the Industrial Strategy’s aim to distribute growth and opportunity across the country, with pioneering investments in Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Glasgow, South Wales and the South East The deal outlines plans to grow the UK’s international reputation for pioneering early diagnostics and genomics programmes, with a government investment from the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund of up to £210 million, subject to business case other sources Recognizing a key role of technology in businesses, the Vietnamese government issued Decree 119/1999/ND-CP on financial mechanisms and policies to encourage businesses to promote investment in science and technology Businesses implementing new technology have 30 percent of the cost covered by the state The National Technology Innovation Program until 2020 outlined by the Ministry of Science and Technology allowed the establishment of a VND1 trillion fund, aimed at supporting businesses in buying new technology, conducting research studies and creating new products Spending money: shopping  The British are not very adventurous shoppers They like reliability and buy brand-named goods wherever possible They aren’t very keen on haggling over prices Therefore, a very high proportion of the country's shops are branches of chains  The British not demand art in their shop windows They have been rather slow to take on the idea that shopping might actually be fun On the positive side, visitors are also sometimes struck by the variety of types of shop, such as: department stores, shopping centre, show room  In the last quarter of the twentieth century, supermarkets began moving out of town, became bigger, turning into “hypermarkets” stocking a wider variety of items  The area in town where the local shops are concentrated is known as the high street British high streets have suffered from the move towards out-of-town shop-ping In the worst-affected towns, as many as a quarter of the shops in the high street are vacant But high streets have often survived by adapting In large towns, shops have tended to become either more specialized or to sell especially cheap goods The survival of the high street has been helped by the fact that department stores have been comparatively slow to move out of town  The corner shop: A shop by itself in a residential area is often refered to as the corner shop These sometimes sell various kind of foods but they are not grocers In the last few decades, many corner shops have been taken over by people from southern Asia who have delighted the neighbourhood by staying open very long hours Compare with Vietnam Britain - Like reliability - Buy brand-name goods wherever possible, preferably with the price clearly marked - Not very adventurous shoppers - Not very keen on haggling over prices - Do not demand art in their shop windows - In general, they have been rather slow to take on the idea that shopping might actually be fun - Most shops are chain stores Viet Nam - Prefer brand-goods to show off - Care too much about prices - Always bargain in anywhere at any time buying products - Prefer to buy goods on promotion - Have the most people who buy goods on promotion among the Asian countries with 87% regularly purchase promotions, compared with an average of 68% of the area - E.g: A bag is tagged 500.000 VND, most of women will consider carefully before buying But when this hand-bag was tagged 500.000 VND too with a more tag “sale 50%’, lots of women are excited about buying it  Shop opening hours depends on the type of business and the location Britain - The normal time for shops to open is at 9a.m - Large supermarkets stay open all day until about eight o’clock - Most small shops stay open all day and then close at half-past five or a bit later - In some towns there is an “early closing day” when the shops shut at middle day and not open again - Sunday shopping - Sunday should be special, a day of rest, a day for all the family to be together Viet Nam - Most city shops open at about 8am and not close until late in the evening at 8pm or 9pm - The newer malls and department stores in big cities open by 10pm - The traditional markets: Ben Thanh in Ho Chi Minh City and Dong Xuan in Hanoi, generally operate from sunrise to sunset - Virtually all retail operations operate seven days a week - During Tet, some shops shut down for a few days, while others open later than usual III Conclusion Nowadays, Vietnam and Britain are also strengthening, supporting and developing economic cooperation together Bring not only strong growth economic relations between the two countries, but also contribute to enhance the cultural life and society of both countries +) experienced lessons: - Promote the economy shifts towards industrialization and modernization sustainably and international integration with the formation of the key industry - Both focus on boosting industrialization and modernization of agriculture and increase investment in infrastructure - Promote agricultural production oriented commodity production - Concentrate on increasing a more service industry oriented economy and reduce density of agriculture in the economy structure ... in the United States and the German Empire, this presented an increasing economic challenge for the UK In the 21st century the UK retains the ability to project power and influence around the. .. In Scotland, banknotes with a Scottish design are issued These notes are perfectly legal in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, but banks and shops are not obliged to accept them if they don’t... the world In 2019, the UK was the fifth-largest exporter in the world and the fifth-largest goods importer It also had the second-largest inward foreign direct investment, and the third-largest
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