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Luận văn thạc sĩ developing supplementary reading materials to improve reading comprehension for grade 10th students at a high school in bac ninh province

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  • Luận văn thạc sĩ developing supplementary reading materials to improve reading comprehension for grade 10th students at a high school in bac ninh province

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* CAO THỊ THẮM DEVELOPING SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION FOR GRADE 10th STUDENTS AT A HIGH SCHOOL IN BAC NINH PROVINCE (Phát triển tài liệu đọc nhằm nâng cao kĩ đọc cho học sinh lớp 10 trường Trung học phổ thông Bắc Ninh) M.A MINOR THESIS (Type I) Hanoi – 2019 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* CAO THỊ THẮM DEVELOPING SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION FOR GRADE 10th STUDENTS AT A HIGH SCHOOL IN BAC NINH PROVINCE (Phát triển tài liệu đọc nhằm nâng cao kĩ đọc cho học sinh lớp 10 trường Trung học phổ thông Bắc Ninh) M.A MINOR THESIS (Type I) Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Supervisor: Vu Thi Thanh Nha, Ph.D Hanoi – 2019 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work and effort and that it has not been submitted to any other university or institution wholly or partially Hanoi, September 2019 Cao Thị Thắm i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor Dr Vu Thi Thanh Nha who gave me a lot of valuable guidance, encouragements, criticisms and correction throughout my thesis writing I am indebted to 40 students at Thuan Thanh High School, who provided me with lots of useful information via the questionnaires My sincere thanks go to my family, my friends for their encouragement and support that help me to complete my work ii ABSTRACT This thesis reports the findings of an action research study to improve reading skill for grade 10 students at a high school in Bac Ninh province It attempts to find students‟ opinions of the current textbook, their difficulties in learning reading skill in order to provide suitable supplementary reading materials to improve students‟ reading competence The data was collected via questionnaires with 40 students at a high school in Bac Ninh province, diagnostic and final test and classroom‟s observation The findings of this study have shown that most of the students find the reading texts in the current textbook interesting and relevant with suitable reading tasks However, they find it hard to improve their reading skills because they lacked reading strategies and suitable supplementary reading materials The research also gave some suggestions in suitable reading materials and reading strategies to help the students improve their reading comprehension Surprisingly, her students make great progress in reading skills after the supplementation time iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vii LIST OF TABLES, CHARTS AND FIGURES viii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study .1 1.2 Aims of the study .1 1.3 Scope of the study 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Methods of the study 1.6 Design of the Thesis CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Definitions of reading, reading comprehension .4 2.1.1 Reading .4 2.1.2 Reading comprehension 2.2 Types of reading skills .6 2.3 Types of reading exercises .8 2.4 Factors involved in reading comprehension process of EFL learners 2.4.1 Language knowledge 2.4.2 Background knowledge .9 2.4.3 Motivation 10 2.4 Reading strategies 11 2.4.5 Reading materials .11 2.4.6 Regular reading practice 11 2.5 Material development in language teaching 12 2.5.1 Definition of language teaching materials and types of materials .12 iv 2.5.2 Processes of materials development 12 2.6 Supplementary materials in teaching reading skills .15 2.7 Summary 18 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 19 3.1 Setting 19 3.2 The participants .19 3.3 The course book 20 3.4 Research Design .20 3.4.1 Diagnosing .23 3.4.2 Action planning 23 3.4.3 Taking action 24 3.4.4 Evaluating 25 3.4.5 Specifying learning 25 3.5 Data collection instruments .26 3.5.1 Dianogstic test Final test 26 3.5.2 Questionnaire 26 3.5.3 Teacher’s observation .26 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 28 4.1 Phrase 1: Diagnosing the Research topic .28 4.1.1 The result of the dianogstic test 28 4.1.2 The result of the survey questionaire 29 4.2 Phrase 2: The effects of using supplementary reading materials on improving students‟ reading comprehension .35 4.3 Phrase 3: Evaluate results 39 4.4.Phrase 4: Discussion .40 4.5 Findings 41 4.5.1 The students’ evaluation of the current text book for year tenth students Error! Bookmark not defined 4.5.2 The reasons for students’ low level of reading comprehension 42 v 4.5.3 The ways to use supplementary reading materials to improve students’ reading comprehension 42 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION .45 Conclusion of the study 45 Limitations of the study and suggestions for further study .46 Suggestions for further study 46 REFERENCES 48 APPENDICES I vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations Meanings GCSE General cerificates of secondary education EFL English as a foreign language vii LIST OF TABLES, CHARTS AND FIGURES Table 1: Exercises believed to be suitable to develop reading skills Table 2: The result of the diagnostic test 28 Table 3: The students‟ opinion on level of difficulty, content and length of the reading texts in the textbook 29 Table 4: The teachers‟ and students‟ opinions on reading exercises 30 in the textbook 30 Table : The frequency of doing reading practice outside the classtime 31 Table 6: The reasons for students‟ lack of reading practice .32 Table 7: The students‟ expectation of the supplementary reading materials 34 Chart 1: The kinds of exercises that students prefer 33 Chart 3: The result of Unit .36 Chart 3: Test score of dianogstic test final test .39 Figure 1: Action research spiral (adapted from Kemmis, 1983) 22 Figure 2: Detailed Action Research Model (adapted from Susman, 1983) 23 viii Question 8: What does the word “valuable” in the third paragraph mean? A useful B effective C efficient D eligible Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions The human race is only one small species in the living world Many other species exist on this planet However, human beings have a great influence on the rest of the world They are changing the environment by building cities and villages where forests once stood They are affecting the water supply by using water for industry and agriculture They are changing weather conditions by cutting down trees in the forests And they are destroying the air by adding pollutants to it It can be said that human beings are changing the environment in all respects through their actions and by their habits This has resulted in two serious consequences The first is that many kinds of rare animals are killed The second is that the environment where these animals are living is badly destroyed As a result, the number of rare animals is decreasing so rapidly that they are in danger of becoming extinct In order to make sure that these rare animals not disappear, efforts have been made to protect the environments in which they live Scientists have made lists of endangered species and suggested ways to save them Many organizations have been set up and funds have been raised Thousands of national parks all over the world have been established to protect endangered animals Laws have been introduced to prohibit the killing of endangered animals and the destruction of the environments where these rare animals are living XXXV If people's interference with the environment decreases, more species will survive and produce offspring The Earth will be a happy planet where human beings, animals and plants peacefully co-exist Question 1: What is the reading passage mainly about? A The consequences of human‟s interference with nature and the solutions B Human beings interfere with nature C Human beings are responsible for changing the environment D Human beings have made efforts to protect the environment Question 2: According to the passage, what is NOT TRUE about human beings? A Human beings have a great impact on the rest of the world B Human beings are influencing the water supply by using water for industry and agriculture C Human beings are changing the environment in all respects through their actions and by their habits D Human beings are in danger of becoming extinct Question 3: According to the passage, how many ways by which human beings are changing the world? A B C D Question 4: According to the passage, what are the serious consequences of people‟s interference with the environment? A Many kinds of rare animals are killed and the environment is badly destroyed B The number of rare animals is increasing and human beings are in danger of extinction C Only some kinds of rare animals are killed and human beings are badly affected XXXVI D Many kinds of rare animals are in danger and they become extinct forever Question 5: What does “They” in the first paragraph refer to? A Human beings B The environment C The rare animals D The world Question 6: The word “resulted in” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to A caused B produced C applied D decreased Question 7: What can be inferred from the passage? A Human beings should take actions immediately to protect the environment B Human beings will be the only species in the world in the future C Human beings is the only species that has not been affected by other species D Human beings will be disappeared in the future Question 8: The word “set up ” in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to A established B supplied C provided D interfered Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions Endangered species are plant and animal species which are in danger of extinction Over 8,300 plant species and 7,200 animal species around the globe are threatened with extinction, and many thousands more become extinct each year before biologists can identify them The primary causes of species extinction are habitat destruction, commercial exploitation and pollution The drainage of wetlands, cutting of forests, urbanization and road and dam construction have destroyed or seriously damaged natural habitats Since the 1600s, worldwide commercial exploitation of animals for food and other products has seriously reduced the number of rare species Toxic XXXVII chemicals in the air and land, contaminated water and increased water temperatures have also driven many species to the verge of extinction Plant and animal extinction leads to a loss of biodiversity Maintaining biodiversity is important for us in many ways For example, humans depend on species diversity to have food, clean air and water, and fertile soil for agriculture In addition, we benefit greatly from the many medicines and other products that biodiversity provides Different conservation efforts have been made in order to save endangered species The Red List - a global list of endangered and vulnerable animal species - has been introduced to raise people's awareness of conservation needs Governments have enacted laws to protect wildlife from commercial trade and overhunting A number of wildlife habitat reserves have been established so that a wide range of endangered species can have a chance to survive and develop Question 1: The number of species around the globe threatened with extinction is over …… A.7,200 B 8,300 C 1,600 D 15,000 Question 2: The word “threatened” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to A endangered B believed C polluted D criticized Question 3: What does “them” in the first paragraph refer to A plant and animal species B biologist C plant species D animal species Question 4: Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a primary cause of species extinction? A pollution B natural selection C habitat destruction D overexploitation XXXVIII Question 5: The Red List is a special book that provides names of……………animals A vulnerable and endangered B hunted C endangered D extinct Question 6: The word “contaminated” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to A polluted B divided C separated D.established Question 7: The development of wildlife habitat reserves helps……………… A save a large number of endangered species B make a list of endangered species C enact laws to protect wildlife D develop commercial trade and overhunting Question 8: The best title for the passage is……………… A Endangered Species and Conservation Measures B Endangered Species and their Benefits C The Global Extinction Crisis D Endangered Species Extinction: Causes and Conservation Measures Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions There is only one ocean It is divided into five different parts: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Arctic Oceans There are also many other smaller seas, gulfs and bays which form part of them Altogether they cover 75 percent of the earth's surface For centuries, people have been challenged by the mysteries that lie beneath the ocean However, today's scientists have overcome many of the challenges of the depth by using modern devices They send submarines to investigate the seabed and bring samples of marine life back to the surface for further study Satellite photographs provide a wide range of information, including XXXIX water temperature, depth and the undersea populations If modem technology did not exist, we would never have such precious information Marine plants and animals fall into three major groups Some of them live on or depend on the bottom like the starfish Some are swimming animals such as fishes and sharks that move independently of water currents while others are tiny organisms that are carried along by the currents like the jellyfish Plants and animals of the sea, however small or oversized, all contribute to its biodiversity Unless this biodiversity were maintained, marine life would be at stake Question According to the passage, what percentage of the earth's surface is covered by seas and oceans? A 75 B 45 C 55 D 95 Question According to the passage, scientists now overcome the challenges of the depth by…… ? A using modern devices B using modern mobile phone C using modern map D using modern appliances Question According to the passage, what is TRUE about submarines? A They help bring samples of marine life back to the surface for further study B They provide scientist with only information about water temperature C They help divide the ocean into five different parts D They help reduce the impact of the undersea pollution on the environment Question From the satellite photos, we can learn ………… ? A water temperature, depth and the undersea populations B water temperature, length and the undersea populations C water color, depth and the undersea populations D water temperature, depth and the undersea pollution Question According to the passage, what is NOT TRUE about submarines marine plants and animal? A There are three groups of marine plants and animal B Plants and animals of the sea are of different size XL C Starfish live on or depend on the ocean surface D Swimming animals such as fishes and sharks are carried along by the currents Question What can be inferred from the passage? A if the sea biodiversity were not maintained, marine life would be at risk B if the sea biodiversity were maintained, marine life would be at risk C if the sea biodiversity were maintained, marine life would never exist D if the sea biodiversity were not maintained, marine life would disappear completely Question 7: The word “at stake” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to A.in danger B on purpose C by mistake C in advance Question 8: What does “them” in the first paragraph refer to A.scientists B modern devices C seabed XLI D samples APPENDIX DIAGNOSTIC TEST Time allowance: 15 minutes Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions In the past, both men and women were expected to be married at quite young ages Marriages were generally arranged by parents and family, with their children having little chance to say no in the matter In the past it was not surprising to find that a bride and groom had only just met on the day of their engagement or marriage In modern Vietnam, this has changed completely as people choose their own marriage-partners based on love, and in consideration primarily to their own needs and wants Moreover, early marriage is quite illegal The traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important of traditional Vietnamese occasions Regardless of westernization, many of the age-old customs practiced in a traditional Vietnamese wedding continue to be celebrated by both Vietnamese in Vietnam and overseas, often combining both western and eastern elements Besides the wedding ceremony, there is also an engagement ceremony which takes place usually half a year or so before the wedding Due to the spiritual nature of the occasion, the date and time of the marriage ceremony are decided in advance by a fortune teller The traditional Vietnamese wedding consists of an extensive array of ceremonies: the first is the ceremony to ask permission to receive the bride, the second is the procession to receive the bride (along with the ancestor ceremony at her house), the third is to bring the bride to the groom's house for another ancestor ceremony and to welcome her into the family, then the last is a wedding banquet The number of guests in attendance at these banquets is huge, usually in the hundreds Several special dishes are served Guests are expected to bring gifts, often money, which the groom and bride at one point in the banquet will go from table to table collecting XLII https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_Vietnamese_wedding Question 1: What is the main idea of the reading passage? A The traditional Vietnamese wedding B The Vietnamese wedding C The modern Vietnamese wedding D The Vietnamese wedding party Question 2: According to the passage, which of the following statement about Vietnamese marriage in the past is TRUE? A Vietnamese couples were free to make a decision on the marriage B Vietnamese marriage was decided by parents and family C getting married at an early age was not allowed D parents had no right to interfere their children's marriage Question 3: What can be inferred from the first paragraph of the reading passage? A In former days, the fact that a bride and groom had only first met just on the day of their engagement or marriage was popular B In the past, it was not surprising to find that a bride and groom had met before the day of their engagement or marriage C In the past, it was uncommon to find that a bride and groom had only met after the day of their engagement or marriage D In the past it was strange to find that a bride and groom had only just met days before their engagement or marriage Question 4: According to the passage, what can be inferred about Vietnamese modern marriage? A Most young people not have their marriage based on love B All marriages are arranged by parents and family C Marriage is quite westernization D Couples not get married at quite young ages XLIII Question 5: According to the passage, what is TRUE about the engagement ceremony in Viet nam? A Oversea Vietnamese people not like to organize an engagement ceremony B The engagement ceremony takes place usually half a year or so before the wedding C The engagement ceremony in a traditional Vietnamese wedding does not exist nowadays D The engagement ceremony takes place right before the wedding Question Which does not exist in a Vietnamese wedding party? A firecrackers B guests C dishes D gifts Question What does the word “This” in the second paragraph refer to? A The fact that marriages were generally arranged by parents and family B The bride and groom C The young men and women D The parents and family Question What does the phrase “in advance” in the third paragraph mean? A before B after C at the same time D at different time Question According to the passage, what is NOT TRUE about the traditional Vietnamese wedding? A The traditional Vietnamese wedding consists four ceremonies B The number of guests attending these banquets is big C There are some special dishes at the wedding reception D Guests often bring gifts to the wedding ceremony Question 10 What is the purpose of the reading passage? A To inform readers about Vietnamese wedding B To criticize Vietnamese wedding C To emphasize the importance of Vietnamese wedding D To approve that Vietnamese wedding is popular XLIV FINAL TEST Time allowance: 15 minutes Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions The importance of family is part of what makes the Amish community such a tightknit group and choosing a spouse to build a family with is a crucial and joyous element of that Dating customs and wedding traditions among the Amish vary from community to community While you can‟t assume one community will be just like another, you can bet they will be quite different from a typical “English” ceremony! The Amish Community and Dating Dating among the Amish typically begins around age 16 with most Amish couples marrying between the ages of 20 and 22 To find a prospective date, the young adults socialize at functions such as frolics, church, or home visits One of the most popular activities is the Sunday night singing, which can include Amish youth from several districts, and typically take place in someone‟s home or barn During the singing, Amish boys and girls sit at a long table facing each other singing hymns and socializing between the songs The singing lasts until around ten o‟clock, at which point baked goods and drinks are brought out for the teens to enjoy as they mingle for an hour or two If a boy is interested in a girl, he offers to give her a ride home Wedding Traditions Among the Amish Engagements among the Amish are typically regarded as private In fact, a newly engaged couple might wait until July or August to even share the news with their parents The family, in turn, keeps the engagement a secret until an October church service You might be able to guess which families are expecting a wedding, however, if you see them painting their houses or planting a large quantity of celery, which will be used to decorate the wedding tables and make soup for the wedding meal XLV Amish weddings are typically held on Tuesdays and Thursdays in November and December However, for larger communities and those not driven by the agrarian calendar, weddings may be held in the Spring and into the Summer Amish brides typically make their own bridal dresses, and often the dresses of her bridesmaids (known as newehockers) Her dress is typically a beautiful shade of blue or purple, with blue being the more common color worn After the wedding, this dress becomes a woman‟s typical Sunday church attire It is also the dress the women are buried in when they die The wedding ceremony starts around 8:30 in the morning and lasts 3-3.5 hours After a sermon, the bishop takes the couple aside while the congregation sings songs He gives the couple advice, private instruction, and his blessing Afterward, the bride and groom give their vows at the front of the church After a final prayer, the wedding party and guests head back to the bride‟s family home Guest lists for Amish weddings are very large, typically ranging from 200500 people, including relatives, friends, and coworkers The bride and groom‟s friends and family typically help with tasks such as caring for the guests‟ horses, serving food, being ushers, and clearing and cleaning the dishes The guests stay for two meals: supper and dinner Food can include a wide range of Pennsylvania Dutch recipes and likely include some of the following: roast or “Amish Casserole” (casserole of chicken and stuffing), mashed potatoes, creamed celery, coleslaw, applesauce, dinner rolls, pears, doughnuts, and pies While there isn‟t any dancing at an Amish wedding, they are filled with visiting, games, and connection among families After the Wedding Unlike many weddings among non-Amish, the Amish couple will not conclude their wedding with a honeymoon trip Instead, they will spend the next day helping to clean after the wedding The next few months will be spent living with the bride‟s parents until they are ready to start a home of their own https://www.amishvillage.com/blog/amish-wedding-traditions-and-dating-customs/ XLVI Question What is the main idea of the reading passage? A The Amish dating customs and wedding traditions B The Amish dating customs and the Sunday night singing C The differences of wedding traditions among The English D The comparison between The English and The Amish wedding traditions Question According to the passage, at what age the Amish begin to date? A 16 B 20 C 22 D 18 Question According to the passage, which of the following statement is NOT TRUE about the Amish Community and Dating A One of the most popular dating activities is the Sunday night singing B After the singing, if a boy is interested in a girl, he offers to give her a ride home C Amish dating is generally arranged by parents and family D During the singing, Amish boys and girls sit at a long table facing each other singing hymns and socializing between the songs Question According to the passage, all of the following are true about wedding traditions among the Amish EXCEPT A Engagements among the Amish are typically kept in secret B Amish weddings are typically held on Mondays and Thursdays in November and December C Amish brides often make their bridal dresses by themselves D After a final prayer, the wedding party was held at the bride‟s family home Question What does the word “they” in the second paragraph refer to? A the teens B Amish boys C the songs D Amish girls Question What does the word “crucial” in the first paragraph mean? A integral B unimportant C reasonable Question What is the purpose of the reading passage? XLVII D relevant A To inform readers about the Amish wedding B To criticize Amish wedding C To emphasize the importance of Amish wedding D To approve that Amish wedding is popular Question Where the Amish couple live before they are ready to start a home of their own? A They live in with the bride‟s parents‟ home B They live in with the groom‟s parents‟ home C They live in with the bride‟s relatives‟ home D They live in with the bride‟s friends‟ home Question According to the passage, what can be inferred about Amish marriage? A Amish people can choose their own marriage-partners B Amish marriage is the same the English one C The most common color of Amish bride‟s dress is purple D There are not a lot of people invited to Amish wedding Question 10 All of the followings are typical food at the Amish wedding EXCEPT A mashed potatoes B dinner rolls XLVIII C pears D hot dog APPENDIX OBSERVATION SHEET Reading passage number ……… Student’s name Factual Reference Overview Inference Vocabulary questions questions questions questions in context questions XLIX ... 2.4.5 Reading materials It is apparent that reading materials is an integral part in improving reading comprehension Tomlinson (1998) states that materials are a central feature for the achievement... of reading strategies Therefore, it is essential that the researcher develop reading materials and provide reading strategies to help 10th – form students at a high school in Bac Ninh province. .. categories language teaching materials into two types: published materials and prepared materials Crawford (2002) shares the same point of view on talking about classification of materials that
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