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Luận văn Thạc sĩ An action research project on using pictures to encourage 4 th graders to participate in speaking activities at a primary school in Bac Ninh province

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  • Luận văn Thạc sĩ An action research project on using pictures to encourage 4 th graders to participate in speaking activities at a primary school in Bac Ninh province

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ĐÀO THỊ MẾN AN ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT ON USING PICTURES TO ENCOURAGE 4TH GRADERS TO PARTICIPATE IN SPEAKING ACTIVITIES AT A PRIMARY SCHOOL IN BAC NINH PROVINCE (Nghiên cứu hành động việc sử dụng tranh ảnh nhằm khuyến khích cho học sinh lớp trường tiểu học Bắc Ninh tham gia vào hoạt động nói) M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Hanoi - 2020 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ĐÀO THỊ MẾN AN ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT ON USING PICTURES TO ENCOURAGE 4TH GRADERS TO PARTICIPATE IN SPEAKING ACTIVITIES AT A PRIMARY SCHOOL IN BAC NINH PROVINCE (Nghiên cứu hành động việc sử dụng tranh ảnh nhằm khuyến khích cho học sinh lớp trường tiểu học Bắc Ninh tham gia vào hoạt động nói) M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Supervisor: Nguyễn Thu Hạnh, PhD Hanoi - 2020 CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY OF PROJECT REPORT I certify my authority of the Study Project Report submitted entitled “An Action Research Project on Using Pictures to Encourage 4th Graders to participate in speaking activities at a Primary School in Bac Ninh Province” in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts Hanoi, July 2019 Đào Thị Mến i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to register my profound gratitude to Mrs Nguyen Thu Hanh, my respected supervisor, for her invaluable instruction, contribution and great care to my research I wish to take this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to the teachers of Department of Post-Graduate Studies who have supplied me with the good conditions to conduct this thesis and finish this M.A course My thanks go to my managers at my school, my colleagues for their assistance, encouragement during the time I participated in M.A course Also, I owe my debt to my colleagues and students who are the subjects of my thesis for their willingness to answer my talks, questionnaires, and interviews Lastly, I am also grateful to my families for their kindly encouragement during the research‟s finalization ii ABSTRACT Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) encourage students to take a more active role in the oral activities in the classroom through different strategies This study was conducted with the purpose to identify the effectiveness of using pictures to encourage the student‟s participation in speaking activities The study showed that most students at this primary school experienced many difficulties in speaking English and they were not confident when they spoke or talked to their friends To make situation better, an action plan was made, focusing on using pictures to motivate them actively to participate in speaking English The subjects of the study were 32 fourth graders of a primary school in Bac Ninh province To that end, action research (AR) was attempted with the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to determine whether the use of pictures can improve the students‟ participation in speaking activities in class as well as their attitudes towards the use of pictures during speaking lessons The data were collected through the talks with colleagues, students‟ pre and post-questionnaires, and interviews The research was conducted during the first semester of the school year 2016 – 2017 The findings of the study suggested that through using pictures the fourth graders‟ participation in speaking activities increased because this technique made the lessons more interesting and attractive iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY OF PROJECT REPORT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LISTS OF TABLES vii LISTS OF FIGURES viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .1 Rationale for the study Aims and objectives of the study Research questions Scope of the study Significance of the study Organization of the thesis CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Overview of speaking skills 2.1.1 Definitions of speaking skills 2.1.2 Types of speaking skills 2.1.3 Difficulties in teaching and learning English speaking skills 2.1.4 The practice of teaching and learning speaking skills to primary students 2.2 Overview of pictures and their use in speaking lessons 10 2.2.1 Definitions of pictures .10 2.2.2 Types of pictures .11 2.2.3 Benefits of using pictures in teaching language 11 2.2.4 Activities used with pictures to teach speaking skills for children 13 2.3 Previous studies 14 Chapter summary 17 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 18 iv 3.1 An overview of action research 18 3.2 Research setting 20 3.2.1 The school .20 3.2.2 Participants 20 3.2.3 Data collection instruments .21 3.2.4 Data analysis 25 3.2.5 Research procedure 26 Chapter summary 30 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 31 4.1 Analysis of the talks with colleagues 31 4.2 Analysis of personal class observation 32 4.3 Analysis of students‟ pre-questionnaire .33 4.4 Analysis of students‟ post-questionnaire evaluation 39 4.5 Analysis of the interviews 42 4.6 Discussion 44 Chapter summary 47 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48 5.1 Conclusion 48 5.1.1 Effectiveness of using pictures to motivate students to speak 48 5.1.2 Students‟ attitudes towards the use of pictures in speaking activities 49 5.2 Limitations of the research 49 5.3 Educational recommendations 50 5.3.1 For the teachers .50 5.3.2 For the students .51 5.4 Recommendations for further research 51 REFERENCES 53 APPENDICES I APPENDIX 1: TALKS TO THE COLLEAGUE I APPENDIX 2: TALKS TO THE COLLEAGUE II v APPENDIX 3: TALKS TO THE COLLEAGUE .III APPENDIX 4: PRE-QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS IV APPENDIX 5: POST-QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS VIII APPENDIX 6: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR STUDENTS X APPENDIX 7: LESSON PLAN XI vi LISTS OF TABLES Table 3.1: Procedure and duration of conducting questionnaires .24 Table 3.2: Procedure of conducting interviews 25 Table 4.1: Factors causing students‟ low participation .35 Table 4.2: Students‟ frequency of attending speaking activities 37 Table 4.3: Students‟ opinions about speaking activities in the class 38 Table 4.4: Students‟ opinions about English speaking activities using pictures 39 Table 4.5: Students‟ opinions of the benefits of using pictures in English speaking activities 40 Table 4.6: Students‟ own changes after using pictures in speaking activities 41 vii LISTS OF FIGURES Figure 3.1: Steps in the action research cycle (Kemmis & Mc Taggart, 1998) 19 Figure 4.1: Students‟ evaluation of the English speaking activities in the classroom 33 Figure 4.2: Students‟ evaluation on their anxiety in English speaking lessons 34 Figure 4.3: Students‟ interest in learning English speaking skills 37 viii Câu 4: Điều khiến em thích học kỹ nói tiếng Anh nhất? A Các chủ đề nói thú vị B Các hoạt động nói hấp dẫn C Phương pháp giảng dạy tốt D Những điều khác:……………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… Câu 5: Em có thường tham gia hoạt động nói tiếng Anh sau khơng? Có Khơng A Làm việc theo cặp nhóm   B Đóng kịch   C Trị chơi   D Hoàn thành đoạn hội thoại   E Hỏi trả lời   F Xây dựng câu   G Thảo luận theo chủ đề   Câu 6: Em có thích hoạt động sau nói tiếng Anh khơng? Các hoạt động Thích A Làm việc theo cặp hay nhóm B Đóng kịch C Trị chơi D Hồn thành đoạn hội thoại E Hỏi trả lời F Xây dựng câu miệng G Thảo luận theo chủ đề Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! VII Bình thường Khơng thích APPENDIX 5: POST-QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS This survey questionnaire is designed for my thesis: “An action project on using pictures to motivate 4th graders to participate in speaking activities” Your assistance completing this survey questionnaire is highly appreciated Please circle the most appropriate options according to you or write the answer where necessary Question 1: How you feel about English speaking activities using pictures? A Like B Neither like nor dislike C Dislike Please provide reason for your choice: ………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… Question 2: Do you think the use of pictures English speaking activities has made it easier for you to learn English? A Agree B Neither Agree nor Disagree C Disagree D Please provide reason for your choice: ……………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… Question 3: What are your own changes after taking part in the English speaking activities using pictures? You can choose more than one options A I am more motivated to listen and speak in English B I have made progress in English speaking C I am confident enough to speak English in groups or in front of the class D My pronunciation has been improved E My vocabulary has been enlarged F I can make longer English sentences G I speak English more accurately Thank you very much! VIII PHIẾU KHẢO SÁT SAU KHI THỰC NGHIỆM (Dành cho học sinh) Chào em, cô thực bảng câu hỏi điểu tra nhằm phục vụ thu thập số liệu cho đề tài “ Nghiên cứu hành động việc sử dụng tranh ảnh nhằm tạo hứng thú cho học sinh lớp trường tiểu học Bắc Ninh tham gia vào hoạt động nói” Các em khoanh trịn vào ý mà em cho hợp lý với em câu hỏi em viết ý kiến cần thiết Cơ cảm ơn tham gia em Câu 1: Em có thích hoạt động nói tiếng Anh sử dụng tranh ảnh khơng? A Em thích chúng B Em thấy bình thường C Em khơng thích chúng Lý em chọn phương án trên: ………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… Câu 2: Em có đồng ý việc sử dụng tranh ảnh hoạt động nói tiếng Anh giúp em học tốt không? A Em đồng ý B Em không C Em không đồng ý Lý em chọn phương án trên: ………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… Câu 3: Em có tiến học tập sau tham gia hoạt động nói tiếng Anh có sử dụng tranh ảnh? Em chọn nhiều đáp án A Em có động lực nhiều để luyện nói tiếng Anh B Kỹ nói tiếng Anh em tiến nhiều C Em tự tin nói tiếng Anh nhóm trình bày trước lớp D Phát âm tiếng Anh em tốt E Từ vựng em mở rộng F Em nói câu tiếng Anh dài G Em nói tiếng Anh chuẩn xác Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! IX APPENDIX 6: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR STUDENTS English Question 1: Do you like using pictures in English speaking activities? Why/ Why not? Question 2: What benefits you have from English speaking activities using pictures? Question 3: May you give your suggestions about the use of pictures in speaking activities? Vietnamese Câu hỏi 1: Em có thích hoạt động nói tiếng Anh có sử dụng tranh ảnh không? Tại sao/ không? Câu hỏi 2: Những lợi ích mà em thu tham gia hoạt động nói tiếng Anh có sử dụng tranh ảnh? Câu hỏi 3: Em đưa gợi ý cho việc sử dụng tranh ảnh hoạt động nói tiếng Anh? X APPENDIX 7: LESSON PLAN UNIT 2: I’M FROM JAPAN Lesson 1: 1-2 I OVERVIEW Objectives: By the end of period, Ps will be able to: ask and answer questions about where someone is from Language focus + New word: Malaysia, America, Australia, England, Japan + Sentence patterns: Where are you from? I‟m from …………… Resources: Ss‟ book, recording, pictures II PROCEDURE Steps Learning activities Language focus Modes Warmup (3m) - Greet Ps and get their responses, Hi/Hello Nice T-Whole using Hi/Hello Nice to see you again to see you again class Look, - Tell pupils that they are going to read a story in which the characters T-Whole class ask and answer questions about where they are from - Show the four pictures on the board and have students look at the four T-Whole class Listen & Repeat (10m) pictures to discuss the contexts in which the language is use Ask them questions such as Who is this?/ Where are they?/ What is he/she doing? What does he/she say? Picture a: Nam and Akiko are on the beach Picture b: Nam greets Akiko Picture c: Nam asks where Akiko is from and she says she is from Japan XI Individual Picture d: Nam slips and ruins Akiko‟s sandcastle - Play the recording a few time for Ps to listen and repeat Do choral and groups individual repetition, pointing to the - Copy in their characters speaking notebook - Ask ps to role play the dialogue in - Malaysia: Work in pairs pairs Nước Ma-lai- Play the recording again for Ps to xi-a listen and say along - America: Whole class Whole - Give the meaning of some new Nước Mỹ words - Australia: Nước Úc class - England: Nước Anh - Japan: Nước Nhật Bản Point & Say (10m) - Tell Ps that they are going to Where are practice asking and answering you from? questions about where someone is I’m from …… from, using Where are you from? I’m from ……… T-Whole class - Have them look pictures to point to each of these words and repeat twice Malaysia, America, Australia, England, Japan - Point to the first picture and the task with one pupil using expression in the bubbles and the words under the picture T: Hi I‟m Miss Hien Where are you from? P: Hi, Miss Hien I‟m Hakim I‟m XII Pairs or groups Pairs – whole class from Malaysia - Ask Ps to say the sentences chorally and individually - Repeat the same procedure with the rest of pictures - Call a few pairs to act out in front of the class Check as a class and correct pronunciation, if necessary Let’s Talk (14m) - Tell pupils that they are going to Whole revise what they have learnt it in class Activity and in real contexts Hi I‟m……… - Remind pupils how to ask and answer where someone is from Where are you Help Ps to imagine they are Hakim, from? Work in pairs Tom, Tony, Linda, Akiko Introduce Pairs themseflves and ask where their Hi, …… I‟m partner is from in front of the class I‟m Individual - Correct the pronunciation, if from………… Pairs neessary - Have them play game by dividing into two teams: Team A and Team B This game called “slap on the board” Two Ps of each team stand at the same level when the class ask T “Where are you from?” based on the T‟s answer to Ps, the player as soon as possible slap at the picture The first pupil slap correct is the winner Continue to the last one Home link (3m) - Have pupils practice at home Where are you Individual from? I’m from……… XIII Picture a Picture b XIV Picture c Picture d XV Hakim/Malaysia Tom/America XVI Tony/Australia Linda/England XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI ... record actual behavior rather than obtain reports from the participants Another distinctive feature of an observation as a research process is that it offers an investigator the opportunity to gather... “live” data from naturally occurring social situations In this way, the researcher can easily look directly at what is taking place in a specific situation rather than relying on second-hand accounts... authority of the Study Project Report submitted entitled ? ?An Action Research Project on Using Pictures to Encourage 4th Graders to participate in speaking activities at a Primary School in Bac
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