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Luận văn thạc sĩ an investigation into teachers’ facilitation of learners’ active learning in the classroom a case study at a rural secondary school in bac ninh province

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  • Luận văn thạc sĩ an investigation into teachers’ facilitation of learners’ active learning in the classroom   a case study at a rural secondary school in bac ninh province

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* NGUYỄN THỊ THÙY LINH AN INVESTIGATION INTO TEACHERS’ FACILITATION OF LEARNERS’ ACTIVE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM: A CASE STUDY AT A RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOL IN BAC NINH PROVINCE (Nghiên cứu cách thức giáo viên tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho học sinh chủ động học lớp học: nghiên cứu trường hợp trường trung học sở nông thôn địa bàn tỉnh Bắc Ninh) M.A MINOR THESIS (Type I) Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Hanoi – 2019 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* NGUYỄN THỊ THÙY LINH AN INVESTIGATION INTO TEACHERS’ FACILITATION OF LEARNERS’ ACTIVE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM: A CASE STUDY AT A RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOL IN BAC NINH PROVINCE (Nghiên cứu cách thức giáo viên tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho học sinh chủ động học lớp học: nghiên cứu trường hợp trường trung học sở nông thôn địa bàn tỉnh Bắc Ninh) M.A MINOR THESIS (Type I) Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Supervisor: Dr Lê Thị Hồng Duyên Hanoi - 2019 DECLARATION I hereby certify that this thesis entitled “An investigation into teachers’ facilitation of learners’ active learning in the classroom: A case study at a rural secondary school in Bac Ninh province” is entirely my own work This thesis contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any university To the best of my knowledge and belief this thesis contains no material previously published by any other persons Hanoi, August 2019 Signature Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The completion of this study would not have been possible without the assistance of many special and wonderful people First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Le Thi Hong Duyen for her valuable advice, guidance and suggestions as well as her constant support during all stages of the study My profound thanks also go to all teacher staffs and students in Minh Dao secondary school in Bac Ninh province for their tremendous supports in the collection of data and information for my study My appreciation also goes to my parents whose understanding, caring and sharing are invaluable to me in completing my thesis Finally, this thesis is the product of my long-term study, so I wish to express my acknowledgement to other individuals who have indirectly contributed to the completion of this thesis To all these people I hope that the achievement of the thesis will be favorable enough to satisfy their expectations Hanoi, August 2019 Signature Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh ii ABSTRACT The main objective of this study was to explore teachers’ practices and challenges in implementing active learning in teaching English for secondary students In conducting the study, the researcher employed qualitative approach To collect the data for the study, two main research instruments were employed They are: class-room observation and semi-structured interviews conducted with two teachers of English at the secondary school Accordingly, the findings from classroom observation indicated that the teacher made an effort to facilitate her students to learn actively; however, there were some barriers that made her effort unsuccessful In their best attempt to implement the strategy, the techniques those teachers of English frequently used were question-andanswer, think-pair-share, discussion and games to solve various problems However, some motivational techniques that the observed teachers were employing in the class did not facilitate students’ active learning The results from the interviews with those teachers, revealed that most teachers had the perception that active learning was one of the significant strategies which could help students to facilitate independent learning Nevertheless, most teachers of English did not put it into practice fully due to various reasons According to the researcher’s exploration, the difficulties that were identified as major constraints affecting the implementation of active learning for students at secondary schools were content covering, preparation before class, lack of materials and equipment, class size and student factors Finally, implications and further studies were proposed iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Pre.I Pre interview CO Class observation PO Post interview T Teacher Ss Students iv LIST OF TABLES Table 3.2.1: Information about two teachers of English ……………………….19 Table 3.6.2: Information about classroom observations……………………….22 Table 6.3: Initial codes of aspects of active learning………………………… 25 Table 6.4: Activities to facilitate student’s active learning…………………….26 Table 4.1: Number of activities that teachers used in all lessons and their effectiveness…………………………………………………………………….28 v TABLES OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv LIST OF TABLES v TABLES OF CONTENTS vi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study 1.2 Aims and research questions of the study 1.3 Scope of the study 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Organization of the thesis CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 What is active learning? 2.2 Benefits of active learning 2.3 Activities facilitating active learning 2.4 Barriers to active learning 13 2.5 Previous studies about active learning 15 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 18 3.1 Setting of the study 18 3.2 Participants 19 3.3 Reasons to choose methodology to the study 20 3.4 Research procedure 24 3.5 Data collection methods 21 3.5.1 Semi-structured interviews 21 3.5.2 Classroom observations 22 3.5.3 Post-class observation interviews 23 vi 3.6 Transcription of the data 24 3.7 Data analysis 24 3.7.1 Analysis of the interview data 24 3.7.2 Analysis of the observation data 24 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 28 4.1 Teachers’ use of techniques to facilitate learners’ active learning .Error! Bookmark not defined 4.2 Teachers’ failure in facilitating learners’ active learning 34 4.3 Factors affect teachers’ facilitation of students’ active learning in the classroom 38 4.3.1 Content covering 39 4.3.2 Preparation before class 42 4.3.3 Lack of equipment or materials 41 4.3.4 Class size 42 4.3.5 Students’ attitude about active learning 43 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 45 5.1 Summary of the findings and discussion 46 5.2 Implications of the study 46 5.3 Limitations 47 5.4 Further studies 47 REFERENCES I APPENDICES IV APPENDIX A IV APPENDIX B: VII APPENDIX C: VIII APPENDIX D: XIII APPENDIX E: XVV APPENDIX F: XVII vii viii Simons, P (1997) Definitions and therories of active learning In D Stern & G Huber (Eds.), Active Learning for Students and Teachers: Reports from Eight Countries (pp 19–39) Frankfurt & New York: Peter Lang Tomlinson, B., & Dat, B (2004) The contributions of Vietnamese learners of English to ELT methodology Language Teaching Research, 8(2), 199-222 III APPENDICES APPENDIX A: SAMPE OF TEACHERS’ CONSENT FORM VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES CONSENT FORM FOR PARTICIPATION IN RESEARCH Research Title: An investigation into teachers’ facilitation of learners’ active learning in the classroom: A case study at a rural secondary school in Bac Ninh province Researcher: Name: Nguyễn Thị Thùy Linh Department: Minh Dao Kindergarten Address: Nghia Chi, Minh Dao, Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam Phone: 0972 437 496 E-mail: thuylinhbn93@gmail.com Background: You are being invited to take part in a research study Before you decide to participate in this study, it is important that you understand why the research is being done and what it will involve Please take the time to read the following information carefully Please ask the researcher if there is anything that is not clear of if you need more information IV The researcher conducts this study for her MA thesis at the Faculty of PostGraduate Studies, University of Languages and International Studies (ULIS), Vietnam National University The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers’ facilitation of learners’ active learning in the classroom at a rural secondary school in Bac Ninh province Research Procedure: Your expected time commitment for this study is: a) a preliminary interview (approximately 30-45 minutes) b) classroom observation (3 lessons) c) shortly after each observation, a post- lesson discussion (approximately 15 minutes) Benefits: There will be no direct benefit to you for your participation in this study However, I hope that the information obtained from this study may contribute to the research literature of active learning in Vietnam and also to the improvement of English teaching in Vietnamese context Confidentiality: Every effort will be made by the researcher to preserve your confidentiality including the following: Assigning code names/numbers for participants that will be used on all researcher notes and documents ● Notes, interview transcriptions, and transcribed notes and any other identifying participant information will be kept in a locked file cabinet in the personal possession of the researcher When no longer necessary for research, all materials will be destroyed, ● The researcher and the members of the researcher’s committee will review the researcher’s collected data Information from this research will be used solely for the purpose of this study and any publications that may result from this study V ● All other participants involved in this study will not be identified and their anonymity will be maintained ● Each participant has the opportunity to obtain a transcribed copy of their interview Participants should tell the researcher if a copy of the interview is desired Person To Contact: Should you have any questions about the research or any related matters, please contact the researcher at the email thuylinhbn93@gmail.comor mobile number 0972 437 496 Voluntary Participation: Your participation in this study is voluntary It is up to you to decide whether or not to take part in this study If you decide to take part in this study, you will be asked to sign a consent form If you decide to take part in this study, you are still free to withdraw at any time and without giving a reason However, you are kindly requested to inform the researcher of your withdrawal at least two weeks in advance so it will assure that your withdrawal will not affect the data collection and analysis of this study You are free to not answer any question or questions if you choose This will not affect the relationship you have with the researcher Consent: By signing this consent form, I confirm that I have read and understood the information and have had the opportunity to ask questions I understand that my participation is voluntary and that I am free to withdraw at any time, without giving a reason and maybe with a notification in advance I understand that I will be given a copy of this consent form I voluntarily agree to take part in this study Signed Date VI APPENDIX B: WORKING SCHEDULE WITH PARTICIPATING TEACHERS Working schedule with participating teachers Date Working contents Teacher 9/11/2018 Interview (part 1) Teacher 9/11/2018 Interview (part 2) Teacher 9/11/2018 Observation Teacher 9/11/2018 Post Interview Teacher 15/11/2018 Observation Teacher 15/11/2018 Post Interview Teacher 22/11/2018 Interview Teacher 22/11/2018 Observation Teacher 27/11/2018 Observation Teacher 27/11/2018 Post interview Teacher 11/12/2018 Observation Teacher 11/12/2018 Post interview Teacher 19/12/2018 Observation Teacher 19/12/2018 Post interview Teacher 25/12/2018 Observation Teacher 25/12/2018 Post interview Teacher 27/12/2018 Observation Teacher 27/12/2018 Post interview Teacher VII APPENDIX C: PRE-INTERVIEW QUESTIONS No Focus area Sub-area Questions Trước cô học trường ? Kiến thức giáo viên Cô tốt nghiệp lâu chưa? Ngày xưa học học trường, chương trình có chuyên sâu dạy cho đối tượng c p khơng? Cơ có áp dụng nhiều kiến thức lí thuyết vào việc giảng dạy khơng? Cơ có hay tham gia vào buổi hội thảo/tập hu n/bồi dưỡng giáo viên không? Thực tế giảng dạy Thuận lợi khó khăn Hiện dạy lớp? VIII Cô dạy hs theo giáo trình nào? Một lớp có học sinh? Ngồi cơng việc giảng dạy chính, có làm them cơng việc khác khơng? Cơ th y khối lượng cơng việc có nhiều khơng? Cơ có thời gian để tham gia hoạt động bồi dưỡng chuyên môn, nghiên cứu tài liệu không? Cơ có đọc thêm tài liệu sách báo hay tìm thêm tư liệu sách báo phục vụ giảng dạy khơng? Cơ có tham gia cộng đồng giáo viên không? Mục tiêu giảng dạy Hiện mục tiêu giảng dạy khóa học ạ? IX Mục tiêu đưa ạ? (do Bộ giáo dục, Phòng giáo dục, Trường hay cô đề ra) Phương pháp giảng Hiện đường hướng cô áp dụng để giảng dạy gì? (phương dạy pháp truyền thống hay phương pháp giao tiếp, hay phương pháp khác) Cô chia sẻ chút cụ thể phương pháp ạ? Cụ thể bình thường tiết dạy cô thường dạy giao tiếp/truyền thống nào? Theo cô, phương pháp cô s dụng có hiệu khơng? Khi giảng dạy lớp, th y có thuận lợi khó khăn khơng? X Ngồi có bổ sung thêm khơng? Quan niệm học chủ động? Theo văn c p đề nhằm mục đích thúc đẩy khả tự học học sinh, có suy nghĩ quan điểm này? Theo cơ, việc áp dụng phương pháp thúc đẩy học chủ động cho học sinh môi trường giáo dục Việt Nam có khả thi khơng, cụ thể trường cô? Theo cô, để thúc đẩy khả tự học học sinh cần phải làm gì? Hiện lớp cô th y học chủ động khơng? Căn vào đâu mà biết học trị học chủ động? Cơ có biện pháp để giúp học sinh học chủ động? Trên lớp hay s dụng hoạt động để thúc XI đẩy học sinh học chủ động? Cơ chia sẻ khơng? Trong q trình thực phương pháp thúc đẩy học chủ động th y có thuận lợi hay gặp khó khăn khơng? XII APPENDIX D: SAMPLE OF INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT Transcription of Interview Teacher 00:04 I Xin chào cô, để phục vụ cho việc nghiên cứu cháu hơm cháu xin phép v n cô số câu hỏi liên quan đến công việc giảng dạy cô trường c p hai môn tiếng anh Thưa cô, trước cô học trường ạ? 00:20 T2 Cô học trường sư phạm ngoại ngữ 00:24 I Cô tốt nghiệp lâu chưa? 00:25 T2 Cô tốt nghiệp năm 2002 00:26 I Ngày xưa có học chương trình chuyên sâu để dạy học sinh trung học sở khơng? 00:34 T2 Có, Cơ học chủ yếu THCS 00:39 I Vậy có áp dụng nhiều kiến thức lí thuyết vào việc giảng dạy khơng? 00:44 T2 Cái chương trình học chủ yếu học sinh THCS cô áp dụng số biện pháp giảng dạy mơn học 00:54 I Cơ có hay tham gia vào buổi hội thảo tập hu n, bồi dưỡng giáo viên không? 01:00 T2 Cô tham gia thường xun chương trình phịng sở giáo dục 01:04 I Hiện trường cô dạy lớp? 01:07 T2 Cô dạy lớp, khối khối 01:11 I Cơ dạy theo giáo trình ạ? 01:15 T2 Cơ dạy theo chương trình sách thí điểm giáo dục XIII 01:19 I Một lớp có khoảng học sinh ạ? 01:22 T2 Khối khoảng 30 em cịn khối 45 em lớp 01:25 I Với số lượng học sinh có th y phù hợp với lớp học tiếng anh không? 01:30 T2 Cô th y đông quá, 25 em lớp phù hợp 01:37 I Ngồi cơng việc giảng dạy chính, có làm thêm cơng việc khác khơng? 01:41 T2 Cô không làm thêm 01:45 I Vậy với sách giáo khoa số lớp nghĩ khối lượng cơng việc mình? 01:53 T2 Số lượng học sinh nhiều, bên cạnh phải dạy 18 tiết tuần Nó tải với giáo viên tiếng Anh 02:23 I Cơ có đọc thêm tư liệu để phục vụ giảng dạy khơng? 02:32 T2 Cơ có Cơ tham khảo số sách tham khảo mạng internet từ vựng, phương pháp lên lớp 02:45 I Cơ có tham gia vào cộng đồng giáo viên không? 02:50 T2 Đến chưa tham gia, tham gia vào nhóm giáo viên huyện […] XIV APPENDIX E: SAMPLE OF OBSERVATION TRANSCRIPT Observation transcription Teacher 24:15 T1 Các em xong chưa Chúng ta chuyển sang phần Nào, activity 3a&b: Speaking Now think of a legend, folk tale, fable or fairy tale you know Complete the table in your textbook Then work in pairs, interview your partner to guess the title of the story 24:30 Ss 24:41 T1 Are you clear? 24:44 Ss Yes 24:46 T1 Cô cho bạn phút nghĩ câu chuyện mà em biết Các em viết vào bảng sách thơng tin câu chuyện 25:57 Ss 26:14 T1 28:34 Ss 29:35 T1 Ok, time is over Now, it’s time for you to interview your partner Work in pair for minutes Sau mời số nhóm thực trước lớp 30:18 Ss 32:09 T1 33:10 Ss 34:26 T1 Ok Hết Các nhóm sẵn sàng nói chưa XV 34:28 Ss Yes 34:30 T1 Cơ mời nhóm bạn Thảo Vân 34:35 S1 What kind of story is it? 34:50 S2 It’s a fairy tale 35:01 S1 Who are the main characters? 35:14 S2 A crow and a fox 35:22 S1 What is it about? 35: 39 S2 It’s about two animals: fox and crow, the crow lost the meat because of its fool 36:00 S1 Is it “The fox and the crow”? 36:05 S2 Yes! 36:08 T1 Good Thanks Another the pair, Phương and Trang please 36: 30 S3 What kind of story is it? 36: 54 S4 It’s a fairy tale 37:05 S3 Who are the main characters? 37:14 S4 Snow white 37:19 S3 What is it about? 37:24 S4 It’s about a princess living with dwarfs, she was poisoned by a witch, then a prince saved her and they lived happily ever since 39:02 S3 Snow White and the seven Dwarfs! 39:09 S4 Yes! […] XVI APPENDIX F: A CHECKLIST OF CLASS OBSERVATION TEACHER – CO1 No T’s activities Time Description (min) Warm-up Individual Asks questions about the picture Listen and read 10 Ss’ reaction Title of activities Note Collective AL Question- Answer and-answer question - Teaches new words - teacher’s Listen, words and repeat write N.AL x the x in notebook Check new words Answer Do exercise game - Do the matching x x doing matching 10 questions - Checks new words by - Guides Ss Think-pair- - Read and answer the - Checks the answer share questions - Has Ss quickly find the Game words about food and drink - Find the words about x food and drink, then go to the board write Writing 10 - Ask Ss to write sentences Think-pairrelated to the topic Consolidate share - Review the lesson and gives homework XVII x ... entitled ? ?An investigation into teachers’ facilitation of learners’ active learning in the classroom: A case study at a rural secondary school in Bac Ninh province? ?? is entirely my own work This thesis... enjoyable when taking part in an active learning lesson because active learning involves students in doing activities and engaging in learning Teachers that have implemented active learning approach... active learning in the classroom As mentioned in the literature review, five main barriers that affect teachers’ facilitation of students’ active learning in the classroom In the observational
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