Luận văn thạc sĩ an evaluation on the application of the flipped classroom model in teaching english at a university in hanoi

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES & INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ***************** TRẦN THỊ HẬU AN EVALUATION ON THE APPLICATION OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM MODEL IN TEACHING ENGLISH AT A UNIVERSITY IN HANOI Đánh giá hiệu ứng dụng mơ hình lớp học đảo ngược giảng dạy tiếng Anh trường đại học Hà Nội M.A MINOR THESIS (PROGRAM 1) Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Hanoi – 2020 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES & INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ***************** TRẦN THỊ HẬU AN EVALUATION ON THE APPLICATION OF THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM MODEL IN TEACHING ENGLISH AT A UNIVERSITY IN HANOI Đánh giá hiệu ứng dụng mơ hình lớp học đảo ngược giảng dạy tiếng Anh trường đại học Hà Nội M.A MINOR THESIS (PROGRAM 1) Field : English Teaching Methodology Code : 8140231.01 Advisor : Prof Dr Hoàng Văn Vân Hanoi – 2020 DECLARATION I hereby certify that the thesis entitled “An evaluation on the application of the flipped classroom model in teaching English at a university in Hanoi” is the result of my own research for the Degree of Master of Arts, and this thesis has not been submitted for any degree at any other university or tertiary institution Hanoi, 2020 Trần Thị Hậu Approved by ADVISOR (Signature and full name) Prof Dr Hoàng Văn Vân Date: i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author of this thesis is grateful to a great number of people who did offer assistance and support in the preparation of the dissertation I would like to firstly show my gratitude to my advisor, Prof Hoàng Văn Vân, without him, this thesis would not have been possible Thank you for all your help and guidance I would also like to thank the teachers at Hanoi Industrial Garment and Textiles University who did their best to help me gather data from students‟ questionnaires This thesis would not have been completed without the enthusiasm and the interest of the third year students in Garment Technology and Industrial Management major, who have participated in the survey Finally, I own my deepest gratitude to my family for their great encouragement and support ii ABSTRACT This study attempts to evaluate the effect of a flipped classroom model in TOEIC teaching for third-year students at Hanoi Industrial Textile Garment University (HTU) The study employed the approach of experimental research to examine the effectiveness of using flipped classroom in teaching TOEIC at HTU The TOEIC course was trial taught for two co-horts: one employed flipped classroom model (teaching methodology) and the other used the traditional lecturebased classroom model As well, a comparison of the quantitative results of students‟ test scores was utilized to compare the academic achievement between the two teaching methodologies In addition, questionnaire-based survey was conducted to explore students‟ perception and satisfaction in the flipped classroom learning environment Last but not least, case study interviews for both teachers and students involved in flipped classroom was carried out to understand their views on the implementation of flipped classroom in real teaching condition The findings from the study serve as an important fundament for HTU teachers to evaluate the efficacy of flipped classroom in teaching TOEIC and how it needs to be implemented properly in reality iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vi LIST OF FIGURES viii LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS ix CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study 1.2 Problem statement 1.3 Aim and objectives of the study, and research questions 1.4 Research hypothesis .3 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Significance of the study 1.7 Method of the study .4 1.8 Organization of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 The flipped classroom 2.2 Differences between flipped classroom and traditional classroom 10 2.3 The role of teachers 12 2.4 Suggested steps of implementing a flipped classroom 13 2.5 Previous studies of the effect of flipped classroom on students‟ achievement 15 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 17 3.1 Research approach .17 3.1.1 Overview of experimental research 17 3.1.2 Rationale for the use of an experimental research 19 3.1.3 Steps of an experimental research 20 iv 3.2 Research context 22 3.3 Research design and participants .23 3.3.1 Research Design .23 3.3.2 Participants of the study 25 3.4 The data collection instruments 26 3.4.1 Tests 26 3.4.2 Questionnaire 27 3.4.3 Interviews 29 3.5 Data collection procedure 29 3.5.1 Tests 29 3.5.2 Questionnaire 29 3.5.3 Interviews 29 3.6 Data analysis 30 3.6.1 Several key parameters in experimental research 30 3.6.2 Data analysis techniques 31 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 35 4.1 The effect of flipped classroom on students' academic achievement 35 4.2 The students‟ perception of flipped classroom model .38 4.2.1 Access Scale Commentary .40 4.2.2 Interaction Scale Commentary 42 4.2.3 Response Scale Commentary 44 4.2.4 Result Scale Commentary 45 4.3 The interview perception of the participants in flipped classroom 48 4.3.1 The students‟ feedback 48 4.3.2 The teachers‟ feedback 51 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION .54 5.1 Recapitulation 54 5.2 Conclusion 55 v 5.3 The limitation of the study 56 5.4 Recommendations 56 5.5 Suggestions for further research .57 REFERENCES 58 APPENDICES I vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS HTU : Hanoi Industrial Textile Garment University HE : Higher Education FCM : Flipped Classroom Model WEBLEI : Web-based Learning Environment Instrument vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 The conversion from traditional to flipped classroom Figure 2.2: Bloom‟s revised taxonomy in the flipped classroom (2001) 11 Figure 2.3: Traditional vs Flipped Classroom 11 Figure 3.1: The WEBLEI scale (Chang &Fisher, 2003) 28 Table 4.5: Descriptive Statistics of all Questions of the WEBLEI 39 viii REFERENCES Alamri, M.M (2019) „Students‟ academic achievement performance and satisfaction in a flipped classroom in Saudi Arabia‟ Int J Technology Enhanced Learning, Vol 11 No 1, pp.103–119 Alev Ozkok (2013) Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Web-Based Learning Environment Instrument (WEBLEI) H U Journal of Education) 28(2), 335-347 [2013] Alvarez (2012) Flipping the Classroom: Homework in Class, Lessons at Home Michigan University Press Arthur Hughes (2003) Testing for Language Teachers Cambridge University Press, 2003 Ash, K (2012) Schools open doors to new E-learning rules, ideas [Educators View 'Flipped' Model with a More Critical Eye] Education Week, 32(2), s1-s16 Ash, K.Aug (2012), Educators Evaluate "Flipped Classroom" Benefits and drawback seen in replacing lectures with ondemand video Education Week 32 (2) Basal, A (2015) The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16(4), 28-37 doi: 10.17718/tojde.72185 Bergmann, J., & Sams, A (2012) Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education Bergmann, J., Overmyer, J., and Wilie, B., 2012 The flipped class: Myths vs Reality The Daily Riff Retrieved from http://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/theflipped-class-conversation-689.php 10 Berrett, D., 2012 How „flipping‟ the classroom can improve the traditional lecture Chronicle of Higher Education Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/How-Flippingthe-Classroom/130857/ 58 11 Bishop, J L., & Verleger, M A (2013) The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research 120th American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, 30, 1-18 12 Brame, C J (2012) Flipping the classroom Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching Retrieved from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/files/Flipping-theclassroom.pdf 13 Brinkley, K., 2012 Flipped Classrooms Retrieved from http://tenntlc.utk.edu/2012/04/04/flippedclassrooms/Educause (n.d.) 14 Chang & Fisher (1998, 2003) Web-based Learning Environment Instrument(WEBLEI) 15 Chen Hsieh, J S., Wu, W.C.V., & Marek, M.W (2017) Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 1-21 doi: 10.1080/09588221.2015.1111910 16 Davies, R S., Dean, D L., & Ball, N (2013) Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563-580 Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11423-013- 9305-6 17 Donald Christian Kenna (2014) A Study of the Effect the Flipped Classroom Model on Student SelfEfficacy North Dakota State University Graduate School 18 Finkel, E (2012) Flipping the script in K12 District Administration, 48(10), 28-30, Flipped Learning Network (2014) The four pillars of F-L-I-P Retrieved from www.flippedlearning.org/definition 19 Fulton, K P (2012) 10 reasons to flip Phi Delta Kappan, 94(2), 20-24 Fulton, K P (2013) Byron's flipped classrooms Education Digest, 79(1), 22-26 20 Gannod, Burge, and Helmick (2007) Using the inverted classroom to teach software engineering DOI: 10.1145/1368088.1368198 21 Garrison, D.R and Kanuka, H., 2004 Blended learning: uncovering its transformative potential in higher education Internet and Higher education 7, 95- 59 105 NewsRx Health, Mar 4, 2012 Applied Physics; 'Flipped classroom' teaching model gains an online community 22 Gerald Robert Overmyer (2014) The flipped classroom model for college algebra: Effects on student achievement Dissertation for Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado 23 Gillispie, V (2016) Using the flipped classroom to bridge the gap to generation Y Ochsner Journal, 16(1), 32-36 Retrieved from http://www.ochsnerjournal.org/doi/abs/10.1043/TOJ-15-0074?code=occl-site 24 Gonzalez, J (2014) Modifying the flipped classroom: The "in-class" version Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/flipped-classroom-in-classversion-jennifer-gonzalez 25 Goodwin, B., & Miller, K (2013) Evidence on flipped classrooms is still coming in.Educational Leadership, 70(6), 78-80 26 Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K M (2013) The flipped learning model: A white paper based on the literature review titled "A review of flipped learning." Arlington, VA: Flipped Learning Network 27 Johnson & Renner (2012) Effect of the Flipped Classroom Model on a Secondary Computer Applications Course: Student and Teacher Perceptions, Questions, and Student Achievement University of Louisville 28 Jeremy F Strayer (2012) How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation Learning Environ Res (2012) 15:171–193 DOI 10.1007/s10984-012-9108-4 29 Janotha, B (2016) Improving student achievement with flipped classroom pedagogy Nursing Research, 65(2), E100-E101 Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=113905419 &site=ehost-live 30 Kim, M K., Kim, S M., Khera, O., & Getman, J (2014) The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: An exploration of design principles The Internet and Higher doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2014.04.003 60 Education, 22, 37-50 31 Lyman & Michael (2010) An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis, Seventh Edition Library of Congress Control Number: 2015938496 ISBN: 978-1-305-26947-7 32 Nunan D (1992) Research Methods in Language Learning Cambridge Uni Press Pp 24-27 33 Nafiz Shuva, University of Dhaka (2014) Experimental method of research Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/sazzadkarim2/experimental38497054, date 28th October, 2020 34 Roehl, A., Reddy, S L., & Shannon, G J (2013) The flipped classroom: An opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 44 35 Sams, A & Bergmann, J (2013) Flip your students‟ learning Educational Leadership Retrieved from www ascd.org 36 Siegle, D (2014) Technology differentiating instruction by flipping the classroom Gifted Child Today, 37(1), 51-55 26 37 Snowden (2012) Teacher perceptions of the flipped classroom: Using video lectures online to replace traditional in-class lectures University of North Texas, United States 38 Strayer, J., (2007) The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: A comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system An unpublished dissertation, University of Ohio Retrieved from etd.ohiolink.edu/view.cgi/Strayer%20Jeremy.pdf?osu1189523914 39 Zainuddin and Halili (2016) Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning Volume 17, Number 40 Zhonggen, Y., & Wang, G (2016) Academic achievements and satisfaction of the clicker-aided flipped business English writing class Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(2), from http://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.19.2.298 61 298 Retrieved 41 Lê Hùng Tiến (2009) Nghiên cứu thực nghiệm nghiên cứu dân tộc học: Hai phương pháp ngôn ngữ học ứng dụng Tạp chí Khoa học ĐHQGHN, Ngoại ngữ 26 (2010) 84-93 42 Lê Thị Minh Thanh (2016), “Xây dựng mơ hình lớp học đảo ngược trường đại học”, Tạp chí khoa học, Trường Đại học Sư phạm Hà Nội, Số 3/2016, tr.20-27 43 Ngô Tứ Thành, Nguyễn Thế Dũng (2015) Dạy học theo dự án với mơ hình lớp học đảo ngược B-learning Tạp chí Khoa học, Trường Đại học Sư phạm Hà Nội, số 8A 44 Nguyễn Chính (2016) Dạy học theo mơ hình Flipped Classroom, báo Tia Sáng- Bộ Khoa học Công Nghệ, ngày 4/4/2016.Nguyễn Văn Lợi (2014), Lớp học đảo ngược- mô hình dạy học kết hợp trực tiếp trực tuyến, Tạp chí Khoa học Trường Đại học Cần Thơ số 34 45 Phạm Anh Đới (2014) “Cơ hội với Học tập đảo ngược” Tạp chí Cơng nghệ Giáo dục, chun đề Học tập Thời đại số Trường Đại học FPT, tháng 9, tr.12-18 46 Trần Thị Bích Liễu (2013) Giáo dục phát triển lực sáng tạo Nxb Giáo dục Việt Nam 47 Trần Tín Nghĩa (2016) Áp dụng mơ hình lớp học đảo ngược hoạt động dạy học ngoại ngữ, Tạp chí Khoa học Ngoại ngữ số 46 62 APPENDICES APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENT PERCEPTION OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM (English version) This questionnaire is aimed at exploring your experiences of flipped classroom through the application of the "Smartcom TOEIC 450" online course for third-year students at Hanoi Industrial Textile Garment University Your opinions play an important role in the evaluation and use of the program in the future Based on your learning experience with this course, please tick your choice We appreciate your help and ideas Put a tick (√) in your appropriate respond according to the scale Strongly Disagree disagree Neither Agree Strongly disagree nor agree agree `Items Statements I can access the learning activities at times convenient to me The on-line material (e-Smartcom's course) is available at locations suitable for me I can use the time saved in travelling and on campus class attendance for study and other commitments I am allowed to work at my own pace to achieve learning objectives I decide how much I want to learn in a given period Lessons on the Internet enable me to decide when I want to learn I The flexibility of lessons on the Internet allows me to meet my learning goals I prefer online learning rather than real-world classroom learning from a lecturer 10 11 12 13 I communicate with other students in this subject electronically via email In this learning environment, I have to be self- disciplined in order to learn I have the autonomy to ask my tutor what I not understand I have the autonomy to ask other students what I not understand Other students respond promptly to my queries I would find it difficult to study on 14 this course without regular interaction with the online resources I regularly interact with the e- 15 Smartcom's course (at least twice a week I 16 felt there was an “online community” with other students on the course This mode of learning enables me to 17 interact with other students and the tutor synchronously I felt a sense of satisfaction and 18 achievement about this learning environment 19 I enjoy learning in this environment II 20 21 Online course is no substitute for oncampus classes It is easy to organise a group for a project It is easy to work collaboratively with 22 other students involved in a group project The web-based learning environment 23 held my interest throughout my course of study I felt a sense of boredom with the 24 online material towards the end of my course of study 25 Each online topic is setup clearly with learning objectives clearly stated Links to other websites are no 26 substitute for printed references or articles 27 The structure keeps me focused on what is to be learned I am happy to print lecture and 28 exercise material from e-Smartcom's course I can see the connection between the 29 e-Smartcom's course and the campus course 30 31 32 The subject content is appropriate for delivery on the Web The presentation of the subject content is clear Online resources plus the classroom teaching enhances my learning III APPENDIX C PHIẾU LẤY Ý KIẾN SINH VIÊN VỀ HIỆU QUẢ ÁP DỤNG MƠ HÌNH LỚP HỌC ĐẢO NGƯỢC (Bản tiếng Việt) Phiếu nhằm mục đích thu thập ý kiến đánh giá bạn phương pháp lớp học đảo ngược khóa học trực tuyến "Smartcom TOEIC 450" dành cho sinh viên năm trường Đại học Công nghiệp Dệt may Hà Nội Ý kiến bạn đóng vai trị quan trọng giúp đánh giá mức độ hiệu mơ hình để làm sở đề xuất áp dụng mơ hình rộng rãi mơn học tiếng Anh nhà trường Dựa kinh nghiệm học tập bạn với khóa học này, vui lịng đánh dấu vào lựa chọn bạn Xin cảm ơn! Hoàn tồn Khơng Bình khơng đồng ý đồng ý thường `Items Statements động học vào lúc phù hợp với bạn Học liệu trực tuyến sẵn có giúp tơi học nơi đâu Phương pháp học tập giúp tiết kiệm thời gian nghe giảng lớp Tơi chủ động hoàn thành lượng tập theo yêu cầu đề để đạt mục tiêu định Tôi chủ động định lượng lượng kiến thức cần học module học IV Hồn tồn đồng ý Bạn dễ dàng tiếp cận hoạt Đồng ý 10 11 12 13 Nội dung học phù hợp với mức độ nhận thức Nội dung học phong phú đa dạng giúp đạt mục tiêu học tập Tôi thích phương pháp học tập phương pháp truyền thống Tơi dễ dàng trao đổi với bạn khác qua giao diện trực tuyến Mơ hình giúp tơi tạo tính kỷ luật học nghiêm túc Tơi thoải mái trao đổi với giáo viên nội dung chưa hiểu Tơi thoải mái trao đổi với bạn học Các bạn khác hỗ trợ nhiều học theo phương pháp Nhờ phương pháp này, tơi thấy khơng 14 cịn khó khăn việc hiểu học lớp Tôi thường xuyên dành thời gian để 15 16 theo học phương pháp đảo ngược Khóa học giúp tơi kết nối với bạn khác tốt Khóa học giúp tương tác tốt 17 với bạn giáo viên để trao đổi nội dung kiến thức 18 19 20 Tơi thấy hài lịng học theo phương pháp đảo ngược Tơi thích học theo phương pháp đảo ngược Phương pháp học thay V hồn tồn lớp học truyền thống Tơi tổ chức tốt hoạt động học 21 tập theo dự án phương pháp đảo ngược Tơi dễ dàng tương tác với 22 bạn khác nhóm dự án phương pháp đảo ngược 23 24 Tơi thấy thích khóa học nhờ phương pháp học đảo ngược Tôi dần thấy chán với khối lượng học liệu online mà khóa học cung cấp Mỗi chủ đề học xây 25 dựng chặt chẽ gắn với mục tiêu học tập 26 27 28 29 30 31 Rất nhiều link tham khảo cung cấp nguồn học liệu trực tuyến Cấu trúc học giúp trọng tâm kiến thức cần học Tôi thích hệ thống giảng tập online chương trình học Tơi kết hợp hiệu nội dung tự học với hoạt động học lớp Nội dung khóa học thiết kế phù hợp hệ thống online Thông tin hướng dẫn học trực tuyến rõ ràng Nguồn học liệu trực tuyến kết hợp với 32 hoạt động lớp giúp nâng cao kỹ tự học VI APPENDIX D STUDENT INTERVIEW ON IMPLEMENTATION OF FCM What are the positive aspects of the Flipped Classroom for you? Flexible study time, so can self-arrange suitable time for studying Easier to perceive and consolidate the knowledge Better preparation for classroom activities Create more motivation for learners No positive aspect What is the feature that you like most in this model? Online videos and exercises Overall Post-tests to consolidate knowledge Specific key and explanation system Group work What are the problems you have encountered in FC Model? Foreign-language used in instructional videos/slides Less motivation Difficult lesson content No problem What solutions you suggest to solve the problems experienced? VII APPENDIX E TEACHER INTERVIEW ON IMPLEMENTATION OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM Tell me about how you teach in a typical week? Possible follow-up questions: a Do you use video lectures to support your teaching? b How much additional scaffolding is necessary when using this technology vs not using it? c Do you record the lectures yourself? d How you incorporate video lectures into your teaching? What you think about using video lectures to support teaching or learning? Possible follow-up questions: a What impact you think video lectures have on student engagement? Learning? Achievement? b How video lectures impact your lessons? Classroom? Teaching? c Has it changed the way you teach? Positively and/or negatively? d How does using video lectures work with your subject matter? e How does it impact your relationship with students? -Does that impact your teacher morale? What impacts your ability to use video lectures? Possible follow-up questions: a How does your access to resources affect your ability to use video lectures? b How does it impact your time? c How does technical support impact your ability to use video lectures? d How does technical reliability impact your ability to use video lectures? e How teacher beliefs impact your ability to use video lectures? f How does teacher readiness impact your ability to use video lectures? g How does overall support impact your ability to use video lectures? VIII APPENDIX F STEPS OF RUNNING INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T-TEST ANALYSIS BY SPSS Step 1: Data Planning A spreadsheet of test scores of each student in two groups is listed including four columns of data: Student, pre-test score, mid-test score and post-test score as illustrated: Step 2: Running an independent samples t-test To run an Independent Samples T Test in SPSS, follow by these steps: Click Analyze > Compare Means > Independent-Samples T Test Move the variable “Group” to the Grouping Variable field, and move the variable “Post-test” to the Test Variable(s) area Now “Group” is defined as the independent variable and “Post-test” is defined as the dependent variable Click Define Groups, which opens a new window Use specified values is selected by default Since our grouping variable is numerically coded (1 = "Control group", = "Experimental group"), type “1” in the first text box, and “2” in the second text box This indicates that we will compare groups and 2, which correspond to nonathletes and athletes, respectively Click Continue when finished IX Click OK to run the Independent Samples T Test Output for the analysis will display in the Output Viewer window Here is the result: X ...VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES & INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ***************** TRẦN THỊ HẬU AN EVALUATION ON THE APPLICATION OF THE FLIPPED. .. standard deviation indicates that the values tend to be close to the mean of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the values are spread out over a wider range The range of. .. research There are some parameters used in an experimental research to analyze the data: Average (X) or mean: is the result by calculating the average of the measured data The mean shows the direction
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