Luận văn Thạc sĩ Translation procedures applied in the English Vietnamese translation of the conceptual metaphors in the novel “The call of the wild”

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  • Luận văn Thạc sĩ Translation procedures applied in the English  Vietnamese translation of the conceptual metaphors in the novel “The call of the wild”

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES & INTERNATION STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN TUẤN MINH TRANSLATION PROCEDURES APPLIED IN THE ENGLISH-VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF THE CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN THE NOVEL “THE CALL OF THE WILD” (Các thủ thuật áp dụng việc dịch Anh-Việt ẩn dụ ý niệm tiểu thuyết “Tiếng gọi nơi hoang dã”) M.A MINOR PROGRAM THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201.01 HANOI – 2019 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES & INTERNATION STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN TUẤN MINH TRANSLATION PROCEDURES APPLIED IN THE ENGLISH-VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF THE CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN THE NOVEL “THE CALL OF THE WILD” (Các thủ thuật áp dụng việc dịch Anh-Việt ẩn dụ ý niệm tiểu thuyết “Tiếng gọi nơi hoang dã”) M.A MINOR PROGRAM THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201.01 Supervisor: Dr Huỳnh Anh Tuấn HANOI – 2019 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this thesis represents my own work and has not been previously included in a thesis or dissertation submitted to this or any other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualifications Signature Nguyen Tuan Minh June, 2019 ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr Huỳnh Anh Tuấn, my teacher and supervisor, whose inspiring and full-of-fun lectures on Cognitive Linguistics and conceptual metaphors had given me inspirations to choose and keep working on this research Also, he provided me with useful advice on research direction and encouragement during the work Also, I am extremely grateful to Ms Vương Thị Thanh Nhàn, lecturer of Translation & Interpreting Division, Faculty of English Teacher Education, ULIS, VNU, whose paper on the translation procedures and equivalence on Quan họ terms had enlightened me on my research goals and who had kindly offered me invaluable advice and materials on translation equivalence and metaphor translation My deep appreciation also goes to my father, my mother and my younger brother who provided me with money, food, care and encouragement while I was totally devoted to reading materials and writing this paper iii ABSTRACT The translation of conceptual metaphor from English to Vietnamese has been largely ignored In the world, some studies have dealt with the treatment of conceptual metaphors from Arabic to English and from Russion into English, etc However, no studies on the English-Vietnamese translation of conceptual metaphors can be found Therefore, this paper examines some conceptual metaphors available in the novel “The Call of the Wild” and the translation procedures used to translate them from English to Vietnamese Based on the conceptual theory of metaphors proposed by Lakoff and Johnson (2003), a number of conceptual metaphors have been uncovered in the English versions such as DOGS/WOLVES ARE HUMAN, NATURE IS A HUMAN BEING/AN ANIMAL, TIME IS A MOVING OBJECT, STATES ARE LOCATIONS, etc together with some 230 linguistic realizations After that, based on the adapted analytical framework on the translation procedures of conceptual metaphors proposed by Al-Harrasi (2001), the study found various translation procedures, including keeping the same conceptual metaphor, using another conceptual metaphor, deleting the conceptual metaphor, and converting the conceptual metaphors Keywords: conceptual metaphors, translating conceptual metaphor, translation procedures iv TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii ABSTRACT iv TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF FIGURES vii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale Aims and objectives 3 Research method Scope of the study Significance Structural organization of the thesis CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW Metaphors and conceptual metaphors 1.1 Traditional view of metaphors 1.2 The conceptual metaphor in the cognitive view Conceptual metaphors in literature 18 Translation and translation procedures 19 3.1 Translation 19 3.2 Translation procedures 20 3.3 Translation of metaphors and conceptual metaphor 25 3.4 Previous studies 25 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 27 1.Research questions 27 Description of data 27 v Data collection and data analysis procedures 28 Methods of the study 28 Analytical framework 29 CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 33 The conceptual metaphors and their linguistic manifestations in the novel 33 1.1 Knowledge-based metaphors 33 1.2 Image-schema metaphors 40 The procedures applied in translating the conceptual metaphors 41 2.1 Keeping the same conceptual metaphor 42 2.3 Using a different metaphor 44 2.4 Converting the conceptual metaphor 44 2.5 Deleting the expression of the metaphor 45 Discussion 45 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION 48 Recapitulation of main ideas 48 Implications 49 Limitations 50 Suggestions for further research 51 REFERENCES 52 APPENDIX vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Percentage of translation procedures……………………………41 vii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the reason for choosing the research topic and highlights the purposes and the methods of the study Also, the structure and the scope of the research are also discussed Rationale The world today has been much closer together thanks mostly to the advances of technology that has helped bridge the great physical distance that seems at first daunting between different places in the world Besides, it would be a great mistake to ignore the crucial role taken by translation, the key player that bring people spiritually and emotionally closer, by boosting the understanding among cultures, “aiding the understanding of an increasingly fragmentary world” (Bassnett, 2002) The cultural aspects of translation have been a constant emphasis in translation (Bassnett, 2002) Normally, when thinking about the relationship between culture and translation, one may immediately think of cultural words, which are particularly associated with a particular language and cannot be translated literally (Newmark, 1988) and wonders how these culture-rich concepts can be rendered into the target language Therefore, not surprisingly, a large body of research in translation study has been dedicated to this area It does not take one much time to search for a few studies on translation of culture-specific terms To name a few, Hapsari and Setyaningsih (2013) in their study “Cultural Words and the Translation in Twilight” worked with 100 cultural words related to food, house, artifacts, transportation, clothes, communication such as “madrone trees”, “pelicans”, “crib” and “ravioli”, etc, and various translation procedures applied to render these terms into Indonesian Nhàn (2015) studied the translation procedures in translating terms used in “Quan họ”, a traditional way of singing and performing songs in Bắc Ninh, a northern province of Vietnam In this research, she discussed a great number of cultural words, their translation procedures and their equivalents such as “áo the”, “khăn xếp”, “liền anh”, “liền chị”, “hát thờ”, “hát canh”,etc However, another equally important part in culture but often ignored in translation is the pattern of thoughts and ways in which people of different cultures categorize things A famous theory that summarizes the relationship between languages, thought and culture is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Proposing the idea of linguistic determinism, Sapir and Whorf argue that language determines thought and language is a reflection of culture (Yule, 2006) Therefore, under the light of cognitive linguistics, there is something more than just cultural terms Evan and Green (2006) maintained that patterns of thought or conceptualization are reflected in language Different groups of people (different cultures), speaking different languages have their own ways of understanding, perceiving and construing their physical environment around them and other experiences In other words, each culture will perceive and understanding reality in different ways or thought is also a product of culture “The metaphor is probably the most fertile power possessed by man” (Jose Ortega y Gasset, 1948) Metaphors have long been a focal interest for the academic world and widely studied from many perspectives, including traditional views, philosophers’ view and cognitive view, etc Studying metaphors from the cognitive approach and their translations will present certain benefits and new insights as the conceptual metaphor, with its basis in basic physical, physiological and cultural experience of human beings, serves as a powerful tool in revealing these differences in the thinking patterns, allowing the possibility of examining and comparing different ways of construing reality of different groups of people To some degree, conceptual metaphors have some properties that are the same as cultural words Although sometimes, two cultures share the same expressions, most The sun dropped to its bed Mặt trời chầm chậm lặn xuống phía chân trời phía Tây Bắc The birds talked of it Lũ chim líu ríu sống + describe in more details the squirrels chattered about it Lũ sóc xôn xao bàn tán + describe in more detail The very breeze Và gió thoảng nhẹ whispered about it thầm (He remarked) the pregnant silence of the forest Nó để ý thấy yên lặng đáng ngại rừng núi + function Crickets sang in the night tiếng dế ca Squirrels were chattering Birds (were) singing tiếng chim chóc véo von Yukon was straining to break loose the ice uể oải vươn vai (để gặt sang bên lớp băng) It ate away from the beneath Nó chuyên tâm đào khoét băng bên + use another image The sun ate from above mượn sức mặt trời làm tan chảy băng bên + use another image Through the softsighing breezes At the mouth of Cửa sông White No transla tion availab le Yukon river No transla tion availab le White River At the mouth of the Tahkeena Cửa sông Tahkeena (listening lazily) to the songs of birds lắng nghe tiếng chim chóc + use another ríu ran image The hum of nature Thiên nhiên rì rầm The naked bedrock Dưới lịng vực lổn nhổn đá A mad swirl of water Giữa vùng nước xoáy điên cuồng naked mountains Những núi trọc + use another image Lonely beaches Bờ bãi hiu quạnh P72 (He ran him into) a blind channel Một lối cụt vốn dòng suối 75 The call of the wild Tiếng gọi nơi hoang dã the roaring fire lửa rừng rực A chill wind was blowing that nipped him sharply and bit with special venom Một gió mạnh tới, toàn thân tê cứng, vết thương vai đau buốt dội Its wild water defied the frost Dòng nước ngỗ nghịch thách thức băng giá The first gray of down found them hitting the trail Khi ánh bình vừa chớm rọi lúc bọn rong ruổi Sợi roi da anh quất liên tục xuống bầy chó THE LASH IS AN His lash was ANIMAL/A always singing P6 HUMAN BEING THE BODY IS THE CONTAINER OF FEELINGS, SENSES AND LIFE among the dogs He paid no heed to the stinging lash song lỳ lợm chịu đau không chịu tuân theo The lash of Francois’s whip sang through the air Ngọn roi Francois vút khơng khí They had become insensible to the bite of the lash chúng trơ lỳ trước vệt toạc roi quật The lash bit into him again and again roi quật xối xả Senses were choked out of him once more họng lại bị xiết đến nghẹt thở Life half throttled out of him Buck ngắc cưỡng lại He had a fine pride in himself Buck đỗi kiêu hãnh thân All passiveness and unconcern had dropped from them Mọi ủ ê, hờ hững biến (no need to add word) The domesticated generations fell from him Đặc tính hàng hệ hóa rơi rụng dần (He) fled away in panic Cơn hoảng loạn khiến Buck chạy chối chết His strength left Chút sức cuối him rời bỏ You’ve got to whip them to get anything out of them Chỉ có roi với gậy thúc chúng nhấc chân lên All the amenities and gentlenesses of the Southland had fallen away from the three people Mọi vết tích vùng đất phương Nam ấm áp hiền hòa khỏi ba người Hal had no fight left in him Hal chẳng thiết đánh The last sensations of pain left him Những cảm giác cuối lìa bỏ It filled him with a Buck lại thấy lòng bồn great unrest and chồn kỳ lạ strange desires STATES ARE LOCATIONS/CO NTAINERS (no need to add word) (which could) stamped his life out with a single blow Khiến toi đời He was aware of the great pride in himself Một cảm giác tự hào trỗi dậy INACTIVITY IS DEAD The ill treatment đối xử hèn mạt had flung him into khiến phát sốt a fever Every moment life Khơng có khoảnh and limb were in khắc an toàn peril the great antler and of the terrible splay hoofs (C5) (The scene often came back to him to trouble him) in his sleep () tận trọng giấc ngủ Perrault, who was in a hurry Perrault cần lên đường gấp They were in a sorry plight Tình cảnh chúng thật thê thảm The two man in bad tempers Cịn hai ơng chủ nhăn nhó He broke from a mournful contemplation of it Francois bừng tỉnh khỏi rầu rĩ + EMOTIONS ARE NATURAL FORCES letting them fall back into gloomy unrest and uncontent trả chúng với âu sầu EMOTIONS triền miên trống rỗng ARE HUMAN The rest of the team went from bad to worse Lũ chó cịn lại cư xử bố láo DOGS ARE HUMAN (Francois) stamped the snow in futile rage giậm chân bình bịch xuống tuyết, vị đầu bứt tóc vơ vọng + use another image The whole team was in full cry Ngay hội hò hét DOGS ARE đuổi theo HUMAN In vain Buck strove to sink Buck dù cố gắng mà Buck sprang upon Sol-leks in a fury (Buck) giận (nhảy bổ vào đánh bật Solleks) DOGS ARE HUMAN They stopped in surprise Chúng sững người kinh DOGS ARE ngạc HUMAN Mercedes throwing up her Mercedes điệu đà giơ hai ANGER IS A NATURAL FORCE hands in dainty dismay tay lên trời mà kêu lên In her zeal when she had finished with her own ả cịn thừa thắng xơng lên That Hal’s view on art should have anything to with the chopping of a few sticks passes comprehension Chẳng hiểu làm In their very great misery đỉnh khốn + use another image Buck (drive Hal) into a rage Hal tam bành ANGER IS A NATURAL FORCE Hans and Pete were dragging them back into safety Hai bạn anh chật vật kéo chủ lẫn tớ lùi chỗ an toàn describe in more details Being in no haste Khơng việc phải vội vàng this lost mine was steeped in tragedy and shrouded in mystery Cái mỏ trở thành huyền tích che phủ bí ẩn vơ số thảm kịch They fled in terror Vừa kinh hoàng la hét vừa bỏ chạy DOGS ARE HUMAN the stricken wolf rolling in agony Con sói vừa bị hạ gục quằn quại giãy chết He stormed (and raged at them through the bar) Nó giận (chồm tới) It was Buck, a live Như thần hủy 10 ANGER IS A P54 hurricane of fury diệt DESTROYER A gust of overpowering rage swept over him Cơn thịnh nộ bùng lên che mờ trí não + ANGER IS FIRE ANGER IS AN ANIMAL OUT OF CONTROL the unbridled anger of the kidnapped king bừng bừng lơi đình ANGER IS A NATURAL FORCE, ANGER IS FIRE ANGER IS HOT FLUID IN A CONTAINER (One of the onlookers, who had been clenching his teeth) to suppress hot speech khỏi nóng nảy lời khó nghe + describe in more details (John Thornton was) too convulsed with rage to speak Cơn giận làm anh run bần bật không lên lời ANGER IS A NATURAL FORCE LOVE IS SICKNESS But love that was feverish lên sốt LOVE IS HEAT (Love that was) burning cháy bỏng + describe in more details LOVE IS MADNESS (Love that was) madness rồ dại LOVE IS A PLANT His love seemed to grow and grow Tình yêu Buck Thornton ngày lớn thêm LOVE IS A HUMAN BEING HAPPINESS IS LIGHT his eyes lit upon Buck Mắt gã sáng lên nhìn thấy The toil had become a delight to him Bởi cơng việc nhọc nhằn trở thành niềm vui (to sit down for a long talk with them was as much Cả anh lũ chó u thích 11 (C10) his delight as theirs EMOTIONS ARE FOOD TIME IS A MOVING OBJECT His heart shining out of his eyes as Buck’s heart shone out Trái tim anh ngời sáng qua ánh mắt tình cảm tự đáy lịng Buck rạng rỡ đơi mắt To Buck it was boundless delight Buck thích mê tơi Bitter hatred Buck ghét cay ghét đắng + describe in more details Bitter rage (was his) Cơn điên giận EMOTIONS ARE NATURAL FORCES Sweet gladness Một niềm vui sướng dịu p74 As the days went by Những ngày tiếp sau (C15) Yet his time came Nhưng tới lượt + perspective change Before another quarter of an hour had passed Trong vòng đồng hồ TIME IS A CONTAINER The time had come thời khắc điểm Time was flying Thời gian trôi nhanh + use a different image Three days passed Ba ngày trôi qua Summer arrived Mùa hè tới The months came and went Ngày tháng trôi qua Days flashing in Ngày nối ngày vùn vụn 12 P16 TIME IS AN ANIMAL/ HUMAN the heels of day trôi qua Spring came on once more Mùa xuân lại đến As the fall of the year came on Mùa thu đến Night came on Đêm xuống DAY IS UP, DARK IS DOWN When the long winter nights come on Những đêm đông dài lạnh lẽo The down-coming winter was harrying them on to the lower levels Mùa đơng đến Đàn nai mau chóng xuống vùng đất thấp (bulls) The down-coming winter was harrying them on to the lower levels Mùa đông đến Đàn nai mau chóng xuống vùng đất thấp (bulls) Darkness had come back Bóng tối trở Darkness had forced them to grope for a camping place Bóng tối mịt mùng buộc họ phải lần mị tìm chỗ cắm trại Night found them back on the river Lúc đồn xuống dịng sơng băng an tồn trời vừa sập tối DARK IS DOWN The second day saw them (booming up the Yukon) Ngày thứ hai (họ băng băng vượt sông Yukon) Morning found them too weak to travel Sáng hôm sau 13 (TIME IS A MOTHER) (the parts of his Chiêc thai non tìm nature) going back lòng mẹ Thời gian into the womb of Time LIFE IS A PLANT (and beyond which) life cannot rise sống dấn thêm lên LIFE IS A HUMAN BEING Buck thời kỳ phát triển rực rỡ sống sôi lên da + use a different image (Buck was at) the high tide of his life, over spilling with vigor and virility Đang đỉnh cao phong độ, tràn trề sức mạnh khí Life stream through him in splendid flood Sự sống ngon triều dâng + use a different image this patience belong to life when it hunts its living food Đó thuộc tính sinh vật bắt buộc phải có muốn săn sinh vật khác làm thức ăn cho + use a different image (more specific) the cry of life plunging down Tiếng kêu sống ngã nhào sparks of life fluttered faintly tàn lửa sống leo lét The spark of life within flickered and went down Tàn lửa sống bên Buck chập chờn mờ dần He was in full flower LIFE IS FLUID IN life bubbled near A CONTAINER to the surface LIFE IS AN ANIMAL LIFE IS LIGHT DEATH IS DEPARTURE + perspective change the tragic passing chết thê thảm of Curly Curly The first to go was Con Dub chết Dub The Con nòi Newfoundland Newfoundland trước 14 4 (C20) DEATH IS STOPPING went first (the two mongrels) but going in the end On the next day Koona went (Death) away from the lives of the living (Death) as a cessation of movement (Hai chó lai) chết nốt Ngày hơm sau Koona chết Là rời bỏ mãi sống Chết nghĩa ngừng chuyển động P83 DEATH IS PASSING OUT (Death) as a passing out DEATH IS AN ANIMAL/A HUMAN the grip of Death Nanh vuốt chết + use a different image (more specific) RAPIDITY IS LIGHT His splendid body flashed forward Cơ thể tuyệt vời nhịp nhàng vun vút RAPIDITY IS WIND The snowshoe rabbit flashed on ahead Con thỏ tuyết băng băng tiến phía trước In a flash Buck knew it Buck hiểu The whip flashed out Ngọn roi liền vun vút quất RAPIDITY IS xuống WIND Days flashing in the heels of day Ngày nối ngày vùn trơi qua He responded Nó phản xạ nhanh with lightning-like chớp rapidity RAPIDITY IS SHOOTING RAPIDITY IS WIND like a flash Buck struck Nhanh chớp The loaded sled shot downhill xe chở nặng đổ dốc lao xuống sát gót chúng RAPIDITY IS FLYING 15 No transla tion availab le (C25) ABSTRACT STATES/PHENO MENA ARE CONCRETE OBJECTS Francois was surprised, too, when they shot out in tangle from the disrupted nest Francois há hốc miệng ngạc nhiên trơng thấy hai chó phóng vọt RAPIDITY IS FLYING Buck shot past him Buck vừa phóng qua RAPIDITY IS FLYING He wrestled with bad dreams giật mơ STATES ARE CONTAINERS putting all his faith in that đặt trọn niềm tin They lifted a nocturnal song hát vang A pause seem to fall Không gian lặng phắc + perspective change Temperature Nhiệt độ ổn định mức dropped to fifty âm năm mươi below zero and remained there the whole trip Before the darkness fell which gave warning of dawn trước bóng đêm bị bình minh xua tan He would shake off his sleep Nó vùng thức dậy After they had caught their speech Sau tất hoàn hồn Irresistible impulses seized him Nó bị thúc phải làm 16 (Buck) INACTIVITY IS DEAD As twilight fell Khi hồng bng xuống a panic seized the Yaheets Lũ người Yaheets hoảng loạn độ Like a moment’s pause fell Bầy sói thoáng chựng lại kinh ngạc Instincts became alive again lại trỗi dậy mãnh liệt The camp is suddenly discovered to be alive with skulking furry forms Khu trại đâu nhốn nháo the instincts long nguyên thủy dead became alive chết lịm từ lâu, again trỗi dậy CHANGE IS MOVEMENT Dolly phát dại He had never seen a dog go mad Buck thấy chó hóa dại Something had gone wrong with him Dường có điều khơng ổn diễn The ghostly winter silence had given way to the great spring murmur of awakening life Mùa đông ảm đạm thê lương nhường chỗ cho mùa xuân với tiếng rì rầm sống thức dậy He went wild with happiness Mặc dù sung sướng đến phát cuồng 17 P41 Dolly went suddenly mad They grew equal Lũ chó lờn mặt (đến nỗi (to challenging his thách thức lại Spitz) authority) P80 Buck LIGHT IS WATER TROUBLE IS WATER The wild current went wilder Con nước điên cuồng xoay cuộn the tale grows worse Rồi chuyện tệ P85 the moon-flooded snow tuyết đẫm ánh trăng (C30) the moonlight streamed Dưới ánh trăng vằng vặc trouble was brewing Nguy to đến nơi (Perrault and Francois) were deluged with invitations to drink ngập lụt lời mời rượu This lost mine was Cái mỏ che phủ steeped in tragedy vô số thảm kịch TROUBLE IS DARKNESS they’re as weak as Mấy chó mềm water bún + use a different image LESS IS DOWN Their strength went down Lũ chó suy sụp ngày ARGUMENT IS WAR Both Perrault and Franỗois bombarded him with curses c Perrault v Francois tới + use a different tấp ném nồi niêu xong image chảo lẫn lời quát tháo chửi rủa HEARING IS TOUCHING He said softly Anh dịu dàng nói SEEING IS TOUCHING His eyes never off his master Đôi mắt lo âu không rời khỏi chủ lấy khắc The eyes of a dozen fixed upon him Hơn chục cặp mắt quán đổ dồn vào anh They became sharp of speech Những lời gay gắt chì chiết lúc (nào đậu SPEECH IS WEAPON 18 (Buck) (C35) sẵn môi) THEORIES ARE NAILS SILENCE IS DOWN He hammered it into the dogs with a club Gã áp luận thuyết lên bầy chó The crowd fell silent Dường chả để ý đến câu nói Hal’s theory (one must get harden ed) 19 (C38) ... answering two questions: What are the conceptual metaphors and their linguistic manifestations in the English novel ? ?The Call of the Wild”? What translation procedures are applied in translating the. .. Tahkeena - A dozen wolverines quarreling over the spoil - the pregnant silence of the forest - Buck was haunted by the recollections of smiling land 35 - The hum of nature - The call of the wild - The. .. UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES & INTERNATION STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN TUẤN MINH TRANSLATION PROCEDURES APPLIED IN THE ENGLISH- VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF THE CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN THE NOVEL
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Xem thêm: Luận văn Thạc sĩ Translation procedures applied in the English Vietnamese translation of the conceptual metaphors in the novel “The call of the wild”, Luận văn Thạc sĩ Translation procedures applied in the English Vietnamese translation of the conceptual metaphors in the novel “The call of the wild”