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Các thuộc tính quan trọng để thu hút người tiêu dùng trực tuyến tại Việt Nam

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  • Các thuộc tính quan trọng để thu hút người tiêu dùng trực tuyến tại Việt Nam

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Mục đích của bài viết này là xem xét các thuộc tính quan trọng để thu hút được người tiêu dùng trực tuyến tại Việt Nam. Điều này được thực hiện bằng cách khám phá các yếu tố thúc đẩy người tiêu dùng Việt Nam mua hàng trực tuyến hoặc ngoại tuyến thông qua phân tích các yếu tố như giá tốt nhất, sở thích trang web, lựa chọn giao hàng tốt nhất và giá cả, chủng loại phong phú và sản phẩm & dịch vụ. Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ KEY ATTRIBUTES TO WIN ONLINE CONSUMERS IN VIETNAM CÁC THUỘC TÍNH QUAN TRỌNG ĐỂ THU HÚT NGƯỜI TIÊU DÙNG TRỰC TUYẾN TẠI VIỆT NAM NGUYEN DUC QUYNH LAN * NGUYEN DUC BAO LONG * Tóm tắt Mục đích viết xem xét thuộc tính quan trọng để thu hút người tiêu dùng trực tuyến Việt Nam Điều thực cách khám phá yếu tố thúc đẩy người tiêu dùng Việt Nam mua hàng trực tuyến ngoại tuyến thơng qua phân tích yếu tố giá tốt nhất, sở thích trang web, lựa chọn giao hàng tốt giá cả, chủng loại phong phú sản phẩm & dịch vụ Ngoài ra, nghiên cứu khám phá cách thức định mua bán trực tuyến bị ảnh hưởng giới tính, tuổi tác, khu vực sinh sống, nghề nghiệp, trình độ học vấn thu nhập Các thuộc tính ảnh hưởng đến việc người Việt Nam mua trực tuyến ngoại tuyến tiết lộ thông qua nghiên cứu định lượng cách phân tích liệu thu thập thơng qua bảng câu hỏi điều tra Mẫu bao gồm 300 người mua hàng trực tuyến ngoại tuyến trả lời Những phát nghiên cứu cho thấy thuộc tính để giành người tiêu dùng mua sắm trực tuyến Việt Nam giá tốt hơn, sở thích trang web, lựa chọn giao hàng tốt /giá cả, chất lượng sản phẩm dịch vụ Một phát thú vị từ nghiên cứu nhóm nhà giàu có gây ảnh hưởng tiêu cực đến trải nghiệm người tiêu dùng trực tuyến Nghiên cứu cho thấy người trả lời từ 18 đến 36 tuổi có thu nhập trung bình 1000 USD / tháng chọn mua sắm trực tuyến nhiều nhóm khác người trả lời sống thành phố Hồ Chí Minh có xu hướng mua sắm trực tuyến nhiều Hà Nội Các yếu tố có lợi mua sắm trực tuyến xác định khả mua mức giá thấp thuận tiện Nghiên cứu thực dựa điều kiện chung không định cho kinh doanh điện tử khơng thiết phải áp dụng cho kinh doanh điện tử Do đó, nghiên cứu tương lai thực nhóm sản phẩm Các thuộc tính xác định nghiên cứu giúp Thương mại điện tử khởi động, giúp Thương mại điện tử quốc tế tiến vào thị trường trực tuyến Việt Nam để hình thành chiến lược tiếp thị trực tuyến tốt mặt địa lý, ưu tiên khách hàng để thu hút người tiêu dùng Việt Nam mua hàng trực tuyến, sau chọn trang web họ người khác Từ khóa: Trực tuyến, thương mại điện tử, thuộc tính, Việt Nam, người tiêu dùng Summary The purpose of this paper was to look at key attributes to win online consumers in Vietnam This was done by exploring factors that drive a Vietnamese consumer to buy online or offline through analysis of factors such as best price, website preference, best delivery option & price, rich assortment and product & service In addition, the research was also explored how online decision affected by gender, age, areas of living, occupation, education level and income The attributes that influence Vietnamese to buy online or offline have been disclosed through quantitative research by analyzing data collected via questionnaire survey The sample was consisted of over 300 respondents who either are buying online or offline The findings of the study indicate that the main attributes to win Vietnamese online shopping consumers are better price, website preference, best delivery option/price and quality of product and service One more interesting finding from the research was the rich assortment can give negative affect online consumer experience The research also showed that respondents of the 18 to 36 years age group with the average income of USD 1000 per month choose shopping online more than other groups and respondents living in Ho Chi Minh city tend to shop online more than those in Hanoi The most beneficial factors of shopping online have been identified as the possibility of buying at lower price and the convenience The research was done based on general conditions and not specify to e-business and may not necessarily be applicable to e-business Therefore, the future research can be done by product group Attributes identified by this study could help e-Commerce Start-ups, International E-commerce entering Vietnamese online market to better form their online e-marketing strategies in terms of geography areas, customer preference to attract Vietnamese consumers online first, then choose their website over others Keywords: Online, e-commerce, attribute, Vietnam, consumer * Dong Do University, Vietnam Ngày nhận bài: 5/5/2018; ngày thẩm định 15/7/2018; ngày duyệt ng: 15/9/2018 68 S (2018) .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Introduction Research Background In many countries, shopping habits are changing fast In the last decade, the use of e-Commerce has become very common following the spread of IT system such as laptops, tablets and smartphones Today e-shoppers penetration is 43.5% in Asia Pacific, 58% Europe and 70% in North America (e-Commerce Foundation, 2017) More precisely, 83% of China consumers and 74% of Thailand consumers purchase physical and virtual goods (Statista, 2018) Mobility is everything, as we spend on an average more than four hours per day on our phones For most e-Commerce sites, mobile visits now account for more than 50% of total traffic The biggest challenge is that 86% of that mobile time we spend in apps like social media and messaging, and therefore significant less time in browsers So, you must find ways to engage the customers where they are – how you use the new channels to drive conversion both directly in the messaging and social interface like we on Pinterest for example, but also by driving them to your website (Jeff, 2017) Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ Enabled by technology, the continued year over year growth in online shopping has been fueled by a new generation of consumers who want greater convenience, value and options These poses both challenges and significant opportunities (KPMG, 2017) According to the Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoT), Vietnam is one of the world’s fastest growing e-Commerce countries The country’s e-Commerce market is growing by 35% a year, 2.5 times faster than Japan’s Over the past few years, Vietnam’s continuous rapid economic growth has manifested itself in its population’s consumption power Vietnamese Internet users have increased their online spending over the years Currently their online average annual spending per user is USD 70.18, an increase of USD 15.18 from 2016 (USD 55 per annum) Vietnamese online shopping lists have also broadened considerably, shifting from the initial selection of books to now a large collection of product categories, including fashion, electronics and media, food and personal care, furniture and appliances, toys, hobbies, DIY and many others According to VECITA, Vietnam e-Commerce has even reached 4.07 billion dollars in 2015 and expected to expand to 10 billion dollars 2020 (Vietnam E-Commerce and information Technology Figure B2C E-Commerce Growth Rate: By Country Source: e-Commerce Foundation, 2017 Within the dynamic Asian region Vietnam is, fueled by the strong growth in GDP and regional developments like TPP, one of the fastest growing nations in the world and expected to continue to so in the years to come Figure Vietnam Consumers Connect More and More Via Mobile Source: GWI Vietnam Report, Mar 2017 Agency, 2016) Though there are different statistics from different sources, there is one general trend which is Vietnam e-Commerce market is rapidly growing Though fast growth the past few years, Vietnam Figure GDP Vietnam Development Vietnam vs World e-Commerce is still in its infancy Percentage of Source: World Bank SỐ (2018) 69 Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ retail sales made online in Vietnam is only 0.6% of total retail sales while more mature market such as China can reach 15.9%, Japan 4.4%, and our neighborhood countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand already hit 1.7%, 1.1% and 0.8% accordingly ((E-marketer, 2015)) .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Problem Statement/ Research question There were more than 10,000 e-Commerce platforms and websites registered by 2015 in Vietnam, doubling the number from 2014 (VnExpress, 2016) Vietnam e-Commerce market is quite young (only years old) The largest players in the market are Lazada, Adayroi.com, Cho Tot, Senda.vn, Thegioididong, Tiki.vn, Shoppe On top of local players, Vietnam e-Commerce market is attracting many e-Commerce giants investing into the market such as Alibaba, JD, Amazon Figure Vietnam e-Commerce is Still in Its Infancy Source: Q&me, Google and Temasek, E-marketer July 2015 Figure International E-Commerce Giants in Vietnam Source: Lazada, 2017 In addition while only 39% of internet users has purchased a product or service online, the penetration rate is forecasted to reach 44.9% in 2022 (Lazada, 2016) If we compare with our neighbor market such as Thailand at 74%, Indonesia at 79%, this forecast is not a dream According to the survey of VECITA for the last years, the application of e-Commerce in enterprises not only focused on the big cities but also spread nationwide Many new and diverse forms of businesses are operated and implemented (VECITA, 2015) With large population at 94.5 million (World Bank, 2016), fast GDP growth, income increase, more and more people are connected to internet, mobile, fast smartphone pentration growth, Vietnam e-Commerce are having fundamentals in place for an explonential growth and attraction for investment both from internation players as well as startups Figure Notification/registration e-Commerce websites confirmed in Vietnam Source: VECITA, 2015 Figure Vietnam e-Commerce Key Advantages for Growth Source: Tradingecomonics.com, 2017 70 SỐ (2018) .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Consumers perception and consumption patterns have changed a lot in the mobile Internet age As new purchase desires and demands are created, consumers have higher and new demands for the connotation and denotation of goods, consumption scenarios and experience along with consumption upgrade and update, thus consumption demands have various new business formats Accurate understanding of consumers’ demands is an important premise for enterprises to follow the trend and readjust strategic orientation (Deloitte, 2015) Along of the market growth, to get growth and opportunity momentum, understanding how consumers expect, how they behave are very critical to win the online consumers in Vietnam Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ model e-Commerce market) and ASEAN It looks at the technological factors, consumer related factors as well as factors of pricing and factors of product and service Reviews of generation behaviors toward online shopping versus traditional shopping are also posted in this chapter The Chapter also goes into details of research and studies on some research and development concepts related to the e-Commerce Consumer Behaviors Best Price When consumers were asked what factors motivated them to buy online instead of going to a shop, the top reasons were time flexibility and cost savings (KPMG, 2017) Competition is tougher and tougher KPMG reports has shown that, although price was cited by 36% of consumers as a top factor in deciding which website to buy from, having the most competitive price won’t guarantee a sale Having the right product mix is no longer suffcient to attract the new wave of consumers including Millennials, who are entirely focused on one transaction – theirs Consumers today are shopping all the time and everywhere; and in a truly global online marketplace, products can easily be purchased from retailers and manufacturers located Figure Reasons consumers shop online instead anywhere in the world – or from those with no of in stores physical retail locations at all Understanding what Source: KPMG, 2017 drives a consumer to buy online or offline, why Price was a critical factor for customer on online they trust these website over others are critical for e-Commerce players to formulate their best offer- shopping (Heim and Sinha, 2001) However, Li et ings as well as marketing strategies What influence al (1999) argued that often online shoppers were not price-sensitive, cause of these consumers’ price winning the online consumers in Vietnam? Does the best price influence winning the comparisons among different e-retailers on each product was time consuming and the price differonline consumers in Vietnam? ence was very small Does the website preference influence winning the online consumers in Vietnam? Does the best delivery options/price influence winning the online consumers in Vietnam? Does the rich assortment influence winning the online consumers in Vietnam? Does the product/service influence winning the online consumers in Vietnam? Literature Review This Chapter reviews literature that is relevant to the research conducted for this thesis It explores the development and current status of the world e-Commerce industry as well as that of China (a Figure Consumer Opinion: Where to buy Source: KPMG, 2017 SỐ (2018) 71 Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ Price and Delivery options are one of the most important factors to drive consumers online (KPMG, 2017) Figure 10 Consumer Behavior: Purchase Decision Source: KPMG, 2017 Website Preference Consumers generally not possess perfect information prior to purchase (Biswas and Biswas, 2004) and thus can only indirectly assess the quality of products offered on e-commerce sites via the latter’s web interface (Jiang and Benbasat, 2004) Conceivably, consumers’ purchase intentions are driven by the extent to which their positive feelings about e-commerce sites are induced by trustworthy signals that are costly to manipulate (Walther and Parks, 2002) Park and Kim (2003; 17) stated that consumers' trust to a provider or supplier results with becoming committed to the company Trust issue is exceeding with a few successful transactions, after individuals start feel safe and believe that this supplier answers their needs and wants On the other hand, provided information is another issue in terms of online shopping for Park and Kim (2003;17) Since online shopping is an activity which related to a computer-system, individuals cannot touch or feel products Therefore, their decisions based on the information that provided by online retailer Information issue not only important in terms of availability situation, it is also important in convenience and personalization concept Web site design, access to information, access time to information also influence on behaviors of consumers There is a positive relationship between consumers’ familiarity with an e-commerce site and their trust in this site (Kim et al., 2008) As during the final product decision stage, price remains as the most common consideration when consumers are deciding where to buy (Figure 2.8), 72 SỐ (2018) LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ particularly in certain categories such as electronics Having a website that consumers like and/or trust is also important, especially in Asia, where consumers said buying from a preferred website was more important than price (KPMG, 2017) According to many authors, an effective website design is critical to the success of electronic commerce, and the functionality, usability, ease-of-navigation and interfaces of the websites themselves are vital building blocks for sustainable success (Constantinides, 2004; Yen et al., 2007; Lim et al., 2009, Colla and Lapoule, 2011) Best Delivery Options/ Price Price and Delivery options are one of the most Figure 11 Consumer Behavior: Purchase Decision Source: KPMG, 2017 important factors to drive consumers online (KPMG, 2017) Young generation are no longer satisfied to place orders via mobile phones, they also hope to receive goods more quickly Instant gratification has become a feature of this generation of users Some research show that 63 percent of post-80s and 90s are very interested in same-day delivery, even half of them are willing to pay premiums for it Therefore, enterprises can provide instant services such as same-day delivery, online purchase and offline pickup, etc., to keep pace with the consumption habits of the young generation and improve user experience Finally, in terms of aftersales service, enterprises can simplify procedures and optimize service experience through a series of aftersales services provided directly on APP including goods exchanging and purchase feedbacks (Deloitte, 2017) Last mile delivery is one of the paint paints of online shopping in China (Fung Business Intelligence, 2017) .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Figure 12 Waiting for the online purchase is not always an exciting experience Source: Fung Business Intelligence, 2017 Rich Assortment Merchandising includes product-related characteristics such as assortment, variety, and product information (Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1997) Rich product assortment can increase the probability that consumer-needs will be met and satisfied The online shopping environment enables consumers to reduce their decision-making efforts by providing vast selection, information screening, reliability, and product comparison (Alba et al, 1997) The research conducted by Q&Me shown that Product variety is one of the reasons to shop online for Vietnamese (Q&Me, 2017) Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ Figure 14 Stated Market Consideration Factors Source: Lazada, 2017 Product and Service Many consumers who are deciding to buy in-store because they are concerned about products/services and delivery time Figure 15 Reasons Consumers Shop in Stores instead of Online Source: KPMG, 2017 Price/promotions and product features drive most purchase decisions globally Figure 13 Reasons to Shop Online Source: Q&Me, 2017 Product detail, fast delivery, cash-on delivery, wide product range and product reviews are stated drivers to online shopping (Lazada, 2017) Figure 16 Consumer Behavior: Purchase Decision Source: KPMG, 2017 SỐ (2018) 73 Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Research Methodology Research Framework This research is mainly to test the relationship between the online consumers’ behavior and its influencing factors through measuring the perception of survey participants of statements related to factors Therefore, Descriptive and Exploratory Research has been chosen as the most appropriate methodology for this study, as it is explanatory and theory building research Yin (1994) explains how and why questions are explanatory Such questions deal with operational links needing to be traced over time, rather than mere frequencies or incidence, which supports the research question Data Collection This research used interviews, questionnaires and documents provided by the organisation as part of the data collection process during this study As most respondents are spread amongst Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi and other provinces, questionnaire have been collected through Google Forms for collaboration In general there were no problems encountered with this process The objectives of the research and questionnaire were stated clearly in the introduction to ensure the participants understood what was required of them Data Analysis and Findings Multicollinearity The researcher identified five factors that might Table shows the test of collinearity The values have relationship with the online consumers’ of the independent variables are in the range of behavior in Vietnam including technological 1.435 and 3.894, which is much lower than 10 factors, consumer related factors, factors of pricing Therefore, multicollinearity issue does not exist and factors of product/service Independent Variable Best price Website preference Best delivery options/ price Rich assortment Winning the online consumers in Vietnam Product/ service Figure 17 Attributes Winning Online Consumer Theoretical Framework Research Hypotheses Based on the above discussion, hypotheses were developed to predict the overall relationship between winning online consumers and some related factors H1: There is a relationship between best price and winning the online consumers in Vietnam H2: There is a relationship between website preference and winning the online consumers in Vietnam H3: There is a relationship between best delivery options/price and winning the online consumers in Vietnam H4: There is a relationship between rich assortment and winning the online consumers in Vietnam H5: There is a relationship between product/service and winning the online consumers in Vietnam 74 SỐ (2018) Tolerance VIF Best Price 620 1.612 Website Preference 498 2.007 Best Delivery options/price 415 2.407 Rich Assortment 522 1.917 Product and Service 428 2.335 Table Test of Collinearity Factors Analysis Results on Key attributes on winning online consumers Reliability test was conducted to test the reliability of primary data before proceeding to factor analysis Table below shows the Cronbach’s alpha values for independent variables “Best price, Website Preference, Delivery options/price, Rich assortment, Product and Service” and dependent variable “Winning the online shopping consumers” All the Cronbach’s alpha values are higher than 0.6 (Malhotra, 2004), and it may be safely assumed that all the constructs are proven internally consistent or reliable Variables Best price Website preference Best delivery options/ price Rich assortment Product/ service Winning the online consumers in Vietnam Alpha 0.734 0.725 0.752 0.832 0.796 0.712 Items 5 5 5 Conclusion Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Table Cronbachs alpha Besides, as tested above, the Cronbach’s alpha value of “Best Price”, “Website Preference”, “Best Delivery Options/price”, “Rich Assortment”, “Product and Service” are both above 0.6, which means that they are accepted as factors of the framework Therefore, construct validity test on lecturers’ development strategy indicates that these five constructs are valid for further analysis Hence, multiple linear regression analysis ensues to investigate the influence of these five constructs on lecturer’s development strategy Multiple Linear Regression Between Winning Online Shopping Consumers and Its Attributes In Table 4.11, the adjusted R-square of multiple correlation coefficient (adjusted R2) value indicates that 44%% of the variances associated with Winning Online Shopping Consumers can be explained from the development characteristics Model R 664a R Square Adjusted R Square 0.441 0.44 Std Error of the Estimate 0.64271 Predictors: (Constant), Best price, Website preference, Delivery options/ price, Rich assortment, Products/ Service ed P-value for Best Delivery Option/ Price, Rich Assortment, Products & Service are greater than the common alpha level of 0.05, which indicates that it is not statistically significant Beta of Website Preference =0.154 which is mostly significant Model (Constant) Best price Website preference Best delivery options/ price Rich assortment Product/ service a Dependent Variable: DV5 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients B 1.861 151 205 144 121 169 Std Error Beta 156 075 141 103 154 116 142 131 101 121 116 t Sig 11.947 2.029 1.989 2.123 1.992 2.238 000 043 048 040 398 045 Table Coefficients P-value for Best price, Website preference, Best delivery option/ Price, Products/ Service < 0.05  related P-value for Rich assortment is greater than the common alpha level of 0.05, which indicates that it is not statistically significant Beta of Website preference = 0.154  mostly significant Summary of Hypotheses Table Model Summary Through results from data analysis, the five The output of the ANOVA analysis shows that hypotheses of this research are proved to be there is a statistically significant difference supported Hypotheses findings are summarized as between the factors We can see that the signifi- followed: cance level is 0.000 (p = 000), which is below No Hypothesis Results 0.05 and, therefore, there is a statistically signifi1 There is a relationship between best price and winning the online Supported consumers in Vietnam cant difference among the factors analyzed There is a relationship between website preference and winning the Supported Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig Regression Regression 10.907 2.181 5.281 Residual Residual 126.813 307 413 Total Total 137.720 312 a Predictors: (Constant), Best Price, Website Preference, Best Delivery Options/Price, Rich Assortment, Product and Service b Dependent Variable: Winning Online Shopping Consumers Table ANOVA Model in Table 13 shows the coefficients for the five predictors’ variables with Winning Online Shopping Consumers as base level The significant value of constant (p < 0.05) indicates that there is relationship between Winning Online Shopping Consumers and its components P-value for Best Price & Website Preference < 0.05 which are relat- online consumers in Vietnam There is a relationship between best delivery options/price and winning the online consumers in Vietnam There is a relationship between rich assortment and winning the online consumers in Vietnam There is a relationship between product/service and winning the online consumers in Vietnam Supported Supported Supported Table Hypothesis Summary Conclusions The overall conclusion was that the five identified attributes can be parts of the Startups, Enterprises strategies on growing eCommerce in Vietnam From this framework, policy makers, researchers and enterprises can cooperate to develop a better environment for eCommerce market to grow Implication of the quantitative and qualitative theory and practice emanating from the find- SỐ (2018) 75 Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ ings were discussed in depth and implications involving policy were speculated upon based on a review of the literature This research has contributed to the body of knowledge by providing a theoretical framework for proving the relationship between winning online consumers in Vietnam and its possible attributes online shopping offers better variety than traditional stores The study also raised questions requiring further research that is theoretical and practical interest Improving and boosting eCommerce in Vietnam will continue challenge the enterprises, governors, managers and researchers Therefore, this is a topic that will continue to have and require continuous research - Vietnamese consumers love shopping online and they believe that that online shopping trend is given and will be taking over a big part of traditional shopping The biggest concerns are security and trust over the websites Findings Statistics and results from the analysis reveal many things about the five factors that have influenced on winning the online consumers in Vietnam - Product categories that customers frequently purchase online are household/appliances, electronics, clothing, cosmetics, toys and books - The fact that online consumers rely on pictures, images, description of the website/platform to purchase products People also believe that detailed description and information availability to every product is important when shopping online Product price and website preference are the most factors over winning online consumers in Vietnamese in which trust over e-tailers, website appearance, website user-friendliness, the ability for customers to interact with platforms, terms and conditions of the platforms over online purchase transactions are all critical to win online consumers from one platform over another, from traditional shopping over online shopping There are three specific objectives in this - Vietnamese people have had the tendency research Two of them have been addressed after purchasing online this analysis - Many people agree that price is important for - Objective number one: find out consumers them to decide buying online and they will prefer online shopping only if online prices are lower than perceptions over e-Commerce, Online Shopping and their belief on the future of e-Commerce indusoffline prices try in Vietnam The research results have shown - However, price is not enough to convert people quite clearly that e-Commerce in Vietnam is booming from offline to online Many people also agree that and evolving The rapid growth of the internet and they must trust an e-retailer before making a mobile usage has been helping e-Commerce to be purchase and the ease and user-friendliness of the established as a new shopping channel rapidly website will win consumers from one website over Though Vietnamese online consumers have some another - Most of the survey participants also agree that one of the conveniences of online shopping is home delivery which is important for consumers Along with this, order tracking visibility, delivery speed and shipping fee are important for consumers and impact consumer experience - Many people believe that large selection of products is also important for consumers to decide purchasing online However, it does not mean that 76 SỐ (2018) concerns over online shopping, the answer to the question whether online consumers believe in e-Commerce growth and future in Vietnam is “Yes” They continue purchasing online The average revenue per user continues increasing from US dollar 55 in 2016 to US dollar 70.18 currently - Objective number two: find out five attributes of winning online consumers in Vietnam have been identified including: best price, website preference, best delivery options/price, rich assortment and product and service Of which, “website preference” is the .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ most critical, even over Best price while Rich assortment” can give negative impact Having trusted website will always be important Competitive pricing is expected to rise in the importance during the selection what website to purchase Price and promotions most likely influence consumers’ decision on what product or brand to buy online Advances in technology, data technology, logistics, payment methods, consumer demand for convenience and trust are much higher than before Price is important for online consumers However, price does not guarantee sales Shopping experience, keeping pace with consumers’ Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ tions and not specify to a particular e-business and may not necessarily be applicable to a particular e-business Therefore, the future research can be done by product group Practical implications Attributes identified by this study could help E-commerce Start-ups, International E-commerce entering Vietnamese online market to better form their online e-marketing strategies in terms of geography areas, customer preference to attract Vietnamese consumers online first, then choose preferences today and tomorrow are important with their website over others all enterprises, especially e-Commerce enterprises Recommendations to attract and win online consumers Beyond quick Human resource development for e-Commerce and good customer service, the right content strateVietnam is thirsty for e-Commerce talents gy is also critical The research results have shown According to Vietnamworks.com (ranked in the e-Commerce Startups, new entrance, and even 171thplace among the most visited websites in growing e-Commerce platforms that to win, they Vietnam15), the labour demand of the internet/ need to transform and build a customer-centric and online media category has dramatically increased virtually borderless operating model The facts are in recent years The vacancies related to e-comonline consumers easily move back and forth merce including internet/ online media staffs hold between online and offline, from one website to 9% of the total advertised vacancies on this webanother website to check prices before deciding the site Up to September 2015, Vietnam had more than online purchase, having the efficient supply chain, 513,000 enterprises with more than 12.8 million the lean and agile last mile operations will be labours According to Vecita’s 2015 survey, important for e-Commerce enterprises Younger approximately 45% of enterprises had websites on generation are increasingly comfortable with which information was periodically updated The buying products online without seeing them first number of enterprises having websites was around However, they also have much higher demand for 200,000 If each enterprise is estimated to have one quick delivery, low shipping fee or even free shipe-Commerce specialized staff that may be a techniping Companies will need to innovate in order to cal, online sale, marketing, staff, delivery or human have shorter delivery time, lowest last mile cost in resource management staff; or manager…, the total order to satisfy demanding consumer expectations e-commerce specialized staffs could reach at least if they would like to win online consumers The 200,000 (Vecita, 2017) Availability of well-trained research results have met the research objectives, resource will be critical to boosting the growth of helping companies to understand that providing Vietnam e-Commerce as well as facilitating positive and unique shopping experience is one of employment goals Hence adequate steps should be the most critical motivators to win taken by government to ensure availability of quali- The final objective will be addressed in the ty resource for e-Commerce Colleges, Universities recommendation and Vocational School should be encouraged to Research limitations formulate a Training Programme, Materials, MethThe research was done based on general condi- ods, source of qualify lecturers for e-Commerce S (2018) 77 Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Enhance Consumer Trust Toward E-Com- tion in the multi-channel environment, and large merce numbers of customers spend 90 percent time to One of the key factors to grow e-Commerce browse products for a comprehensive research share in Vietnam is to improve consumers’ trust- before purchasing Big data can be explored in worthiness toward e-Commerce This require the order to facilitate the last-mile service to achieve effort from both enterprises and government rapid delivery With the popularity of digital E-tailers can pay attention to building their reputa- channels and mobile terminals, retail enterprises tion, invest more on online or offline advertise- must deepen the layout of multiple touch points ments, pay attention to the reviews generated by and channels, to realize interactive, personalized consumers, which spread fast in the online environ- and socialized marketing which need a lot of ment E-tailers also need to invest into information innovations from data technology quality and security protections for consumers Information quality here refers to ensure the accuracy, completeness, and updates of the product information on their websites (the products display style, virtual design of the website, and photograph processing…) E-tailers can select trusted and reputable payment tools, invest into data protection which can help improve the security protection for consumers Innovative Business Model to Improve Efficiency Consumers shop online to save money poor logistics infrastructure and last mile networks, poor reverse logistics, Cash on Delivery, lack of an effective online payment mechanism, ineffective administration and legislation leads to higher costs In addition, omni-channel construction, cooperation amongst leading enterprises are potential solu- Enhance online shopping experience through tions toward last mile bottlenecks, facilitate the data technological innovations optimization and upgrade of the whole supply More and more innovative technologies should be applied in order to enhance customer experience, e.g integrate virtual information into the real world to generate more comprehensive experience through integration of virtual information and reality According to Deloitte’s 2015 Global Mobile Consumer Survey, China Edition, almost all awakened mobile consumers across the world check their phones at least once in three hours, while in emerging markets 93 percent awakened consumers check their phones in one hour or less, and people in the Asia Pacific region are most addictive to smartphone Socialized online shopping is a critical trend drive users’ final purchase if enterprises can integrate functions such as socializing, payment and shopping Consumers can know product information more quickly through various devices (e.g cell-phones, tablets, PCs) and Internet platforms (e.g search engines) Consumers continue to spend more time on obtaining product informa78 SỐ (2018) chain From the enterprise perspective, investments into own delivery and payment capabilities can be considered in order to meet the growing demand as well as improve the efficiency, raising customer experience into e-Commerce From policy maker perspective, legislation for e-Commerce should be put in place so that enterprises are more confident into investing and pushing the industry growth Logistics infrastructure such as freighters between Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi, road conditions, port condition…need improvement to bring down total logistics cost Cross border e-Commerce Retail sales of import e-commerce still accounted for a relatively small proportion in the online retail market in Vietnam There is a huge potential for the development of import e-commerce retail business given the trends This need the support from government in terms of policies, tax tariff, Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ customer formality process, legislation such as 2016 Deloitte permits, licences, logistics infrastructure From Chung‐Hoon Park et al (2003) Identifying enterprise perspective, cross border supply chain key factors affecting consumer purchase behavior management and operation model need to be trans- in an online shopping context formed and make it more efficiency Constantinides, E (2004) Influencing the Investment boosts the development of innova- online consumer’s behavior: the Web experience Dardy, A (2017) Vietnam E-Commerce, tive business Need For Speed e-Commerce industry is finance intensive A Dohert, N F ( 2010) Internet retailing: the great financial pressure to local enterprises in order past, the present and the future to compete with international players Financing 10 Eleonora et al (2014) The impact of raising, M&A have become an essential stage for e-Commerce on final deliveries: alternative parcel the transformation of traditional retailing enterpris- delivery services in France and Germany es and as well as local e-tailers This will need a 11 Enrico e al (2012) E-commerce: exploring strong support from government from both policy the critical success factors as well as support 12 Fei Liu et al (2017) The art of appeal in electronic commerce: Understanding the impact of product and website quality on online purchases REFERENCES al., G e (2015) Consumer Behavior 13 (2017) Global E-Commerce Report 2017 towards online shopping of Smart Phones in Male- E-Commerce Foundation gaon City 14 Jano et al (2017) Destination website al., Ž e (2015) E-Commerce Factors quality, users’ attitudes and the willingness to Influencing Consumers' Online Shopping Decision participate in online co-creation experiences 15 Jin-Feng Wu et al (2015) Multichannel Anh, L M (2017) E-Commerce-Market integration quality, online perceived value and Potential in Vietnam Smartosc online purchase intention: A perspective of Anil Bilgihan et al (2015) Towards a land-based retailers unified customer experience in online shopping 16 KPMG (2017) The Truth About Online environments: Antecedents and outcomes Consumers KPMG (2016) China E-Retail Market Report 17 (2017) Last mile delivery: A pain point of online shopping Fung Business Intelligence 18 Lin Xiao et al (2016) Building loyalty in e-commerce: Towards a multidimensional trust-based framework for the case of China SỐ (2018) 79 Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ PROMOTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL E-TENDER IN PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN VIETNAM XÚC TIẾN ĐẤU THẦU DƯỢC PHẨM ĐIỆN TỬ TẠI BỆNH VIỆN CÔNG Ở VIỆT NAM PHAN VAN DINH * NGUYEN THI LE VAN AND NGUYEN DUC BAO LONG ** Tóm tắt Một số quan khu vực cơng tồn giới xác định Mua sắm điện tử (e-Procurement) chương trình nghị điện tử ưu tiên thực trình triển khai hệ thống Mua sắm điện tử bên mua Đấu thầu điện tử phải dành cho sản phẩm dược phẩm cung cấp cho bệnh viện Việt Nam giúp cắt giảm chi phí, tiết kiệm thời gian cho việc mua sắm nguồn nhân lực cho hoạt động mua sắm Hiện tại, đấu thầu sử dụng phổ biến đấu thầu giấy, có nhiều vấn đề lãng phí thời gian thiếu tính minh bạch, Đấu thầu điện tử thuật ngữ Việt Nam sử dụng thành phố lớn Việt Nam thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, Hà Nội Đà Nẵng Để thúc đẩy việc áp dụng đấu thầu điện tử ngành dược tỉnh khác Việt Nam, cần nghiên cứu kỹ tiềm ứng dụng yếu tố ảnh hưởng Các mục tiêu tổng thể báo để thăm dò vấn đề mua sắm điện tử khu vực cơng; nhằm mục đích phát triển khuôn khổ khái niệm hỗ trợ việc xác định yếu tố thành công quan trọng cho việc áp dụng thực mua sắm điện tử khu vực cơng; kích thích tranh luận CSF mua sắm điện tử biện pháp liên quan để thành công Qua khảo sát xem xét tài liệu, nghiên cứu xác định mối quan hệ việc thúc đẩy đấu thầu dược phẩm Tây Bắc Việt Nam với yếu tố bao gồm minh bạch, cạnh tranh, bình đẳng, đấu thầu tham gia quốc tế Từ khóa: Đấu thầu điện tử, đấu thầu điện tử dược phẩm bệnh viện công Việt Nam Summary A number of public sector agencies worldwide have identified Electronic Procurement (e-Procurement) as a priority e-Government agenda and have implemented or are in the process of implementing buy-side e-Procurement systems E-tender is must have for pharmaceutical products supply for hospitals in Vietnam as it helps cut the cost, save time for procurement as well as human resources for procurement activities At the moment, the most commonly style tender is paper in tender which contains itself many problems about wasting of time, lack of transparency etc E-tender is a quite new term in Vietnam and it is used only in big cities of Vietnam such as Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi or Da Nang To promote the application of e-tender in pharmaceutical industry in other provinces of Vietnam, it is necessary to have a thorough research on its potential of application and influencing factors The main overall objectives of the paper are to gain an exploratory understanding of e-Procurement issues in the public sector; to develop a conceptual framework that aids in identification of critical success factors for adopting and implementing e-Procurement in the public sector; and to stimulate debate about the e-Procurement CSFs and the associated measures for success Through a survey and the literature review, this research identify the relationships between the promoting of pharmaceutical e-tender in the North West of Vietnam with factors including transparency, competitiveness, equality, tender fee and international participation Keywords: Pharmaceutical E-Tender, E-Tender, Pharmaceutical E-Tender in Public Hospital in Vietnam * Ali Limited, Ha Noi, Vietnam ** Dong Do University, Vietnam Ngày nhận bài: 4/5/2018; ngày thẩm định 15/7/2018; ngy duyt ng: 15/9/2018 80 S (2018) .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Introduction In people’s health care and protection in general and the implementation of health insurance policies in particular in Vietnam, medicines play a very important role Like many developing countries, the costs of medicines in Vietnam take over a major proportion of total medical costs According to the National Health Accounts 2008, the amount spent on drugs has nearly doubled from 2000 to 2007, accounting for about 40% of total medical costs society Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ China and India are two biggest exporters of pharmaceutical materials into Vietnam, accounting for 25% and 21% respectively in 2008 As Vietnamese companies at present are mainly producing common drugs, they are using many types of cheap pharmaceutical materials imported from the two countries The pharmaceutical industry gets access to consumers through treatment distribution system and commercial distribution network Treatment distribution network The treatment Statistics of the Vietnam Social Insurance recently network includes hospitals and other treatment showed medicine costs are a high proportion units of different levels The total number of medi(60-70%) of total health care costs health insurance cal examination and treatment units in Vietnam in Drug market in Vietnam is very diverse and rich 2007 was 13,438 Almost all pharmaceutical comin both quantity and quality In 2009, out of 22,615 panies wish to promote this distribution channel drug registration numbers which were valid, there because of its large consumption quantity were 10,692 and 11,923 domestic pharmaceutical The biggest consumption channel of medicine in drugs imported from abroad Domestic production Vietnam for treatment products is public hospitals value increased from U.S $ 111.4 million in 1996 Pharmaceutical products are provided to hospital to U.S $ 919 million in 2010 Drug products through tender Additionally, selling through hospiproduced in the country was increasingly high tals occupies a high amount of working capital of proportion of the total value of drug consumption, pharmaceutical companies because hospitals up from 26% in 1996 to over 48% in 2010 normally settle payment at the end of the year Drugs are increasingly produced in the country Commercial distribution network The commerto meet the treatment needs, in 1996, drug produc- cial network includes branches, agents, distributors tion in the country only has about 3,400 drug names and drugstores At present, domestic pharmaceutiwith less than 200 active, but now there are about cal companies are trying their best to promote the 500 active substances of 1,500 active ingredients in commercial distribution channel in order to reduce the drug is registered domestic proportion the dependence on the treatment distribution The supply of medicines to hospitals must be network which is facing intense competition This through bidding based on the current regulations distribution network mainly consists of domestic However, practice has shown that there are some distributors meanwhile there are only three foreign shortcomings issues in the drug supply for patients distributors in the market, including Zeullig in general and patients with health insurance in Pharma, Diethelm and Megaproduct particular Traditional tender mechanism is not In this research, the researcher focuses on the effective, it is necessary to adjust and strengthen supply of pharmaceutical products to public hospithe implementation of the tendering process at tals through pharmaceutical tender With an aim to hospitals and get drug prices more reasonable promote the application of e-tender in pharmaceutiThe application of electronic tender for the cal sector, the researcher has conducts the research purchase and sale of drugs in public hospitals is in the context of the North Western inevitable and important to improve the quality and The supply of pharmaceutical products in public effectiveness of procurement as well as improve the hospitals in the North Western reflects many genershortcomings that traditional procurement face al characteristics of Vietnam pharmaceutical supply Due to weaknesses of chemical, 90% of the regulations such as medicine is supplied through materials for production of western drugs are tender At each province, the Department of Health imported The main types of imported pharmaceuti- will develop the tender plan annually or for every cal materials are antibiotics and vitamins, which months (medicines are bought according to the list of essential medicines) The budget for this tender account for more than 80% of the import value SỐ (2018) 81 Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ comes from (1) national budget, (2) health insurance, and (3) hospital revenue Pharmaceutical suppliers are those who have capabilities, experiences and conditions to take part in the tender The tender is valid in year However, this tender carries in itself many problems including: Information of tender is public only on “Tender Magazine”, a quite unpopular magazine that not many people follow which make many tenders unaware of the tenders Tender documents are sold only at tender owner’s office which is sometimes a geographic challenge to many bidders Some staff members of the tender owner are sometimes even not want to sell too many tender documents to avoid evaluating to many bidders’ documents Time for preparing and submitting tender documents is too short while most of the provinces in the North Western are quite far from central areas This makes many bidders unable to participate in tender The tender evaluation scale reflects some unfair criteria The traditional tender costs time, effort and money a lot .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ revealed there was a cost, in both time and money, to print scale drawings Additionally, it was established that some members did not have adequate IT and there was a lack of a filing index More relevant to eTendering is the paper by Eadie et al., (2007) Their literature review and survey suggest that there were eleven marked barriers to the eTendering process being undertaken in Northern Ireland These barriers were: the legal position of e-procurement, company culture, upper management support, IT infrastructure, IT systems too costly, lack of technical expertise, lack of e-procurement knowledge / skilled personnel, lack of business relationship with suppliers providing e-procurement, security of transactions, interoperability concerns, no business benefit realised Transparency problems Also, “trust” is an overused word when discussing procurement According to Kashiwagi, “Trust and rules of encouragement are not enough Transparency is what is needed When there is only trust, risk goes up” When there is transparency everyone knows what is going on and can address issues in a timely manner, reducing risk and liability Then “trust” is not necessary anymore The job of the contractor is to “educate the client” and “the client must learn to let go of the controls” This, he says, requires a “paradigm shift” in the process Research Problems Of course such a shift does not happen overParticular Problems to be addressed within night And when listening to the issues confronting Traditional Tendering Hughes (2003) highlighted the substantial cost Peter Lundhus with the Fehmarnbelt Link project, that is involved in tendering finding that the cost to the question becomes how you overcome the contractors of tendering was approximately 1.17% obstacles that hinder communication and cooperaof the value of the work When considered against tive, pro-active contractor contributions? For the a success ratio of, say, one in five, Hughes reported Fehmarnbelt Link, a State Treaty between Denthat the cost of each winning bid can be as much as mark and Germany was signed in 2006 with the 6% of the value of the work In addition, the cost of intention to build starting in 2008 with completion tendering was considered to be very expensive by scheduled for 2020 The first issue confronting the 93% of respondents to an eTendering survey Fehmarnbelt group was determining whether a bridge or tunnel would be the most reasonable carried out by CITA in 2006 connection between northern Germany and southBarriers to application of e-tender ern Denmark Martin (2003) found during his UK survey that Procurement of Medicine in Public Hospitals in project collaboration technologies had a number of Viet Nam advantages, some of which were discussed in the In medicine management, the State issued reguabove paragraphs, and disadvantages As discussed lations to ensure public medicines are procured earlier, the advantages of such a system includes efficiently and patients are provided with good and items, such as, increased transparency, speed of cheap medicines The inter-ministerial Circular No information transfer and increased accessibility On 10/2007/TTLT-BYT-BTC dated 10/8/2007 of the the negative side, Martin found that individuals Ministry of Health – Ministry of Finance provided 82 SỐ (2018) Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ guidelines on forms of procurement including:Concentrated procurement (form 1) With this form, the Ministry of Health will organize the concentrated procurement of medicines of frequent demand and big quantity for all local public health units The list of procured medicines will be consolidated based on the demand of local public health care centers The procurement of medicines will be conducted directly between public health care units and selected medicine providers The variables for study included demographic variables, respondent profile The study had independent variables (transparency, competitiveness, equality, procurement fees and international participants) and a dependent variable (pharmaceutical e-tender).The quantitative study was applied to 250 valid companies The Cronbach’s Alpha ( ) was used to test the reliability of the research variables The results of the Cronbach’s Alpha ( ) are all over 0.9 for all variables as below: Representative procurement (form 2): Under this form, Departments of Health shall assign one or some health care units to organize the representative procurement (usually the provincial hospital and one district hospital Traditional medicines will be procured by the provincial traditional hospital Other public health care units will use the procurement results for their buying of medicines Applying this form, medicine prices will be fixed consistently throughout the province but the portfolio of medicines of other hospitals will depend on the list of procured medicines Selected medicine providers will provide medicines for hospitals directly or through an authorized providers Reliability Statistics Independently procurement (Form 3): With this form, public hospitals will conduct the procurement of medicines by themselves The list of procured medicines will be developed based on the need of each hospital Selected prices of medicines may not be consistent among hospitals This form is usually applied in central hospitals Research Methodology The target population was 250 medicine traders in Vietnam provided by Ministry of Health of Vietnam The target response ratio was determined based on the distribution of the respondents based on their geographic allocation The sample list was compiled by a randomized selection of the respondents in each province to meet the expected response ratio In cases in which a response could not be reasonably be obtained from a company in the sample list, a substitute was included being the next firm on the list The scope of interviews was based on variables of the research framework, covering transparency, competitiveness, equality, procurement fees and international participants Therefore the respondents needed to understand and have the authority to provide the necessary data; therefore, the respondents should be directors of these companies Variable No Variable Name Variable Transparency No of item Cronbach’s Alpha items 0.943 Variable Competitiveness items 0.999 Variable Equality items 0.912 Variable Procurement fees items 0.927 Variable International participants items 0.911 Variables There are five independent variables for this research study, critically selected from the literature review as factors important in the influencing relationships, and one dependent variable Transparency Transparency in the context of public procurement is considered one of the most effective deterrents to corruption It is a precondition for ensuring public officials’ accountability Effective and efficient procurement activities require the setting up of instruments of transparency The instruments should build and maintain confidence and participation of both suppliers/contactors and the general public Transparency in public procurement transactions involves: transparency of procurement opportunities and that of contract evaluation and award procedures To measure effectiveness simply means comparing goals and results Among the various goals of the Public Healthcare Boards procurement areas, it is important the need to achieve good purchasing prices, while granting the respect of qualitative standards Average discount on the reserve price is a good proxy to evaluate eprocurement impact on this dimension, given that e-tenders should at least grant compliance with qualitative standards E-procurement should allow increased discounts, because larger markets are made accessible and it should be easy to use advanced instruments for the negotiations, such as e-auctions SỐ (2018) 83 Tạp chí +2$+&9j&1*1*+…ơ1*ơ Competitiveness Competitiveness is an analysis dimension that generally seems more suitable to private companies than Public Boards Yet, public organizations can stimulate the highest levels of market competition .LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ ed criteria is used by Ruth Nielsen (2005) as a general term covering all those criteria (nationality, sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion, age, etc) with regard to which there are legal protection against (some kinds of) discrimination Equality problems in a procurement context may also arise from lacks in the implementation of mainstreaming duties incumbent upon the contracting authority Equality problems may further arise from equality failures in society at large Moreover, a procurement unit could be competing with other Public Boards, promoting the mutual achievement of operational excellence High level of suppliers’ participation in tendering procedures and the use of e-auctions are considered good comAyres’ study of retail car negotiations suggests petitiveness indexes Also, strategic activities such that men and women not obtain similar contracts as reserve price definition and scouting of the markets are relevant to pinpoint how a Public Board when buying in the private sector in situations where the price is not definitively fixed promotes competitiveness Procurement fee The relevance of effective competition in procurement environments can hardly be overemphasized Without effective competition—and regardless of how well designed and applied procurement rules are— the public buyer will hardly obtain value for money (OFT/ econ, 2004), there will be an unavoidable waste of public resources due the inefficiency of the system (OFT, 2010), and there is a significant risk of consolidating or even aggravating non-competitive or plainly anti-competitive market structures (European Commission, 2011a) Indeed, in order to attain value for money and to work as a proper tool for the public sector, public procurement activities need to take place in thriving, competitive markets (Kettl, 1993; Cox, 1993; Schooner, 1999; Cooper, 2003; Brunk, 2006; and Anderson & Kovacic, 2009) This is consistent with the majority scholar view, which clearly supports that competition has always been an essential element in the construction of public procurement systems and, together with non-discrimination and transparency, ranks (or should rank) amongst the top goals of every procurement system (Kelman, 1990; Arrowsmith et al, 2000; Schooner, 2001 & 2002; Trepte, 2004; Weiss & Kalogeras, 2005; Perlman, 2007; Schooner et al, 2008; Schiavo-Campo & Mcferson, 2008; Dekel, 2008; Sánchez Graells, 2010) Fair Play/ Equality Equality problems in a procurement context may arise from equality failures in the procurement practice of the contracting authority, eg direct or indirect discrimination on grounds of nationality, sex, race, etc in the contracting authority’s conduct of procurement processes The expression ‘protect84 SỐ (2018) Procurement fee is an issue in procurement Many bidders can be discouraged by the fee of some tender To enhance the procurement, the fee must be reasonable and selective to create a healthy tender In e-tender, fee is an issue from which, the tender environment can be improved International participation The participation of international bidders will increase when e-tender is implemented With this participation the tender will be more competitive, more transparent and the tender quality will be increased E-tender is an urgent solution for hospitals to improve their quality of tender and reduce time and cost for tender Pharmaceutical E-tender The dependent variable for this research is pharmaceutical e-tender This is a totally new definition in Vietnam especially in Northern hospitals of Vietnam In this study pharmaceutical e-tender is defined as tendering for pharmaceutical products through electronic systems Research Framework The development of a research framework is arguably the most important part of any research (Veal 2005) Therefore this chapter presents a conceptual framework for this study and framework of variables The aim of the research study was to determine the relationships that exist between five core cooperative factors identified in the literature review and the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Levels of e-procurement adoption Research Framework This research framework began innitially Level of e-tendering adoption Percent of total survey respondents Already procuring online 21% through the study of several research on e-tender, 63% especially in pharmaceutical industry The Intend to procure online within the next 1-2 years No intention to procure online 16% researcher then created a framework for the case in Northern of Vietnam Medium to large size organisations constitute Research Hypotheses the majority of those who have adopted, or intend From the above research framework, hypotheses to adopt e-procurement in the next 1-2 years This of the study are established to test the relationships finding supports those of other surveys which between influencing factors and e-tender in phar- suggest that the “likelihood of placing orders via maceutical industry the Internet increases with the employment size of Ha: There is a relationship between transparency businesses” (ABS 2006) and pharmaceutical e-tender Hb: There is a relationship between competitiveness and pharmaceutical e-tender Hc: There is a relationship between equality and pharmaceutical e-tender Hd: There is a relationship between procurement fee and pharmaceutical e-tender He: There is a relationship between international participation and pharmaceutical e-tender Analysis of Data All respondents that agreed to participate gave full and open responses They understood that data collected were to increase the promotion of e-tender in the public procurement context and appeared honest and sincere in their answers The participants in their discussions with the researcher were, similar to participants in the Hawthorne experiment (Daft, 1997, p 48), motivated by the interest in their opinions and reflected that all the factors they support to research will be able to improve if they are well researched and addressed E-tendering adoption Survey respondents reported on the current level of adoption and future intentions to adopt eprocurement in their organisations The findings, set out in Table below, indicate that 41% of respondents already procure online, a further 43% expect to initiate online procurement within the next one to two years, 16% have no plans to adopt e-procurement No-intention to adopt e-procurement The most common reasons provided by organisations that have no current plans to implement eprocurement are the high costs of implementation; the size of the organisation (some organisations believed they were too small to benefit from e-procurement); lack of management support and the complexity surrounding the nature and diversity of products and services to be procured Strategic Importance of e-tender Some respondents who have implemented e-procurement were asked whether e-tender is the strategic important issue in their organisation 74% of organisations that are already procuring online agreed to strongly agreed on the importance of e-procurement This finding is consistent with other studies that point to the increasingly strategic role of e-procurement (Laub 2001, Knudsen 2002) Strategic importance of e-procurement Strategic importance of e-procurement Percent Extremely important 24% Important 50% Neither important nor unimportant 17% Unimportant 3% Extremely unimportant 6% SỐ (2018) 85 Taùp +2$+&9j&1*1*+ụ1*ụ LQKQJKLầP7KõFWLặQ Multiple Linear Regression between pharma- tive relationship between transparency, competitiveness, equality, tender fees and international ceutical e-tender and factors One model has been chosen for its suitability for participation and the promotion of pharmaceutical the regression From the table below we can see e-tender that Model of five factors can be used for the Summary of Hypotheses Findings explanation of the relationship with pharmaceutical Hypotheses Summary e-tender No Hypothesis Results In Table below, the adjusted R-square of multiis a relationship between the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender and Supported ple correlation coefficient (adjusted R2) value indi- There competitiveness is a relationship between the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender and Supported cates that 74.6% of the variances associated with There equality is a relationship between the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender and Supported pharmaceutical e-tender promotion can be There tender fee There is a relationship between the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender and Supported explained from the variables The F-statistics is international participation also significant (F = 67.043) which confirms that all the variables collectively make a significant Research Limitations The most obvious limitation of the study is its contribution to the fitness of the regression model and are statistically significant in explaining the cross-sectional design Therefore, hospital conclusions about the directions of causality implied in variance of e-tender promotion the relationships cannot be drawn Thus, relationModel Summary b ships among variables must be interpreted with Change Statistics caution True causal inferences can only be drawn Model R R Square Adjusted R Std Error of the R Square Square Estimate Change F Change Sig F Change using longitudinal data This is especially impor.865 63987927 000 748 746 746 67.043 tant for a subject like technological application that a Predictors: (Constant), IV5, IV4, IV3, IV2, IV1 is not static but is a developmental process that b Dependent Variable: DV changes over time There is a relationship between the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender and transparency Supported a Model in Table below shows the coefficients for the five predictors’ variables with the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender as base level The significant value of constant (p < 0.05) indicates that there is relationship between the promotion of pharmaceutical e-tender and transparency (p
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