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Latency remains constant regardless of frame size

THE PCI BUS DEMYSTIFIED PHẦN 2 PDF

THE PCI BUS DEMYSTIFIED PHẦN 2 PDF

Latency max = 16 + 8*(n – 1) + 1 (clocks) where n is the total number of data transfers. The extra clock is the idle cycle introduced between most transactions. Nevertheless, it is more useful to consider transactions that exhibit typical behavior. PCI bus masters typically don’t insert wait states because they only request transactions when they are prepared to transfer data. Likewise, once a target begins transferring data it can usually sustain the full data rate of one transfer per clock cycle. Targets typically have an initial access latency of less than 16 (or 32) clock cycles. Again ignoring the effects of the Latency Timer, typical latency can be expressed as:
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC    RESEARCH ARTICLE CARNIVORE  A DISRUPTION TOLERANT SYSTEM FOR STUDYING WILDLIFE  DOCX

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC RESEARCH ARTICLE CARNIVORE A DISRUPTION TOLERANT SYSTEM FOR STUDYING WILDLIFE DOCX

wildlife monitoring (An earlier more condensed version of this work can be found in [ 6 ]) . CARNIVORE was born out of an urgent need to gain deeper understanding of the interplay between predators, their ecosystem, and encroaching human populations. It is largely motivated by the ever-increasing expansion of urban development into wildlife habitats and illustrated by an increasing number of interactions between wildlife and humans [ 7 ]. Preda- tors also can exert heavy pressure on their prey species, sometimes reshaping their own ecosystem [ 8 , 9 ]. The extent of pressure a predator puts on prey is directly linked to its energetic requirements for survival and reproduction. A firm understanding of their physiology and energy budget calls for high-resolution behavioral and physiological data. This data can be di ffi cult to collect for predators that are hard to capture and time consuming to monitor directly. Also, relatively rare but important events such as mating or consuming prey may be missed when animals are unobserved.
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HEAD FIRST JAVA SECOND EDITION PHẦN 7 PPT

HEAD FIRST JAVA SECOND EDITION PHẦN 7 PPT

there." The thing that makes it easy to code Is the thing that makes It hard to canuo/-the layout Manager . Layout Manager objects control the size and location of the widgets in a Java GUJ. They do a ton of work on your behalf, but you won't always like the results . You want two buttons to be the same size,but they aren't. You want the text field to be three inches long, but It's nine. Or one. And under the label instead of next to It. But with a tittle work, you can get layout managers to submit to your will. In th is chapter, we'll work on our Swing and in addition to layout managers, we'll learn more about wIdgets. We'll make them, display them (where we
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DESCENT AND INTERIOR-POINT METHODS: CONVEXITY AND OPTIMIZATION – PART III - EBOOKS AND TEXTBOOKS FROM BOOKBOON

DESCENT AND INTERIOR-POINT METHODS: CONVEXITY AND OPTIMIZATION – PART III - EBOOKS AND TEXTBOOKS FROM BOOKBOON

The gradient descent method, with arbitrary starting point x0 and constant step size h, generates a sequence xk ∞ 0 of points that converges at least linearly to the function’s minimum p[r]
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SHARED INFORMATION GOODS PPTX

SHARED INFORMATION GOODS PPTX

tend to reduce profit. The analysis of constant team sizes in part II can now be seen to be simply a special case of this more general result. A constant-value distribution, after all, will always be more favorable than any other distribution of values. How large can these profit-enhancing and profit-reducing effects be? There is actually no theoretical limit to the amount by which sharing can increase or decrease profit. For instance, there are some distributions of individual consumer valuations for which the maximum profit extracted by the seller is an arbitrarily small fraction of the total area under the demand curve. 36 In these cases, if sharing were allowed, its beneficial effects could be arbitrarily large. Indeed, were sharing to occur in large teams of constant size, the seller would capture nearly the full value of his good instead of capturing just that negligible fraction. At the other extreme, if initial consumer valuations are distributed in a very favorable manner, but team sizes are distributed in a strongly unfavorable manner, then sharing can dissipate essentially all of the seller’s profit.
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USB COMPLETE FOURTH- P13 DOCX

USB COMPLETE FOURTH- P13 DOCX

% Q P HKI W T C V K Q P After retrieving the device descriptor, a host can retrieve the device’s configura- tion, interface, and endpoint descriptors. Each device has at least one configuration that specifies the device’s features and abilities. Typically a single configuration is enough, but with driver support, a device with multiple uses or multiple options for power use can support multi- ple configurations. Only one configuration is active at a time. Each configura- tion requires a descriptor with information about the device’s use of power and the number of interfaces supported (Table 4-5). Each configuration descriptor has subordinate descriptors, including one or more interface descriptors and optional endpoint descriptors. A host retrieves a configuration descriptor and its subordinate descriptors by sending a Get Descriptor request with the high byte of the Setup transaction’s wValue field equal to 02h and the wLength field equal to wTotalLength.
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ERECTION BRACING OF LOW RISE STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS PHẦN 5 PPS

ERECTION BRACING OF LOW RISE STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS PHẦN 5 PPS

wind speed has been reduced for a six week (or less) exposure duration as described in para- graph 3.2.1 of the text. Also a design wind speed of 35 mph has been used for elements which are exposed to the wind for a period of no more than twenty-four hours. This includes individual columns supported on their bases and individual beam/column pairs prior to the installation of tie members. A single row of beams and columns supported only by their bases would not meet the limitations of these tables. In the case of a two story column both the upper and lower beams may be erected fol- lowing the limitations cited above for beam/ column pairs.
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KNOCK-DOWN OF LRP/LR PROMOTES APOPTOSIS IN EARLY AND LATE STAGE COLORECTAL CARCINOMA CELLS VIA CASPASE ACTIVATION

KNOCK-DOWN OF LRP/LR PROMOTES APOPTOSIS IN EARLY AND LATE STAGE COLORECTAL CARCINOMA CELLS VIA CASPASE ACTIVATION

Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death around the world, where incidence and mortality rates are at a constant increase. Tumourigenic cells are characteristically seen to over-express the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) compared to their normal cell counterparts.
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC:

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " MODELLING AND OPTIMISING TINYTP OVER IRDA STACKS" PDF

4.2.1. Bw ≤ N The TinyTP transmission model is illustrated in Figure 4 by mapping TinyTP segments into IrLAP frames. In Figure 4 , parameters w = 2, B = 2, and N ≥ 4 are employed which satisfy Bw ≤ N . The IrLAP window will be always less than four due to the w constraint. As the time to prepare the TinyTP acknowledgement packet T ta depends on the CPU speed of the receiver, it is normally much longer than IrDA link turnaround t ta and the time to transmit the IrLAP ack packet. Thus, it is su ffi cient to assume T ta > t ta + t ack . After IrLAP successfully delivers the IrLAP frames, the secondary has to wait T ta before the TinyTP acks get ready. Since two TinyTP connections are considered, the secondary needs to send two TinyTP acks. Then, following the same routine another window will be sent from the primary. Therefore, we only need to consider one window transmission for the TinyTP throughput derivation.
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THE COMPLETE IS-IS ROUTING PROTOCOL- P23 PPTX

THE COMPLETE IS-IS ROUTING PROTOCOL- P23 PPTX

9.4.1 Hellos (IIHs) The Intermediate System to Intermediate System Hello PDU, or IIH, is used for neigh- bour and MTU discovery. The purpose of neighbour discovery was explained in Chapter 5, “Neighbour Discovery and Handshaking”. There is also an MTU check that verifies if both ends of an IS-IS adjacency comply with the minimum MTU of 1492 bytes. IS-IS achieves that check by using a technique called padding . Using padding, the Hello mes- sage is artificially pumped up to the MTU size of the link, or 1492 bytes. Whether the update gets pumped up to just 1492 bytes or the full MTU size is a decision that is solely dependent on the implementation of the IS-IS protocol. For instance, JUNOS only pads up to 1492 bytes but IOS always tries to pad to the maximum MTU size. A typical IIH (Hello message) is between 40–70 bytes these days. The size of the Hello message may vary as all new capabilities are added to the base IS-IS protocol are indicated in the Hello message, and it therefore gets bigger through the years as capabilities are added to IS-IS. There has been a trend in the past that the IS-IS Hello message gets bigger on average by 5 bytes each year. Ultimately, this is not an issue as there is quite a lot of headroom to grow until the max IIH packet size of (worst-case) 1497 bytes is reached. Some imple- mentations like IOS can even utilize the full-link MTU for Hellos, which is nice because it postpones worries like these even more. Changing the Hello size is a purely link-local decision and as long as both parties do not complain about the large Hellos, everything will be fine and the adjacency goes into Up state.
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC:

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " ONE-STEP SYNTHESIS OF PBSE-ZNSE COMPOSITE THIN FILM SEISHI ABE" DOC

Results and discussion The bulk PbSe-ZnSe phase diagram is now revealed at ZnSe concentrations below 45 at.% (Pb-rich side) [12], although the phase diagram of the Zn-rich side still remains unclear. Powder synthesis of a PbSe-ZnSe sys- tem was investigated prior to investigating the film pre- paration. Figure 2 depicts the powder XRD pattern of the Zn 1- x Pb x Se system. In the powder synthesis, the bulk PbSe and ZnSe thus synthesized was used as start- ing materials. The desired composition of the system was prepared in an agate mortar and vacuum-sealed in a quartz tube for heat treatment at 1273 K for 48 h. Finally, the samples were successively water-quenched to maintain the solubility range at a synthesis tempera- ture then crushed into powder for the following experi- ment setup. At x = 0, all of the XRD peaks are assigned to the zinc-blend structure of ZnSe, with a lattice con- stant of 0.5669 nm, estimated from the XRD peaks in a high-2 θ range from 100° to 155°, using the Nelson-Riley function [19]. The XRD peak of PbSe with an NaCl structure appears at Pb concentrations exceeding 0.02. The lattice constant of the ZnSe at x = 0.02 is the same as at x = 0, within the precision of the experiment tech- nique. This result indicates that the solubility range of Pb in ZnSe is negligible. In contrast, the lattice constant of PbSe is estimated to be 0.6121 nm at x = 1.0 and 0.6117 nm at x = 0.98. A slight decrease in the lattice constant is seen in PbSe, due to the difference in ionic radii of Pb and Zn. Weak XRD peaks of ZnSe are also
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NÉN VIDEO THÔNG TIN LIÊN LẠC P3

NÉN VIDEO THÔNG TIN LIÊN LẠC P3

Figure 3.20 Miss America frame no. 148: (a) 20 per cent MV drop, (b) 20 per cent MV drop with feedback it can be used with the feedback control scheme to further reduce the bit rate without causing significant damage to the video quality. When used with its negotiable options, H.263 becomes more sensitive to errors. However, the negoti- able options contribute to the reduction of the output bit rate, thereby ensuring a better coder performance in congestion control terms. The results shown in Table 3.6 and Figure 3.21 reveal that this technique adapts perfectly to rate control scenarios. The output bit rate of H.263 is reduced by more than 2 kbit/s (80 bits/frame on average) for a total output bit rate of 15 kbit/s. For high activity scenes, experiments showed that the bit rate reduction falls in the range of tens of kbit/s while a good drift-free video quality is still maintained. The higher bit rate of the feedback-loop encoder compared to the ordinary H.263 one is mainly due to the updated content of the locally reconstructed picture memory. Encoding some MBs, which have their best-match MBs dropped, becomes more bit-costly. Due to reduced correlations, these MBs are either INTRA coded or INTER coded, with a larger number of bits required to code longer MVs or larger TCOEFF amplitudes.
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5 CÁCH DƯỠNG TÓC CHO CHỊ EM PPT

5 CÁCH DƯỠNG TÓC CHO CHỊ EM PPT

3. Which of the following is generally a way that LBOs can help a firm realize its potential value? a) The synergies created allow for cost savings b) The transaction reduces the disparity between a firm’s actual and potential share price c) The acquisition reduces the likelihood of competition in the industry
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VĂN BẢN HƯỚNG DẪN THIẾT KẾ MÁY P10 POT

VĂN BẢN HƯỚNG DẪN THIẾT KẾ MÁY P10 POT

Fig. 10.6. Transverse fillet welds. In order to determine the strength of the fillet joint, it is assumed that the section of fillet is a right angled triangle ABC with hypotenuse AC making equal angles with other two sides AB and BC. The enlarged view of the fillet is shown in Fig. 10.7. The length of each side is known as leg or size of the weld and the perpendicular distance of the hypotenuse from the intersection of legs (i.e. BD) is known as throat thickness. The minimum area of the weld is obtained at the throat BD, which is given
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NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SUPERCAVITATION

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SUPERCAVITATION

ENGLISH ALPHABETS _a_ Speed of sound _a_ Speed of sound in liquid _A_ Constant in JWL equation _B_ Constant in Tait’s Equation; Constant in JWL equation _c_ Speed of sound for gas, water[r]
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Text Book of Machine Design P10 pps

Text Book of Machine Design P10 pps

In thermit welding, a mixture of iron oxide and aluminium called thermit is ignited and the iron oxide is reduced to molten iron. The molten iron is poured into a mould made around the joint and fuses with the parts to be welded. A major advantage of the thermit welding is that all parts of weld section are molten at the same time and the weld cools almost uniformly. This results in a minimum problem with residual stresses. It is fundamentally a melting and casting process.
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A NOMOGRAM FOR PREDICTING THE LIKELIHOOD OF LYMPH NODE METASTASIS IN EARLY GASTRIC PATIENTS

A NOMOGRAM FOR PREDICTING THE LIKELIHOOD OF LYMPH NODE METASTASIS IN EARLY GASTRIC PATIENTS

Early gastric cancer is defined as a lesion confined to the mucosa or submucosa, regardless of the size or lymph node metastasis. Treatment methods include endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, wedge resection, laparoscopically assisted gastrectomy and open gastrectomy. Lymph node metastasis is strong related with survival and recurrence.
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NEW TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEM ENGINEERING PART 12 PPTX

NEW TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEM ENGINEERING PART 12 PPTX

Over the last two decades there has been a significant improvement in automotive design, technology and comfort standards along with safety regulations and requirements. At the same time, growth in population and a steady increase in the number of road users has resulted in a rise in the number of accidents involving both automotive users as well as pedestrians. According to World Health Organization, road traffic accidents, including auto accidents and personal injury collisions account for the deaths of an estimated 1.2 million people worldwide each year, with 50 million or more suffering injuries (Organization, 2009). These figures are expected to grow by 20% within the next 20 years (Peden et al., 2004). In the European Union alone the imperative need for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) sensors can be gauged from the fact that every day the total number of people killed on Europe’s roads are almost the same as the number of people killed in a single medium-haul plane crash (Commission, 2001) with 3 rd party road users (pedestrian, cyclist, etc) comprising the bulk of these fatalities (see Figure 1 for proportion of road injuries) (Sethi, 2008). This transforms into a direct and indirect cost on society, including physical and psychological damage to families and victims, with an economic cost of 160 billion euros annually (Commission, 2008). These statistics provide a strong motivation to improve the ADAS ability of automobiles for the safety of both passengers and pedestrians.
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC:

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " HYBRID 3D FRACTAL CODING WITH NEIGHBOURHOOD VECTOR QUANTISATION" POT

3.2. Convergence improvement It may not be obvious at first glance, that the previously proposed algorithm fundamentally changes the convergence condition of fractal coding. Fractal coding is said to be “even- tually contractive” since the domain block under a contrac- tive mapping is contractive itself, hence the rate of conver- gence for each mapping is actually faster than the contrast coe ffi cient s suggests. This allows us to relax the convergence constraint | s | < 1 into | s | ≤ 1 or even | s | ≤ 1 . 2, which leads to improved reconstruction quality [ 14 ]. However, in the hy- brid coder, due to strong local coherence, a large number of range blocks are not encoded with a contractive mapping but merely duplicated from some other range blocks. This can significantly slow down the convergence rate of the hybrid coder and sometimes it yields intolerable artifacts when the fractal-coded blocks are too sparse, typically when a range block is mapped from a domain block covered by its “o ff - spring.” This is seen as a spread of defective blocks of identi- cal luminance, as illustrated in Figure 2 .
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC    CSMA CCA  A MODIFIED CSMA CA PROTOCOL MITIGATING THE FAIRNESS PROBLEM FOR IEEE 802 11 DCF  DOCX

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC CSMA CCA A MODIFIED CSMA CA PROTOCOL MITIGATING THE FAIRNESS PROBLEM FOR IEEE 802 11 DCF DOCX

Xin Wang and Georgios B. Giannakis Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Received 15 August 2005; Revised 23 November 2005; Accepted 22 December 2005 Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) has been adopted by the IEEE 802.11 standards for wireless local area networks (WLANs). Using a distributed coordination function (DCF), the CSMA/CA protocol reduces collisions and improves the overall throughput. To mitigate fairness issues arising with CSMA/CA, we develop a modified version that we term CSMA with copying collision avoidance (CSMA/CCA). A station in CSMA/CCA contends for the shared wireless medium by em- ploying a binary exponential backoff similar to CSMA/CA. Different from CSMA/CA, CSMA/CCA copies the contention window (CW) size piggybacked in the MAC header of an overheard data frame within its basic service set (BSS) and updates its backoff counter according to the new CW size. Simulations carried out in several WLAN configurations illustrate that CSMA/CCA im- proves fairness relative to CSMA/CA and offers considerable advantages for deployment in the 802.11-standard-based WLANs. Copyright © 2006 X. Wang and G. B. Giannakis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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ELECTRIC MACHINERY FUNDAMENTALS  SOLUTIONS MANUAL  PART 10 PPT

ELECTRIC MACHINERY FUNDAMENTALS SOLUTIONS MANUAL PART 10 PPT

(c) If the input power of this motor is 10 MW, what is the maximum reactive power the motor can simultaneously supply? Is it the armature current or the field current that limits the reactive power output? (d) How much power does the field circuit consume at the rated conditions?
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MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PROBLEM SOLVER 36 POT

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PROBLEM SOLVER 36 POT

sequencing gels could be run off the same power supply. Don’t do this! If something happened to one cell, for instance, if the buffer level fell below the level of the gel so that the circuit in that cell was interrupted, then the other cell would carry the power needed for two. The buffer in the second cell would boil away, and the cell would likely catch fire. In practice, it is very difficult to get each cell to carry exactly the same current load through the entire run. When the current loads differ, a vicious cycle/runaway condition can arise, where one cell requires more current to maintain the voltage, causing the power supply to increase its output, but the second cell, because of its lower resistance, receives the additional power. It just isn’t safe to run two sequencing cells on one power supply under constant power.
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BÁO CÁO KHOA HỌC    PHENOTYPIC INSTABILITY OF ARABIDOPSIS ALLELES AFFECTING A DISEASE RESISTANCE GENE CLUSTER  PPT

BÁO CÁO KHOA HỌC PHENOTYPIC INSTABILITY OF ARABIDOPSIS ALLELES AFFECTING A DISEASE RESISTANCE GENE CLUSTER PPT

Results Phenotypic instability in bal and cpr1 mutants is first observed in the M1 generation after EMS treatment Our previous work suggested that the bal allele is highly unstable in response to EMS treatment as evidenced by a high frequency of phenotypic suppression seen in the M2 generation, which is generated by self-pollination of M1 plants derived from EMS-treated seeds [9]. However, the genetic characteristics of phenotypic suppression events could not be studied in detail because each M2 pool examined in our original study was produced from a pool of ~20 M1 individuals. To gain more information regard- ing the instability of the bal phenotypes in response to EMS treatment, we investigated when phenotypic sup- pression is first established. The bal variant is character- ized by small and severely curled leaves during vegetative development and short stature in later developmental stages (Figure 2A and 2B) [13]. We found that 17 of 141 EMS-treated bal M1 plants develop chimeric sectors that resemble the morphology of heterozygous bal plants, con- sistent with reversion of a single bal allele. In the same batch of mock- or 30 mM EMS-treated bal plants, we found that more than one third (38%: 53 out of 141
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC:

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " RESEARCH ARTICLE COMPACT VISUALISATION OF VIDEO SUMMARIES ´ C JANKO CALI´ AND NEILL W. CAMPBELL" PPT

cient and user-centered way. A robust real-time key-frame extraction algorithm ex- ploits production rules to select the best visual representation for a given shot. The results are evaluated by comparing them with the ground truth that was manually labelled by produc- tion professionals. The importance of key frames in the final layout is prioritised utilising a novel approach that balances the dominant visual representability and discovery of unan- ticipated content utilising a specific cost function and an un- supervised robust spectral clustering technique. Frames with higher importance are displayed larger in the final layout.
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Computer networks ethernet switching

Computer networks ethernet switching

„ Each switch in a LAN using STP sends special messages called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) out all its ports to let other switches know of its existence and to elect a root bridge for the network. „ The switches then use the Spanning-Tree Algorithm (STA) to resolve and shut down the redundant paths.
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Geotechnical Earthquake Considerations pdf

Geotechnical Earthquake Considerations pdf

Vibratory densification of large volumes of soil can be accomplished most economically by dynamic compaction. In this procedure, a site is densified by repeatedly lifting and dropping a heavy weight in a grid pattern across the surface of the site. By using weights that can range from 53 to 267 kN and drop heights of 10 to 30 m, densification can be achieved to depths of up to 12 m. The process is rather intrusive in terms of ground surface disturbance, noise, dust, and vibration of surrounding areas, so it is used primarily in undeveloped areas. Vibrations from probes that pen- etrate below the ground surface have also proved to be effective for densification. Vibroflotation, for example, is accomplished by lowering a vibrating probe into the ground (with the aid of water jets, in some cases). By vibrating the probe as it is pulled back toward the surface, a column of densified soil surrounding the vibroflot is produced. Gravel or crushed stone may be introduced into the soil at the surface or, using a bottom-feed vibroflot, at the tip of the probe to form stone columns. Blasting can also be used to densify cohesionless soils. Blast densification is usually accomplished by detonating multiple explosive charges spaced vertically at distances of 3 to 6 m in borings spaced horizontally at distances of 5 to 15 m. The charges at different elevations are often detonated at small time delays to enhance the amplitude, and therefore the densification capacity, of the blast waves. Two or three rounds of blasting, with later rounds detonated at locations between those of the earlier rounds, are often used to achieve the desired degree of densification. Finally, densification may be achieved using static means using compaction grouting. Compaction grouting involved the injection of very low slump (usually less than 25 mm) cementitious grout into the soil under high pressure. The grout forms an intact bulb or column that densifies the surrounding soil by displacement. Compaction grouting may be performed at a series of points in a grid or along a line. Grout points are typically spaced at distances of about 1 to 4 m, and have extended to depths of 30 m.
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING FOR MECHANICAL DESIGN PART 6 PPT

GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING FOR MECHANICAL DESIGN PART 6 PPT

Figure 7-2 The part is placed in a datum reference frame. C. Tolerance zones are theoretical and do not appear on drawings. A tolerance zone has been shown here for illustration purposes only. Inspection. Inspection starts with measuring the hole diameter. If the diameter measures 2.012, it is within the size tolerance, Ø 2.000–2.020. The next step is to measure the hole location and orientation. The part is clamped in a datum reference frame by bringing a minimum of three points on the surface of the primary datum feature into contact with the primary datum plane, a minimum of two points on the surface of the secondary datum feature into contact with the secondary datum plane, and a minimum of one point on the surface of the tertiary datum feature into contact with the third datum plane. Next, the largest pin gage to fit inside the hole is used to simulate the actual mating envelope. The actual mating envelope for an internal feature of size is the largest, similar, perfect feature counterpart that can be inscribed within the feature so that it just contacts the surface of the hole at the highest points. As shown in Fig. 7-3, the distance from the surface plate, datum B, to the top of the pin gage is measured. Measurements are also taken along the pin gage to determine that the hole is within the perpendicularity tolerance to the angle plate, datum A. Suppose the distance from the surface plate to the top of the pin is 3.008. That measurement minus half of the diameter of the pin gage equals the distance from datum B to the actual axis of the hole, 3.008 − (2.012/2) =
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING FOR MECHANICAL DESIGN PART 6 PPT

GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING FOR MECHANICAL DESIGN PART 6 PPT

The tangent plane of the toleranced surface in Fig. 6-7 lies inside the tolerance zone. The tangent plane concept allows the acceptance of more parts. Specifying perpendicularity of an axis When controlling the perpendicularity of a size feature, the feature control frame is associated with the size dimension of the feature being controlled. The feature control frame contains a perpendicularity symbol, a numerical toler- ance, and at least one datum. If the size feature is a cylinder, the numerical tolerance is usually preceded by a diameter symbol, as shown in Fig. 6-8. A cylindrical tolerance zone that controls an axis perpendicular to a plane sur- face, such as the drawing in Fig. 6-8, is perpendicular to that surface in all directions around the axis. There are some cases where an axis is controlled by two parallel planes, but these are very uncommon and would probably be toler- anced with the position control. The perpendicularity tolerance may be larger or smaller than the size tolerance. Since the tolerance in the feature control frame applies to the pin, a size feature, and no material condition symbol is specified, RFS applies. If the tolerance applies at MMC, as in Fig. 6-9, then a possible bonus tolerance exists. The datum feature is identified with a datum feature symbol.
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ASM METALS HANDBOOK   DESK EDITION  ASM  1998  WW PART 14 DOC

ASM METALS HANDBOOK DESK EDITION ASM 1998 WW PART 14 DOC

Fig. 20 High-resolution TEM lattice image of zinc oxide formed by combining transmitted and (002) diffracted beams. The interplanar spacing is 0.26 nm. A grain boundary, inclined to the incident beam, is visible in the upper portion of the micrograph. Source: Ref 3 Excitation and characteristic x-ray production also occurs as the incident electron beam interacts with the atoms in the sample. As in the SEM and EPMA, this provides the equivalent of a x-ray fluorescence spectrometer that can probe the chemistries of very small operator-selected portions of the sample. The energies and intensities of these characteristic x- rays are typically detected and analyzed using an EDS system, enabling qualitative identification of the elements present in the sample and quantitative determination of their relative concentrations, respectively. It the TEM, however, the thinness of the sample significantly reduces the size of the interaction volume, as shown in Fig. 21. This occurrence limits the degree to which electron beam spreading occurs in the sample, and provides the ability to perform chemical analyses with significantly better spatial resolution than in the SEM or EPMA. This resolution permits chemical characterization of features as small as 10 nm and determination of chemical gradients over submicrometer distances, as shown in Fig. 22. Because the interaction volume is much smaller than in bulk samples, however, much smaller numbers of x-ray photons are produced. This results in poorer counting statistics, so quantitative analyses obtained by TEM typically have larger degrees of uncertainty than those obtained by EPMA.
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING FOR MECHANICAL DESIGN PART 2 PPS

GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING FOR MECHANICAL DESIGN PART 2 PPS

The datum feature symbol The datum feature symbol consists of a capital letter enclosed in a square box. It is connected to a leader directed to the datum ending in a triangle. The triangle may be solid or open. The datum identifying letters may be any letter of the alphabet except I, O, and Q. Multiple letters such as AA through AZ, BA through BZ, etc., may be used if a large number of datums are required. The datum feature symbol is used to identify physical features of a part. The datum feature symbol must not be attached to centerlines, center planes, or axes. It may be directed to the outline or extension line of a feature such as datums A through G shown in the top two drawings of Fig. 3-2. The datum feature symbol may also be associated with a leader or dimension line as shown in the lower two figures. If only a leader is used, the datum feature symbol is attached to the tail, such as datum J in Fig. 3-2. A datum feature symbol is typically attached to a feature control frame directed to the datum with a leader, such as datums K, M, and N. If the datum feature symbol is placed in line with a dimension line or on a feature control frame associated with a size feature, the size feature is the datum. For example, in Fig. 3-2, datum R is the 3.00-inch size feature between the top and bottom surfaces, and datum S is the 1.00-inch slot.
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ESSENTIALS OF CONTROL TECHNIQUES AND KEYWORD STATS 4 PPTX

ESSENTIALS OF CONTROL TECHNIQUES AND KEYWORD STATS 4 PPTX

The concept of differentiation, with its need to take limits of ratios of small increments that tend to zero, is surely more challenging than considering a sequence of discrete values. But first let us look at discrete time control in general. When dedicated to a real-time control task, a computer measures a number of system variables, computes a control action, and applies a corrective input to the system. It does not do this continuously, but at discrete instants of time. Some processes need frequent correction, such as the attitude of an aircraft, while on the other hand the pumps and levels of a sewage process might only need attention every five minutes.
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COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY VIA BULK VISCOSITY FROM LATE DECAYING DARK MATTER

COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY VIA BULK VISCOSITY FROM LATE DECAYING DARK MATTER

We find that this model can only fit the observational constraints if there is a cosmological constant and the presence of non-decaying cold dark matter in addition to decaying cold dark matter. Thus, although this remains a viable model, it is only able to partially explain the observed cosmic acceleration.
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BÁO CÁO SINH HỌC:

BÁO CÁO SINH HỌC: "MAKING THE JUMP: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISM OF TRANS-TRANSLATION" PDF

The new systematic in vivo study from the Buskirk labora- tory that has recently been published in BMC Biology [8] provides strong experimental evidence that the previously suspected -1 resume triplet has only a minor role in accom- modating tmRNA on the ribosome. In this paper, Miller and colleagues [8] constructed mutant tmRNAs with all 64 possible permutations of the -1 triplet and determined their effect on survival in the kanamycin resistance assay. They found that eight of the 18 codons that were prohibited according to the -1 hypothesis [12] were in fact fully functional, and other mutant tmRNAs that were predicted by the -1 triplet rule to be functional were shown by experiment to be completely inactive. The results of this comprehensive study show that the proposed rule for the -1 triplet is invalid and suggest different nucleotides that are important for accommodation of tmRNA on the ribosome.
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC:

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " RESEARCH ARTICLE ASAP: A MAC PROTOCOL FOR DENSE AND TIME-CONSTRAINED RFID SYSTEMS" PDF

3 Philips Research, 5621 Eindhoven, The Netherlands Received 16 October 2006; Revised 10 March 2007; Accepted 21 June 2007 Recommended by Alagan Anpalagan We introduce a novel medium access control (MAC) protocol for radio frequency identification (RFID) systems which exploits the statistical information collected at the reader. The protocol, termed adaptive slotted ALOHA protocol (ASAP), is motivated by the need to significantly improve the total read time performance of the currently suggested MAC protocols for RFID systems. In order to accomplish this task, ASAP estimates the dynamic tag population and adapts the frame size in the subsequent round via a simple policy that maximizes an appropriately defined e ffi ciency function. We demonstrate that ASAP provides significant improvement in total read time performance over the current RFID MAC protocols. We next extend the design to accomplish reliable performance of ASAP in realistic scenarios such as the existence of constraints on frame size, and mobile RFID systems where tags move at constant velocity in the reader’s field. We also consider the case where tags may fail to respond because of a physical breakdown or a temporary malfunction, and show the robustness in those scenarios as well.
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Lattice constant of ceria thin film: Temperature dependence

Lattice constant of ceria thin film: Temperature dependence

≡ mw E 2 , (2.5) and ϕ io is the interatomic potential energy between the central 0 th and ith sites, and u ix is the atomic displacement of the ith atom in the x-direction. The free energy of an atom of Ce or O on the internal layers in the harmonic approximation has the form [7]
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC   INFLUENCES OF PHASE TRANSITION AND MICROSTRUCTURE ON DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF BI0 5NA0 5ZR1 XTIXO3 CERAMICS  PPTX

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC INFLUENCES OF PHASE TRANSITION AND MICROSTRUCTURE ON DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF BI0 5NA0 5ZR1 XTIXO3 CERAMICS PPTX

ion of Ti 4+ (0.605 Å) substituting a larger host ion of Zr 4 + (0.72 Å) [8] at the B-site of the BNZ perovskite material resulted in a decrease in volume of its original unit cell. This therefore caused the patterns to shift to the right. Besides, modification by adding more than 0.4 mole frac- tion of Ti 4+ changed the crystal system from an orthor- hombic prototype structure to another structure. The feature of the changed patterns was in agreement with the rhombohedral structure of BNT at room temperature (ICSD file no. 28-0983). The presence of the rhombohe- dral structure was believed to be a Ti-rich composition in the BNZ-BNT phase diagram. Observed planes in the 2 θ range of 50° to 60° include (321), (042), and (300) as shown in Figure 2b. For a Ti 4+ amount of 0.3 mole frac- tion, the BNZT ceramic maintained the orthorhombic structure with splitted peaks, i.e., (321) and (042). Subse- quently, the existence of a single peak (300) was found for the composition where x = 0.4. The orthorhombic to rhombohedral phase transition was then presumed to occur at a Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 Zr 0.6 Ti 0.4 O 3 composition at room temperature. This was influenced by the distortion of the crystal lattice because Ti 4+ occupied at the Zr 4+ site. The phase transition for the Zr/Ti ratio (0.6:0.4) found in this study was in agreement with the previous report of Yamada et al. [6] who mentioned that the approximate phase transition point of the BNT-BNZ binary system was at a Zr/Ti ratio of 0.6:0.4. Quantitative data of lattice parameters obtained from the comparison between the observed and calculated reflection angles with a selected d-spacing are also given in Table 1. Thus, as a result, an isovalent substitution of Ti ion not only reduced the unit cell dimension, but also promoted the phase transition at the composition of Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 Zr 0.6 Ti 0.4 O 3 .
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CORELDRAW X5 THE OFFICIAL GUIDE PART 82 POTX

CORELDRAW X5 THE OFFICIAL GUIDE PART 82 POTX

PHOTO-PAINT has several sharpening filters under Effects | Sharpen. PHOTO- PAINT’s Help system provides a good general explanation of the sharpen filters; launch any of them and then click Help in the filter box. Generally, when in doubt, choose Unsharp Mask to add some crispness to resampled photos. Good base point settings to work from and then tune are Percentage: 100, Radius: 1 to 3, and Threshold: 10. They provide very good sharpening without an overwhelming number of options you need to learn. Click the Preview button in filter boxes to see what the filter will look like before applying it.
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EVIDENCE BASED IMAGING   PART 10 PPS

EVIDENCE BASED IMAGING PART 10 PPS

Goals of Imaging In patients with colorectal cancer imaging studies are acquired periodically in order to detect development of recurrent disease and to assess tumor burden and response to therapy. In the cirrhotic patient, the main goal of imaging is detection of developing complications, the most important of which is HCC. Many imaging modalities currently available have been used for detecting liver metastases, with variable success. Regardless of the technique used, the ability to detect a focal space-occupying lesion in the liver depends on the size of the tumor, the spatial and contrast resolution of the imaging method, the difference in contrast and perfusion between the tumor and background liver parenchyma, and the adequacy of the method used for displaying the images after acquired (10). All these factors affect the performance parameters of the various imaging techniques. A test is useful if sensitivity remains high at an acceptable specificity level. In a meta-analysis that studied the detection rate of liver metastases from gastrointestinal malignancies with multiple modalities, Kinkel et al. (3) suggest that, in order to be useful in clinical practice, the minimum accept- able specificity of imaging methods in this context should be 85%. Lower specificities would lead to excessive and unnecessary interventions such as biopsies, excessive complementary imaging tests, and follow-up exam- inations. When assessing cost-effectiveness of the imaging methods, other factors need to be considered: availability, cost, risks (such as radiation and use of toxic contrast agents), and potential benefit of tumor detection (i.e., likelihood of achieving long-term remission or cure with appropriate therapy).
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HƯỚNG DẪN SỬ DỤNG CORELDRAW X5   PART 80 PPT

HƯỚNG DẪN SỬ DỤNG CORELDRAW X5 PART 80 PPT

4. Right-click the photo and then choose Resample from the context menu. The Resample (Image menu item) box does more than resample an image; it can also resize it, and the two terms are very different. Resize is the action of decreasing or increasing image resolution, affecting image dimensions inversely, and the result is an image that has the same number of pixels. Resampling (covered in this chapter) involves changing the number of pixels in the image. Original pixel colors are moved around the grid, some are duplicated, some removed, and the resulting color pixels are a new color based on an average of neighboring original color pixels. Resampling changes original image data and occasionally blurs or creates unwanted harsh edges in image areas.
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