Schein (1988/1968) described the process that brings about change in the values and attitudes of different groups of people throughout their career as ‘organi- zational socialization’. It occurs whenever an individual enters an organization, changes departments or is promoted. Socialization determines employee loyalty, commitment, productivity and turnover. It is the process whereby a new mem- ber learns the values, norms and behaviour patterns – the ‘price of membership’ (p. 54). These norms, values and behaviours are learned from organizational publications, from training, line managers, peers and role models, and from the rewards and punishments that exist. Where the values of the immediate group that the individual joins are out of line with the value system of the organization as a whole, the individual learns the values of the immediate group more quickly than those of the organization. The essence of management, according to Schein, is that managers must understand organizations as social systems that socialize their members, and then gain control over those forces.