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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING QUY NHON UNIVERSITY DUONG TIEU LINH FACTORS AFFECTING GIA LAI HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ENGLISH SPEAKING FLUENCY Field: Theory and Methodology of English Language Teaching Code: 8140111 Supervisor: Assoc, Prof Dr Nguyen Thi Thu Hien BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƢỜNG ĐẠI HỌC QUY NHƠN ĐƢỜNG TIỂU LINH NHỮNG YẾU TỐ ẢNH HƢỞNG ĐẾN SỰ LƢU LỐT KHI NĨI TIẾNG ANH CỦA HỌC SINH THPT Ở GIA LAI Ngành: Lý luận phƣơng pháp dạy học môn Tiếng Anh Mã số: 8140111 Ngƣời hƣớng dẫn: PGS TS Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I, DUONG TIEU LINH, declare that this thesis is my own work and has been generated by me as the result of my own original research The thesis title is “Factors Affecting Gia Lai High School Students’ English Speaking Fluency” This thesis has not been submitted for the award of any degree at any university In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my thesis deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care or reproduction of the thesis Quy Nhon, 2022 Duong Tieu Linh ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my thesis supervisor Assoc Prof Nguyen Thi Thu Hien for her invaluable instructions, helpful suggestions, critical comments, various sources of reference and precious corrections on my writing This research work would not be possible without her stimulation inspiration and cooperation I also would like to express my sincere thanks to the lecturers of the Faculty of Foreign Languages of Quy Nhon University for their wonderful and meaningful lectures and profound background knowledge, which played an integral role in my completion of this thesis I am very grateful to the English teachers and students at four Upper Secondary School in Gia Lai who have enthusiastically participated in my research But for their participation, my thesis could not be completed Also, I extend my thanks to all my colleagues at Y Don Upper Secondary School for their continuous encouragement and support during the course Finally, I wish to thank all my beloved family who always encourage and support me in the process of doing this thesis iii ABSTRACT In terms of English language learning, speaking is known as one of the most important skills to be developed and improved continually as means of effective communication However, in fact, a majority of Gia Lai high school students find it difficult to express themselves in spoken English fluently Therefore, this research was conducted with the aims to investigate prominent factors affecting fluency of Gia Lai high school students in speaking skills The study used mixed research methods with two data collection instruments namely survey questionnaire and semi-structured interview The official participants taking part in the survey questionnaire included 150 eleventh grade students from four high schools in Gia Lai province The semistructured interviews were carried out with participation of out of 150 students chosen randomly The findings revealed four main factors affecting students’ fluency Automation was the most influential one, and then followed by performance conditions, teacher’s correction and feedback and affective factors The study also investigated the different levels of the impacts of those factors in terms of subfactors on oral fluency of the students Moreover, the research proposed a number of implications, focusing on aiding the students to improve their speaking fluency Keywords: English speaking skills, speaking fluency, prominently affecting factors, high school students, Gia Lai iv TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES viii CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aim and objectives of the study 1.3 Research questions 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Method of the study 1.6 Significance of the study 1.7 Organization of the sudy CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Speaking skills 2.2 Speaking fluency 2.3 Factors affecting speaking fluency 2.3.1 Affective factors 2.3.2 Performance conditions 11 2.3.3 Automation 13 2.3.4 Teacher’s Corrections and Feedback during speaking activities 14 2.3.5 Topical knowledge 15 2.4 Review of Previous Studies Related to the Topic 15 v CHAPTER RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 19 3.1 Research method 19 3.2 Participants 19 3.3 Instruments 20 3.3.1 Questionnaire 21 3.3.2 Semi-structured interview 23 3.4 Data collection procedures 23 3.5 Data Analysis Method 24 3.5.1 Coding 24 3.5.2 Reliability and Validity 25 CHAPTER FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 30 4.1 Gia Lai high school students’ perception of the importance of speaking skills 30 4.2 Gia Lai high school students’ evaluation of their English speaking fluency 32 4.3 Factors affecting students’ speaking fluency 34 4.3.1 Automation 36 4.3.2 Performance conditions 38 4.3.3 Teacher’s feedback and correction 40 4.3.4 Affective factors 41 4.4 The levels of impacts of these factors on Gia Lai high school students’ speaking fluency 44 4.4.1 The levels of impact of automation, performance conditions, affective factors, and teacher’s feedback 44 4.4.2 The levels of impacts of detailed factors 45 CHAP TER CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS 49 5.1 A Summary of the Key Findings 49 5.2 Recommendations 50 vi 5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies 53 REFERENCES 54 APPENDICES vii LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 The information of the students participants for the survey 20 Table 3.2 Cronbach’s alpha coefficient 26 Table 3.3 Reliability test of all 21 Likert scale questions 27 Table 3.4 Item-total Statistics 27 Table 4.1 The students’ perception of the importance of speaking skills 31 Table Students’ self-evaluation of their speaking skills 33 Table 4.3 Factors affecting students’ speaking fluency 34 Table 4.4 Automation affecting students’ speaking fluency 36 Table 4.5 Performance conditions affecting students’ speaking fluency 38 Table 4.6 Teacher’s correction affecting students’ speaking fluency 40 Table 4.7 Affective factors affecting students’ speaking fluency 42 Table 4.8 The levels of impacts of these factors on Gia Lai high school students’ speaking fluency in terms of automation, performance conditions, affective factors, and teacher’s feedback 44 Table 4.9 The levels of impacts of these factors on Gia Lai high school students’ speaking fluency in terms of the subfactors 45 viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Students’ evaluation of the importance of speaking skills 31 48 In summary, for the fulfillment of the thesis, the researcher has analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively the data collected from questionnaires and teachers’ informal nterviews Through tables, charts and relating figures presented, the factors affecting Gia Lai high school students and the extent to which those factors affect their speaking fluency were explored and shown in detail Then, some issues connected to those factors were also discussed In the next chapter, conclusions were drawn and useful implications for teachers were proposed 49 CHAPTER CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS This chapter starts with a conclusion, which summarizes the key findings of the research and is followed by some implications for high school students, English teachers, and school administrators Then, limitations of the study are included Some suggestions for further studies are also made in the last part of the chapter 5.1 A Summary of the Key Findings With the aims to investigate factors affecting Gia Lai high school students’ speaking fluency, the author has provided some main characteristics of the current situation of learning and teaching English speaking skills for students in grade 11 in Gia Lai province The survey and interviews show that this skill is of great importance, but in fact, performing this skill effectively or teaching the students to achieve high speaking fluency has been a challenge for the majority of the students as well as the English teachers in this area That is one of the reasons why the research desires to find out the answers to the research questions as to the factors affecting Gia Lai high school students’ speaking fluency and their levels of impacts Initially, the aim, the objectives, and the raised questions for exploration of the answers are set up In response, the author has employed both qualitative and quantitative methods, using a questionnaire and an interview as the main research instruments From the results of the survey questionnaires and interviews and with the support of data analysis by SPSS, the factors affecting Gia Lai high school students’ speaking fluency and the extent of those factors on this skill are clearly determined The analysis leads to the following conclusions as the answers to the 50 two main reseach questions as followed: the automation factor is recognized as the key one by most of the participants Accordingly, practicing speaking frequently on a certain topic in English as well as participating in English clubs or groups plays an integral part in bettering students’ speaking fluency Moreover, teachers’ using English in their teaching also has a great contribution to their students’ speaking improvement The next salient element is performance conditions, which are mainly about opportunities to speak English, time pressure, and peer support These subfactors, thus, impact directly on the learners’ oral performance Besides, affective factors including fear of making mistakes, anxiety, or motivation rank the third, having an effect on the students’ fluency so significantly that both the teachers and the students must take notice of it in speaking lessons In addition, the findings provide additional information about the influence of teachers’ feedback and correction on learners’ fluency in speaking performance, which is mentioned to be the last major factor In terms of the levels of the influence of each factor or subfactor on the students’ speaking fluency, thanks to the values of the mean scores of the subfactors, the extent of effects of the variables on the fluency of the students is different, with automation or speaking frequency having the largest impacts and emotional components like learning motivation and confidence having the lowest Additionally, other agents such as intensity of English practice or fear of error making affect positively or negatively on their succes in speaking 5.2 Recommendations In light of the study's findings, some recommendations for school administrators, teachers and students were also offered For English teachers First, the teachers should stimulate and give equal chances to every 51 student in the class so that they can express their opinions in English as much as possible Besides, the teachers ought to encourage their students to build a habit of using English by both being a good example for them and choosing fascinating topics in order that they will be used to using English enthusiastically during the lessons Modifying the topics to introduce students and connecting them to their interests is also an effective way to increase students’ engagement in speaking sessions In that way, the teachers can use a variety of activities, including interviews, role-playing, story-telling, discussions, games, etc Importantly, creating a cooperative and supportive environment, fostering a warm, positive atmosphere during English speaking classes, or setting up English clubs, is also one of the most essential solutions to boost the students’ speaking fluency Moreover, it is also crucial that the teacher choose the speaking tasks that are comprehensible inputs to the students’ levels and give them a reasonable period of preparation time and performance time in order to avoid time pressure greatly resulting in their disfluency Finally, with regards to the feedback of the teachers on the learners’ oral performance, teachers should not criticize them or give them bad ones as their students make mistakes Instead, they will feel more motivated and confident in the continual speaking presentation with the teachers’ constructive comments or prompts For students To foster the growth of their speaking fluency, students should make every effort to determine the most effective strategy First of all, they should actively study English by utilizing the numerous tools that are already available, such as watching English movies, songs with and without subtitles, or via English applications supporting their speaking practice As often as they get the chance, students should practice 52 positively their English through conversation with friends or native speakers in and outside the class Especially, each individual must prepare himself/herself to work harder at learning English and overcome affective obstacles to speak English as much as possible Thus, students should think independently and discover their own motivation for studying English, since motivation is crucial for developing students' speaking skills Additionally, shy students should try their best to leave out their anxiety about making errors or even facing ridicule from their peers because they should view making errors as natural and normal parts of learning the language Last but not least, the students must pay attention to their English teacher's feedback due to the fact that listening to the teachers’ assessment plays an important role in bettering and enhancing their speaking For school administors For successful English speaking classes to happen, it is not only the teachers’ endeavours themselves but also the school administrators who should have an important role First, the school administrators should arrange a more reasonable number of students in each English class instead of being overcrowded (over 45 students per class), which can effectively create more chances for students to speak up in the class Furthermore, school administrators ought to provide more facilities and conditions for teachers to improve their knowledge of teaching methodology In order for the teachers to be familiar with new teaching techniques in organizing communicative activities and encouraging them to keep up with the latest information in the field of TESOL is obviously crucial As a matter, it is also necessary for the school administrators to pay more attention to holding seminars or discussions about English teaching periodically or 53 yearly in the scope of the school or department This is a chance for teachers to share experiences, learn from one another and take part in adapting techniques practically and effectively in teaching English in general and speaking skills in specific 5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies Despite the fact that the researcher has made an effort to find out the factors influencing Gia Lai high school students’ fluency, the study was limited in terms of a number of factors First of all, the research was conducted only at four high schools in Gia Lai, a mountainous area Therefore, the generalization of the results was also limited by the small scale of the study Another limitation was time constraint Thus, it was impossible for the researcher to carry out an extensive study in such a short period of time Besides, the study was a descriptive research into fluency, an aspect of speaking skills, which, as a result, needs further action or experimental research to boost the students’ improvement in their English speaking in a complete way 54 REFERENCES Ahmadian, M.J & M Tavakoli (2011), The effects of simultaneous use of careful Available:http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/anxious.html (June 20, 2010) Barkley, E F., Cross, K.P., & Major C.H (2014) Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty (2nd edn.) 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Temple University, Tokyo 54 Wentzel, K R (1994) Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 173-182 55 Widdowson, H.G (1978) Teaching language as communication Oxford: Oxford University Press 56 Wu, C P., & Lin, H J (2014) Anxiety about speaking a foreign language as a mediator of the relation between motivation and willingness to communicate Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119(3), 785-798 57 Yuan, F., & Ellis, R (2003) The effects of pre-task planning and on-line planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 monologic oral production Applied Linguistics, 24(1), 1– 58 Yuan, F., & R Ellis (2003), The effects of pre-task planning and on-line planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 monologic oral production, Applied Linguistics 24(1): 1-27 AP-1 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS This survey questionnaire is designed for the study namely “Factors affecting Gia Lai high school students’ speaking fluency” Your assistance in completing the following questions is highly appreciated Please put a tick ()in the box beside the option(s) you choose Part I: General Information Gender:  Male Female ……….years How long have you been learning English at school? How important is the speaking skill to you?  Very important  Important  Quite important  Not important at all 4.How you assess your present level at English speaking fluency?  Very fluently  Fluently No idea Not fluently  Not very fluently Part 2: Factors affecting high school students’ English-speaking fluency (Please put a tick () in the box beside the option(s) you choose) AF3 Completely agree (5) AF2 Agree (4) Affective factors I am anxious that my ability in speaking English isn’t good I feel so anxious that I usually utter “uh,ah,uhm…”when being asked to speak in English I don’t always have enough motivation and confidence to take part in an English conversation Uncertain (3) AF1 Statements (Subfactors) Disagree (2) Codes Completely disagree (1) Factors AP-2 AF4 AF5 AF6 PC1 PC2 Performance PC3 conditions PC4 PC5 AU1 AU2 Automation AU3 AU4 TC1 Teacher's correction Topical knowledge TC2 When I am motivated and confident in speaking classes, I can speak more fluently I am hestitant to speak English because I am afraid of making mistakes I want to improve my speaking fluency I realize that time for speaking lesson is too short I don’t have a lot of chances to speak because better students are always the first to give their ideas In speaking tasks, when I have much time for preparation, I can speak more fluently 10 When I am under time pressure in my speaking performance, I focus on fluency by using simple sentences 11 I can speak more fluently during speaking tasks when my classmates are supportive and tolerant 12 I don’t usually speak English in class 13 In English classes, I can speak fluently when my English teacher gives every instructions in English 14 I am more fluent if I usually practise talking a certain topic many times 15 Taking part in English clubs, tutorial groups… outside classroom improves my English speaking 16 Teacher’s correction on my pronunciation or grammar interrupts my speaking fluency during my speaking performance 17 I feel motivated to keep talking in English when my teacher gives me positive feedbacks or comments like “Good”, “Welldone” TC3 18 If I cannot think of what to say, the teacher may prompt me forwards TK1 19 I want to speak English but I don’t know enough topical vocabulary TK2 20 I can speak better on familiar topics TK3 21 I can speak more fluently after the teacher provides knowledge relating to difficult topics AP-3 APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR STUDENTS How often you speak English/ practise speaking? (In classroom and out of the class) In your opinion, how important is the speaking skill? Why? How is your speaking skill? (good/bad/fluent/not influent…?) How you feel when being asked to talk about something in English? (anxious/hestitate/confident/afraid of making mistakes….?)? Why? Do you think that you can improve your speaking in the classroom? Why? What does your teacher usually when you make mistakes during your speaking presentation? Cues:  Keep silent and encourage you to continue  Interrupt you and correct your mistakes whenever you make  Wait until you finish then correct all mistakes you made  Get angry and ask you to stop  Others (please specify)…………………………………………… How you feel then? What you to improve your speaking fluency ? (Khong, 2019) For example? In speaking lesson, you like talking about familiar topics? Why? ... ĐÀO TẠO TRƢỜNG ĐẠI HỌC QUY NHƠN ĐƢỜNG TIỂU LINH NHỮNG YẾU TỐ ẢNH HƢỞNG ĐẾN SỰ LƢU LỐT KHI NĨI TIẾNG ANH CỦA HỌC SINH THPT Ở GIA LAI Ngành: Lý luận phƣơng pháp dạy học môn Tiếng Anh Mã số: 8140111... questions: What are factors affecting Gia Lai high school students? ?? English speaking fluency? To what extent these factors affect Gia Lai high school students? ?? English speaking fluency ? 1.4 Scope... (1) What are factors affecting Gia Lai high school students? ?? English speaking fluency? and (2) To what extent these factors affect Gia Lai high school students? ?? English speaking fluency? Together,
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