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English in Canada, Australia, New Zealand Thuyết trình môn Đa dạng tiếng anh

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GROUP 4 Members 1) Đào Thị Thanh Kim 2) Mai Hà Xuân Ngân 3) Lữ Thị Trúc Mai 4) Phạm Quốc Nhiên 5) Trần Thanh Phúc Table of contents 1 English in Canada 2 English in Australia 3 English in New Zealand. GROUP Members 1) Đào Thị Thanh Kim 2) Mai Hà Xuân Ngân 3) Lữ Thị Trúc Mai 4) Phạm Quốc Nhiên 5) Trần Thanh Phúc Table of contents English in Canada English in Australia English in New Zealand English in Canada OVERVIEW A shortlist of particularly salient features: ● The use of the tag eh – another well-known Canadian stereotype ● The occurrence of EngE-type lexical-distributional pronunciations shone (with a short vowel), corollary, capillary with the stress on the first syllable ● The unique use of certain lexical items, often ‘recycled’ English words and French borrowings For example The distinction between prime minister (federal chief minister) and premier (provincial chief minister) Spelling ● -our vs -or The british form is given as the first alternative, that is it has been found to be most commonly used, for example colour (also color) The headword entry for color is followed by ‘var of colour’ ● -re vs -er The British form is generally given as the first alternative: centre, theatre, meagre, metre, and -er forms are, like -or ones, listed as acceptable variants, without further specification The headword entry calibre ● -ise (-yse) vs -ize (-yze) The American form is always given as the first alternative, with the exception of advertise which has no acceptable variant -ise forms are given as variants but usually labelled ‘esp Brit’ Phonology As for phonetic realisation, phonotactic distribution and phonemic systems, on the other hand, CanE is in almost total agreement with GA A great number of Canadians, especially in parts of the Atlantic provinces, not produce this feature, but if used, it constitutes a very interesting linguistic variable in the study of social variation and change in CanE Most Canadian accents have a single merged vowel phoneme for the sets THOUGHT, CLOTH, LOT, PALM and START The quality of the vowel is open, back and variably – but never more than lightly – rounded Example An interesting sociolinguistic study (Clarke et al 1995) shows that back vowels in CanE, that is [u υ o ɑ], are undergoing a shift to the effect that they are fronted (in contrast with the Northern Cities shift in the USA (4.5.6.1)) PHONOLOGY CanE prosody does not appear to be distinctive in any way As in some other varieties, high rising terminals have been widely used during the last 30 years Grammar In CanE grammar, it tends to be more morphological than syntax or relate to discourse and the lexicon Example: Some English structures still exist By expertise, no specific grammar of Canadian Standard English Has the plumber been yet? rather than been here yet Have you got ? rather than Do you have ? GRAMMAR Morphological characteristics include certain forms in the strong verb system, of which some have been subject to sociolinguistic studies In the Dialect Topography project, an apparent-time study demonstrates a rapid increase in the past tense forms dove and snuck, as also found in AmE, instead of dived and sneaked A stable British form, on the other hand, is found in the past tense of shine, always realised as /ʃɑn/ not US /ʃoun/ b Phonology  Consonants: • AusE is non-rhotic language  the /r/ sound does not appear at the end of a syllable or before a consonant E.g.: word ‘card’ AmeE: /kɑːrd/ AusE: /kɑːd/ • Australians often drop the /l/ or the /h/ out words E.g.: Australia: Austray’a House: ‘ouse c Grammar  In AmE, collective nouns nearly always take singular verb forms But in AusE, collective noun as a group of individuals determines the choice of verb form E.g.: AmE: The team has won the match AusE: The team have won the match d Lexicon  AusE borrowed several words denoting animals, plants, etc.: kangaroo, wallaby, koala, kookaburra, dingo, budgerigar, coolabah, billabong AusE has a lot of diminutives British biscuits chocolate barbeque afternoon chicken Australian bickie chockie barbie arvo chook d Lexicon  Australians also use to shorten terms or even sentences E.g.: “Wanna cuppa?” means “Do you want a cup of tea?” Deadset means “That’s true” or “True!”  Aboriginal languages have had an impact on AusE word- formation pattern known as reduplication E.g.: “never-never” used for the desert regions in AusE English in New Zealand History o The English language was established in New Zealand by colonists during the 19th century It has developed and become distinctive only in the at 150 years PHONOLOGY - Not all New Zealanders the same accent, as the level of cultivation of every speaker’s accent differs - They are: + Non-rothic + Shifted (dipthongised) long vowels + Raised front vowels PHONOLOGY Vowels: + NZE centralized pronunciation /ɪ/ of as the phoneme schwa /ə/ Ex: finish / fənəsh/ + front vowels are raised as in Australian English /ɛ/ even higher to [ɪ] not jus [6e] ; e.g : “neck” as [nɪk] + Extreme rounding of /ɜː/ - Ex: “turn” as [thæːn] PHONOLOGY Consonants: + NZE is mostly non-rothic + The /l/ is dark in all position + l-vocalization can be accompanied by phonemic merged of vowels before the vocalized /l/ GRAMMAR Generally similar to Australian English + Avoidance of “shall”/”should” almost as in Scottish English ( “ will I close the window” + The form of “ he usedn’t to go “ is common + The auxilary verb “ do” is not used in tag questions instead “should or “ought” are used (“shouldn’t he? , Oughtn’t he?”) + The use of have in expressing possession as in “ I have a new car” is less usual than the use of got “I have got new car” GRAMMAR - New Zealand has a non-standard second-person plural form yuose ( alternatively spelled ) - She’ll be right is easily recognized as a central part of New Zealnd philosophy, but who is she? LEXICON - Distinctive English vocabulary: + “tramping” (hiking) + “to farewell” (to say good-bye to) + “to jack up” (arrange) + “joker” (guy, blocke) +”domain” (recreation area) + “to uplift” (to collect, to pick up) +”to go crook at” (be angry with) +”bach” (cabin, cottage) LEXICON Shared with Australian English: + barrack for” (give support to) + “crook” (bad) + “dill” (fool) +”chook” (chicken) +”dunny” (lavatory) +”informal vote” (invalid vote) LEXICON Adoptions from Maori and other Polynesian languages: + ”mana” (prestige, power) + “haere mai” (a greeting) + “pakeha” (white New Zealander) + “tapu” (sacred) #thanksforwatching CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, including icons by Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik ... Đào Thị Thanh Kim 2) Mai Hà Xuân Ngân 3) Lữ Thị Trúc Mai 4) Phạm Quốc Nhiên 5) Trần Thanh Phúc Table of contents English in Canada English in Australia English in New Zealand English in Canada... of certain lexical items, often ‘recycled’ English words and French borrowings For example The distinction between prime minister (federal chief minister) and premier (provincial chief minister)... language was established in New Zealand by colonists during the 19th century It has developed and become distinctive only in the at 150 years PHONOLOGY - Not all New Zealanders the same accent,
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