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English in United Kingdom Thuyết trình môn Đa dạng Tiếng Anh

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  • English in  United  Kingdom  Thuyết trình môn Đa dạng Tiếng Anh

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English in United Kingdom Group2 Phạm Thiên Bình 187na23056 Dương Diệp Như Huỳnh 187na00575 Đặng Ngọc Thạch 187na15921 Lê Thi ̣ Thuỳ Duyên 187na11033 Ngô Thành Tài 187na08940 Scotland Wal. English in United Kingdom Group2: Phạm Thiên Bình 187na23056 Dương Diệp Như Huỳnh 187na00575 Đặng Ngọc Thạch 187na15921 Lê Thị Thuỳ Duyên 187na11033 Ngô Thành Tài 187na08940 Scotland Ireland English and Scottish Gaelic English, Ulters Scots and Gaelic Wales English & Welsh (Cymraeg) England English England RP (Received Pronouncition) ● RP is a way of pronouncing British English that is often considered to be the standard accent FOOT – STRUT (/fʊt/ - / strʌt/) The high awareness of unsplit FOOT – STRUT  [ə] ( Cup: [kəp] ) Liverpool/Scouser accent: • Water • Up • Look • Shut • Come Grammar ● double or multiple negation (I couldn’t find none nowhere) ● ‘nonstandard never’ (using never for not) ● “Seemingly switched” (the man what was dring the car, the man as was driving the car) Pronouns: the use of “three-dimensional” demonstratives Standard English: this/that The north (Ireland): This/that/yon The West Country: thease/that/thik Verb: Stadard English: the verb conjugates according to the subject • • Singular verb: One person/place/thing… Plural verb: multiple people/places/things… ex: I like it – She likes it • To be: Am, Is, Are ex: He is / She is / They are • In the West Country: Use of Do as a marker of aspect: I see (a single event) I see (a habitual or repeated action) Ex: I love you / I did love you • BE: used for all subject (singular/plural) Scotland is a part of the United Kingdom, but it was an independent State until 1707 SCOT x ENG A minority speak Scottish Gaelic (1%) which is very different from English EX: ‘What is your name?’ ‘Dè an t-ainm a tha ort?’ Scotland Scotland Scottish Standard English - Standard English spoken with a Scottish accent “and retaining a few scotticisms in vocabulary”​ Phonology The number of distinct vowels in the Scots vowel system varies by location, ranging from to 12, however there are at least phonemes ● /ɪ, ɛ, ʌ, a/ are checked vowels ex: PILOT /paelɪt/; DRESS /ɛ/; STRUT /ʌ/; TRAP/ PALM/ BATH /a/ ● /ɔ, ʉ, i, e, o/ are free i.e they may occur in both open and closed syllables ex: LOT/THOUGH /ɔ/; FOOT/GOOSE /ʉ/; flEEce /i/; happY /e/; gOat /o/ ● /ø/ - the lack vowel phoneme of ScStE which is merged in most dialects with either /e/ or /ɪ/ ex: good and beuk Phonology - Consonants ● SSE has kept syllable-initial /hw/ as in what, which, whisky, overwhelm,… ● In some parts of Shetland, is realised as /kw/, and sometimes with hypercorrect /hw/: [‘kwɪski] ‘whisky’, [hwin] ‘queen’ ● In the north-east of mainland Scotland, is realised as /f/, making what virtually homophonous with 'foot' ● In traditional Shetland accents there are no dental fricatives ex: [tink] ‘think’, [der] ‘there’, [da] ‘the’ Grammar - morphology ● Nonstandard features abound in the past tense and past participle forms of verbs ex: sellt - ‘sold’ killt - ‘killed’ ⇄ irregular verbs have become regular driv - ‘drove’ taen - ‘took’ ⇄ other irregular forms forgot - ‘forgotten’ ⇄ was used in earlier forms of Standard English Went - 'gone' ⇄ was used in Older Scots Ken - ‘know’ - kent ⇄ past tense and past participle Gie - ‘give’ - gied gien ⇄ past tense past participle Shune - ‘shoes’ Een - ‘eyes’ ⇄ Irregular plurals verb Grammar - morphology ● In Orkney and Shetland there is firm retention of two forms of address: informal du vs formal (singular) you ● Scots have a three-dimensional demonstrative system, similar to that of the north of England, that is this/that/yon ex: yon oil companies, yon Southfork Look over yon !!!! Grammar - syntax • No/ Not = Nae/ n't She isNAE leavingg!!! • Lack shall/may/ought (replaced by will in all contexts) Will I pour the coffee? • A striking characteristic of Scots is the use of double modals in They might could be finishing their work on time • Progressive constructions are used with stative verbs I wasnae liking it and the lassie I was going wi wasnae liking it Grammar - syntax • Like WelshE, Scots often has an invariant tag The Scots version is e, which may be added to positive as well as negative declarative clauses The tag e no is also used, added to positive clauses, that is a system like that used in Standard English (you’re liking this, e /no/?) • In Scots the definite article is used before nouns denoting institutions and certain periods of time: the day - ‘today’, the morn - ‘tomorrow’, at the kirk - ‘at church’ Lexicon • Scots includes lexical items that will be completely opaque to someone conversant witth Standard English only ( Old English+ Gaelic+ Old Norse+ Latin+ etc.) • Early Scots shared a great deal of its vocabulary with Northern Middle English, including most of its borrowings from Scandinavian languages ex: • o Gate - ‘road’ o Lass - ‘girl’ o Kirk - ‘church’ o Lowse - ‘loose’ o Big - ‘build’ o Rowan - ‘mountain ash’ On the whole, Scots law has its own, largely Latin-based vocabulary Ireland English (99%) The English language was first taken to Ireland in the late twelfth century and despite many vicissitudes has remained there since, becoming the first language of the majority of the population in the course of several centuries Irish – Geailge (41%) Gaelic is widely spoken in the Gaeltacht regions, mainly along the west coast Phonology The vowel system of SIrE, in fact, shows close correspondence in quality with the vowel system of Irish ● IrE has clear /l/ and is firmly rhotic ● /r/ is usually a postalveolar approximant before stressed vowels, but retroflex inter- and postvocalically ● /u/ tends to be virtually unrounded and centralised ● "MOUTH" have a characteristic pronunciation, which can be perceived as the "PRICE" diphthong by outsiders ● In the north and Belfast, /ε/ and /a/ are often neutralised before or after a velar consonant, making beg–bag and kettle–cattle homophonous Grammar Sister Nation - ScotE vs IrE • Unmarked plurality in nouns indicating measure, time, ex: two mile, five year.​ • This/ That/ Yon​ • You/ Ye (single) and Youse (plural) "Yon little man with the big head" Grammar • Another characteristic of IrE is giving a word or phrase a noun-like status which it does not generally have ex: If I had the doing of it again, I’d it different → If I could it again, I’d it differently • the use of "after" is also found in noun phrases such as I’m only after my dinner = I’ve just had my dinner • "How long have you been here?" ( in Irl, the present tense is used in this case rather than the perfect ) Lexicon Irish words found particularly in the areas of: ● Culture ex: banshee - ‘fairy woman’ cairn ‘sacred stone mound’ ● Rural life ● Food ex: creel - ‘basket’ culchie - ‘someone from the back of beyond’ ex: bannock - ‘homemade bread cake’ ● Social interaction ex: ceili - ‘evening visit’ shannach - ‘comfortable gossip’ Lexicon ● ‘Retained’ words typically include voc abulary denoting people’s character and behaviour ex: • ● A number of words that look like ordinary General English words have different meanings ex: o Atomy - ‘small, insignificant person’ o Backward - ‘shy’ o Crawthumper - 'who is overly religious’ o thick-witted - ‘stubborn’ o Mitch - ‘play truant’ o Doubt - ‘believe’ (also found in Scots) Not surprisingly, NIrE shares a great deal of its lexicon with Scots/SSE French borrowings: ashet - ‘large plate’, brave - ‘fine’, dishabels - ‘night attire’ Thanks for listening! ... that is a system like that used in Standard English (you’re liking this, e /no/?) • In Scots the definite article is used before nouns denoting institutions and certain periods of time: the day -... Scotland Scottish Standard English - Standard English spoken with a Scottish accent “and retaining a few scotticisms in vocabulary”​ Phonology The number of distinct vowels in the Scots vowel system... of the United Kingdom, but it was an independent State until 1707 SCOT x ENG A minority speak Scottish Gaelic (1%) which is very different from English EX: ‘What is your name?’ ‘Dè an t-ainm a
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