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1 INTRODUCTION TRANSLATION 4 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview of translating Vietnamese and English economic texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms related to economy as well as the typical structures frequently used in economic texts. Since the course book has been written for the students to learn either by themselves or in class with a teacher, there will be a course book and assignments. The course book contains the Vietnamese and English economic texts with notes and suggested translations. The assignments contain the Vietnamese and English economic texts that will be translated into either English or Vietnamese by the students. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: - obtain general knowledge of the Vietnamese and English economic documents. - get familiar with and effectively use scientific and technological terms and typical structures of economic texts in their translations. - accurately translate economic texts into English and Vietnamese. On the completion of this course book, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages for their kind help. Errors are unavoidable in this course book. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. Hue, November 14th, 2006 Nguyen Van Tuan 2 Chapter 1: GENERAL ECONOMIC ISSUES Lesson 1: REFORESTATION AN UPHILL BATTLE IN MOUNTAINOUS TAY NGUYEN Tay Nguyen- the authorities and people in Tay Nguyen (the Western Highlands) have a battle on their hand to protect and restore forests that have been relentlessly chopped down. Spread over nearly 55,000sq.km, the forests in these regions are the country‟s largest. Actually covering 2.93 million ha, it is 230,000 ha less than five years ago. Of the four Tay Nguyen provinces, Dac Lac is the one with the largest wooded area and also the one losing the most canopy each year an average of 40,000 ha. The reason for losing the provinces‟ “lung” is not hard to find- the inexorable emigration of people to these areas from the rest of the country since 1990. The population growth in these provinces has been a stagering5 to 6 per cent every year. And Dac Lac alone houses 2,200 migrants. With the influx came the usual accompanying problems: pressure on forestland for housing, cultivating and fuel. Another reason has been the creased cultivation of commercial crops like coffee, pepper, and rubber. The total area under these has risen to 567,000 ha- double the 1996 figure. But the government has become aware of the havoc that denudation of the forest cover could wreak. “Tay Nguyen is seen as a common roof for the Central and South-eastern areas, but the region‟s forests is enduring serious damage, illegal wood exploitation remains a headache, and the environment is under great threat,” said Prime Minister Han Van Khaki when speaking about the region‟s development. He exhorted the Taiyo Nguyen provinces to keep a close eye on forest protection and development, and set targets for the next five years to increase the area under forest cover in a bid to ensure sustainable socio-economic development. 3 The provincial authorities too have begun to get their act together. In ADC Lac, for instance, billions of dong has been invested in aforestation activities under Programmes 327 and 661 and the total reforested has reached about 10,000 ha. But the figure is still minuscule when juxtaposed with the more than 200,000 ha that have been felled since 1995. Under the socio- economic development scheme for the 2001-05 period, Tay Nguyen‟s provinces have earmarked over 2.93million ha of existing forest areas for protection while reforesting 500,000 ha, so that the total forest cover would reach 64.3 per cent by 2005, an increase of 10 per cent over the current figure. To reach the goal through, the provinces need to raise awareness among the population, innovate sustainable products and manufacturing methods and improve forest management and protection. The forest plantation and communal forest management departments should be further strengthened while economic sectors and households should be urged to take an active part in protecting and managing forest areas. At the moment some areas in Dac Lac Province have been moving in that direction and local residents have proven willing to protect and develop forest areas to which they are given possession rights. Notes: - battle : trËn chiÕn - to be chopped down : bÞ ®èn, bÞ chỈt - emigration : di c- - commercial crop: n«ng s¶n hµng ho¸ - to become aware of : ý thøc ®-ỵc - sustainable : bỊn v÷ng - to be strengthened : ®-ỵc t¨ng c-êng Suggested Translation : TRÄƯNG RỈÌNG ÅÍ CẠC TÈNH MIÃƯN NỤI TÁY NGUN ÂANG L MÄÜT VÁÚN ÂÃƯ KHỌ KHÀN. Táy Ngun-Chênh quưn v ngỉåìi dán åí Táy Ngun gàûp khọ khàn trong viãûc bo vãû v tại tảo nhỉỵng khu rỉìng bë chàût phạ mäüt cạch nghiãm trng. Våïi diãûn têch hån 50.000 km2, nhỉỵng khu rỉìng åí âạy l låïn nháút nỉåïc,chiãúm 2,93 ha nay chè cn 230.000 ha, tháúp hån 5 nàm trỉåïc âáy. 4 L do máút âi “lạ phäøi” ca nhỉỵng tènh ny khäng khọ tçm ra, âọ l do sỉû di trụ ca nhỉỵng ngỉåìi dán trong vng âãún nhỉỵng nåi khạc. Kãø tỉì nàm 1999, t lãû gia tàng dán säú ca nhỉỵng tènh ny tỉì 5 âãún 6% mäùi màm. Âàõc Làõc cọ khong 2200 häü dán di trụ. Mäüt säú váún âãư khạc â ny sinh cng váún âãư ny :ạp lỉûc âäúi våïi âáút rỉìng cho viãûc xáy dỉûng nh cỉía, träưng trt v láúy gäù. Mäüt l do khạc l gia tàng viãûc träưng cáy kinh tãú nhỉ : cfã,tiãu v cao su, täøng diãûn tich â tàng lãn567.000 ha-gáúp âäi con säú nàm 1990. Nhỉng chênh ph cng â nháûn thỉïc âỉåüc váún âãư tn phạ ny s cọ thãø cn tráưm trng hån. “Táy Ngun âỉåüc xem nhỉ mäüt mại nh chung cho cạc tènh miãưn trung v âäng nam. Nhỉng rỉìng åí âáy âang bë tn phạ tráưm trng, nản khai thạc gäù trại phẹp váùn l mäüt váún âãư nhỉïc nhäúi, mäi trỉåìng dỉåïi sỉû âe da nghiãm trng”.th tỉåïng chênh ph Phan Vàn Khi â nọi khi nọi chuûn vãư sỉû phạt triãøn ca nhỉỵng tènh ny. Th tỉåïng kãu gi cạc tènh Tay Ngun hy xem trng viãûc bo vãû v phạt triãøn rỉìng v âảt ra kãú hoảch cho nàm nàm tåïi, â cọ thãø tàng diãûn tich rỉìng âỉåüc bo vãû nhàòm duy trç âỉåüc sỉû phạt triãøn kinh tãú x häüi. Chênh quưn cạc tènh cng â håüp tạc cng nhau. Thỉûc tãú l, hng t âäưng â âỉåüc Dàõc Làõc âáưu tỉ vo viãûc träưng rỉìng bàòng cạc chỉång trçnh 327 v 661 v täøng diãûn têch rỉìng tại tảo â lãn âãún khong10.000 ha. Nhỉng con säú váùn cn ráút nh khi so sạnh våïi hån 200.000 ha â bë phạ hy kãø tỉì nàm 1995. Dỉûa vo så âäư phạt triãøn kinh tãú x häüi trong giai âoản 2001-2005,cạc tènh Táy Ngun s âọng khung hån 2,93 triãûu ha diãûn têch rỉìng âang cn âãø bo vãû trong khi tại tảo 500. 000 ha rỉìng,âãø täøng diãûn têch rỉìng bao ph cọ thãø lãn tåïi 64,3% vo nàm 2005, tàng 10% so våïi con säú ban âáưu. Âãø âảt âỉåüc kãú hoảch ny, chênh quưn cạc tènh cáưn phi tàng cỉåìng nháûn thỉïc cho ngỉåìi dán,âäưng thåìi ỉïng dủng nhỉỵng phỉång tiãûn måïi nhàòm ci thiãûn cäng tạc qun l v bo vãû rỉìng. Cäng tạc träưng rỉìng cáưn phi âỉåüc quan tám hån. Nghnh kiãøm lám cáưn tàng cỉåìng cäng tạc bo vãû rỉìng. Cạc nghnh kinh tãú v cạc häü gia âçnh cáưn âọng mäüt vai tr têch cỉûc hån trong viãûc qun l v bo vãû rỉìng. Hiãûn tải, mäüt säú vụng åí tènh Âàõc Làõc â v âang âi theo hỉåïng vỉìa nãu. Chênh quưn âëa phỉång â náng cao nháûn thỉïc vãư viãûc bo vãû v phạt triãøn nhỉỵng khu rỉìng m h â âỉåüc giao khoạn. 5 Lesson 2 : VIETNAM SEEKS ASSISTANCE FOR HIGHLANDS DEVELOPMENTS Hanoi - Vietnam wishes to exchange experiences and co-operate with other countries in making its mountainous regions prosperous and stable, says Hoang Duc Nghi, Minister and Chairman of the Committee for Ethnic Minorities and Mountainous Affairs. Speaking at the World Mountain Forum held in French cities of Paris and Chambery last week, Nghi said that the Vietnamese Government welcomes the UN declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. Vietnam is facing difficulties and challenges in checking deforestation and degradation of land resources, and is committed to pursuing areas strategy of protecting natural resources through sustainable exploitation, he said. Nghi met with French and other delegates and discussed measures to heighten co- operation in the development of mountainous regions. The forum adopted a resolution calling on 140 countries having forests and mountains in the world to raise awareness of the important role of mountainous regions, define orientations for sustainable development of the areas in coming years, and increase exchange of experiences and co-operation. The seven-day forum, jointly organized by France, the UN, EU, and the World Bank, wrapped up on Monday. Notes: - stable : ổn định - to face : đ-ơng đàu - challenge : thách thức - orientation : định h-ớng - sustainable : phát triển bền vững 6 Suggested Translation : VIÃÛT NAM TÇM KIÃÚM SỈÛ GIỤP ÂÅỴ CHO VÁÚN ÂÃƯ PHẠT TRIÃØN MIÃƯN NỤI Theo äng Hong Âỉïc Nghi -Trỉåíng ban Dán täüc v Miãưn nụi,Viãût nam mong mún âỉåüc trao âäøi kinh nghiãûm v håüp tạc våïi cạc nỉåïc bản nhàòm tảo sỉû phạt triãøn thënh vỉåüng v vỉỵng chàõc åí miãưn nụi. Phạt biãøu tải diãùn ân thãú giåïi vãư miãưn nụi täø chỉïc åí thnh phäú Pa-ri v Chàm-bå-ri ca Phạp tưn vỉìa qua, äng Nghi nọi ràõng Chênh ph Viãût Nam ráút hoan nghãnh cäng bäú ca Liãn Hiãûp Qúc coi nàm 2002 l nàm “Thãú giåïi vç miãưn nụi”. Äng Nghi cng nháún mảnh thãm, Viãût nam âang âäúi màût våïi nhiãưu khọ khàn v thỉí thạch nhỉ nản phạ rỉìng bỉìa bi, tçnh trảng thoại họa ti ngun âáút, cng nhỉ viãûc kiãn trç trong chiãún lỉåüc v khai thạc mäüt cạch håüp l cạc ngưn ti ngun thiãn nhiãn. Cng trong chuún âi ny, äng Nghi â gàûp v tho lûn våïi phại âon Phạp v cạc phại âon khạc nhàòm tçm ra gii phạp tàng cỉåìng håüp tạc våïi nhau vç sỉû phạt triãøn chung ca miãưn nụi. Häüi tho â thäúng nháút kãu gi 140 nỉåïc trãn thãú giåïi cọ rỉìng nụi cáưn nháûn thỉïc r vai tr quan trng ca miãưn nụi, âäưng thåìi âënh r hỉåïng phạt triãøn cng nhỉ viãûc tàng cỉåìng trao âäøi kinh nghiãûm v håüp tạc giỉỵa cạc nỉåïc trong nhỉỵng nàm tåïi. Phạp, Liãn Hiãûp Qúc, khäúi Cäüng Âäưng Cháu Áu v ngán hng thãú giåïi âäưng täø chỉïc häüi tho diãùn ra trong 7 ngy v kãút thục vo thỉï Hai. 7 Lesson 3 : ADB ASSISTANCE TO HELP FIGHT POVERTY, CREATE MORE JOBS Hanoi - Continued assistance from the Asian Development Bank will play an important role in poverty alleviation, especially in creating more employment, says Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung. Receiving visiting ADB executive director Jeung-Hyun Yoon in Hanoi yesterday, Dung lauded the valuable assistance that the Manila-based bank has rendered to the nations economic reforms, rural development, human resource development and environmental protection. The ADB has pledged loans worth US$2 billion since 1993 for 29 projects and preferential loan programmes, of which $76 million is non-refundable, he noted. Dung expressed his hope that the ADB will continue offering effective assistance for the countrys reform programmes including the ongoing restructuring of State-owned enterprises and renovation of the financial and banking sectors. The ADB official said he was delighted to be visiting Vietnam at a time when its economy was registering strong improvements. He briefed the Deputy Prime Minister on the results of his one- week visit, saying it aimed to strengthen co-operation in lending and borrowing operations through exchange of information and assessment of the banks operations in the country. Yoon also expressed his desire to see further development in Vietnam-ADB relations and pledged to co-ordinate more actively among sponsors in finding investment on preferential terms. Notes: - the Asian Development Bank : Ngân hàng Phát triển Châu á - play an important role : đóng một vai trò quan trọng - poverty alleviation : xoá đói giảm nghèo - executive director : giám đóc điều hành - human resource development : phát triển nguồn nhân lực - preferential loan programmes : ch-ơng trình cho vay -u đãi effective assistance : sự giúp đỡ có hiệu quả - reform program: ch-ơng trình cải cách 8 - State-owned enterprise : doanh nghiƯp nhµ n-íc Suggested Translation : SỈÛ TRÅÜ GIỤP CA ADB S GIỤP CHÄÚNG ÂỌI NGHO V TẢO THÃM VIÃÛC LM Trong bøi tiãúp Giạm âäúc âiãưu hnh Ngán hng phạt triãøn Cháu Ạ (ADB) Jeung-Hyun Yoon ngy häm qua tải H Näüi, Phọ Th Tỉåïng nỉåïc ta Nguùn Táún Dng â phạt biãøu ràòng sỉû tiãúp tủc tråü giụp ca ADB s âọng mäüt vai tr quan trng trong viãûc xọa âọi gim ngho, âàûc biãût l tảo thãm nhiãưu cäng àn viãûc lm. Phọ Th Tỉåïng cng cạm ån sỉû giụp âåỵ qu bạu ca ADB cọ trủ såí tải Manila, Phi-lip-pin trong ci cạch kinh tãú, phạt triãøn näng thän, phạt triãøn ngưn lỉûc con ngỉåìi v bo vãû mäi trỉåìng. Ngán hng phạt triãøn Cháu Ạ â hỉïa cho Viãût Nam vay khon vay trë giạ 2 tè âä la M tỉì nàm 1993 cho 29 dỉû ạn v cạc chỉång trçnh vay ỉu âi trong âọ cọ 76 triãûu âä la khäng hon lải. Phọ Th Tỉåïng Nguùn Táún Dng by t hy vng ràòng ADB s tiãúp tủc tråü giụp mäüt cạch cọ hiãûu qu cho cạc chỉång trçnh ci cạch âáút nỉåïc bao gäưm viãûc ci täø cạc xê nghiãûp qúc doanh âang diãùn ra v âäøi måïi cạc chi nhạnh ti chênh v ngán hng. Äng Jeung-Hyun Yoon â phạt biãøu nọi lãn niãưm vui âỉåüc âãún thàm Viãût Nam vo thåìi âiãøm m nãưn kinh tãú Viãût Nam â v âang âảt âỉåüc nhỉỵng tiãún bäü mảnh m. Äng cng bạo cạo våïi Phọ Th Tỉåïng kãút qu ca mäüt tưn viãúng thàm Viãût Nam ca äng v nháún mảnh ràòng âọ l nhàòm tàng cỉåìng håüp tạc trong lénh vỉûc vay v cho vay thäng qua viãûc trao âäøi thäng tin v âạnh giạ vãư hoảt âäüng ca cạc ngán hng Viãût Nam. Äng Yoon by t mong ỉåïc ràòng mäúi quan hãû giỉỵa Viãût Nam v Ngán hng phạt triãøn Cháu Ạ s phạt triãøn hån nỉỵa v hỉïa s håüp tạc têch cỉûc hån våïi cạc nh ti tråü trong viãûc tçm kiãúm ngưn âáưu tỉ vo cạc lénh vỉûc ỉu tiãn. 9 Lesson 4 : POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE Viet Nam is a socialist republic furnished with a constitution since 1980 and based on a tripartite political structure: the Communist Party of Vietnam, the people and the State. A characteristic feature is the very important place occupied by the Party, which waged the liberation struggles leading to the independence of North Viet Nam in 1954 and then to the reunification of the country in 1975. The Party, whose best known bodies are the Political Bureau, the Secretariat, the Central Committee and the Congress, conducts the affairs of the country. It draws up the lists of candidates for general elections from which delegates to the National Assembly are chosen; the Assembly in turn elects the members of the Council of Ministers which appoints ministers to head the ministries. The party provides the leaders of the very active mass organizations which form the front for the Fatherland and cover all sections of the population: labour, trade unions, Association of Collective Farmers, Union of Women, Union of Youth, Union of Intellectuals, Union of Catholics, and Union of Buddhists. The administrative matters are carried out in four-tiered structure from the central level, down through the 44 provinces, and the 519 districts to the 9,807 communes at the grassroots level. Planning Viet Nam's overall planning system is centralized, but there is flexibility in development planning, investment programming, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of sectoral projects. At central level, development policies are determined by the State Council and Council of Ministers with the State Planning Commission providing technical guidance. The State Planning Commission (SPC), as the technical arm of the Council of Ministers, plays the leading role in national planning, investment programming, budget allocation and monitoring of socio-economic development trends and sectoral performance. It coordinates plans for donor assistance and identifies priority programmes for intervention, in collaboration with the line ministries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Committee for Foreign Investment and Cooperation, State Committee for Science, Committee on Aid Reception and the People's Committees. The SPC formulates mid-term and annual investment plans and prepares the relevant budgets for approval by the Council of Ministers. CERFC, the aid co-ordination committee, works closely with SPC to identify government policies, plans and priorities. 10 The General Statistics Office (GSO), also under the Council of Minister is responsible for coordinating population censuses as well as the collection of statistics on socio-economic development and the situation of children and women. The GSO provides information and data support to the SPC for planning and programming purposes. Decentralized development and planning Under recent reforms, planning has been decentralized giving the sectoral implementing ministries and peoples' committees at provincial, district and commune level, the freedom to define their priorities and plans, subject to centrally-issued guidelines. In line with this policy, sectoral planning units were established in the Social Sector ministries. Furthermore, almost all the provinces and districts have established planning units which provide planning and technical support to the Peoples Committees. The local government units are authorized to utilize locally generated revenues and income to finance and implement their planned programmes without relying on central government resources. This initiative can lead to greater participation of the local government units in the delivery of basic services for children and women. The area based development model can be applied to accelerate basic services and enhance capacity in local planning, monitoring and evaluation. At the same time, community interventions which would improve the living condition of women and their families such as low cost appropriate technology, income generation, growth monitoring, etc., can be piloted in specific provinces or districts. However, the professional staff manning the planning units need to be trained to widen their skills in management, planning and monitoring activities. Notes: - political structure : thể chế chính trị - to be furnished with : đ-ợc trang bị - liberation : sự giải phóng - reunification : sự thống nhất - Political Bureau : Bộ Chính Trị - Central Committee : Uỷ Ban Trung Ương, Ban Bí Th- Trung Ương - general election : tổng tuyển cử - National Assembly : Quốc Hội - Council of Ministers : Hội Đồng Bộ Tr-ởng - the Front for the Fatherland : Mặt Trận Tổ Quốc - Association of Collective Farmers : Hội Nông Dân Tập Thể - to be centralized : tập trung - State Planning Commission : Uỷ Ban Kế Hoạch Nhà N-ớc [...]... với n-ớc ngoài Các nhà sản xuất bột giặt trong n-ớc, mặc dù có thể đáp ứng nhu cầu trong n-ớc đến năm 2005, nh-ng lại bị các công ty khổng lồ nh- Procter & Gamble và Unilever dồn vào thế bí Notes: - lệnh cấm vận : - - c bãi bỏ: - công ty n-ớc giải khát khổng lồ: - h-ởng -u đãi: - chính sách tiếp thị: policy - thâm nhập thị phần: penetrate market shares - theo luật Đầu T- N-ớc Ngoài: Investment Law -. .. estimated to be through the free market 16 Notes: - private ownership : quyền sở hữu t- nhân - Gross Domestic Product : Tổng sản phẩm quốc nội - per capita : tính theo đầu ng-ời - commerce : th-ơng mại - to compete with : cạnh tranh với - to be endowed with : - c -u đãi - potential : tiềm năng - thermo-electric : nhiệt điện - monopoly : độc quyền - retail sale : bán lẻ Lesson 7 : INVESTMENT As the... ph ca tnh Tin Giang v l im xut phỏt tt cho cuc thm dũ vựng ng bng ny Notes: - cú ý ngha: - liờn kt v ngụn ng: l - cng thy rừ rng: - chuyn i thm: - vựng t phỡ nhiờu: - ng bng sụng Cu Long: - phự sa: - phong phỳ : - va lỳa: - tng trng: - ngun lng thc: - phong cỏch sinh : - k cn sụng nc: - c dõn : inhabitant - a ch tham quan: - kt hp : mean/signify/carry a meaning inguistic association/relation/tie recognizable... development Notes: - wage level : mức l-ơng - out of date : lỗi thời - relevant ministry : bộ có liên quan - socio-economic data : số liệu về kinh tế xã hội 13 - to cause damage to : gây thiệt hại - context of war : hoàn cảnh chiến tranh - transition period : thời kỳ quá độ - to be taken over : - c tiếp quản - manufacturing sector : bộ phận sản xuất - food shortage : sự thiếu hụt l-ơng thực - malnutrition... price : giá cả do nhà n-ớc quản lý - to be abolished : bị bãi bỏ - to be initiated : - c khởi x-ớng - annual inflation rate : tỷ lệ lạm phát hằng năm - revenue : nguồn thu - foreign loans and grants : n-ớc ngoài các - fiscal : thuộc về tài chính - macro-economic management : sự quản lý kinh tế vĩ mô - restrictive credit policy : chính sách tín dụng hạn định - under the pressure : d-ới áp lực khoản vay... Notes: - to account for : chiếm - output : năng suất, đầu ra - industrial crop : - to be involved in : liên quan đến - cash crop : - contract system : - plot of land : cây công nghiệp dính líu đến, có nông sản hàng hoá chế độ khoán thửa đất - It is admitted that : rằng ng-ời ta thừa nhận - to be cultivated : - c canh tác - one crop a year : sản xuất 1 năm 1 vụ - coastal strip : vùng đất duyên hải - expansion... activities 27 - vo ngun u t vn: an influx of investment 5 Chỉ 1 năm sau khi lệnh cấm vận của Mỹ - c bãi bỏ, các công ty n-ớc giải khát khổng lồ nh- Coca-cola, Pep si- Cola - c h-ởng -u đãi về vốn, chính sách tiếp thị và các -u đãi khác theo luật Đầu T- N-ớc Ngoài, nên các công ty này đã dần dần thâm nhập thị phần của các nh sản xuất trong n-ớc Các sản phẩm khác cũng rơi vào hoàn cảnh t-ơng tự Bia Sài...11 - budget allocation : việc phân bổ ngân sách - priority programme : ch-ơng trình -u tiên - in collaboration with : có liên quan đến - State Commitee for Science : Uỷ Ban Khoa Học Nhà N-ớc - Committee on Aid Reception : Ban Tiếp Nhận Viện Trợ - The General Statistics Office : Cục Thống Kê - locally generated revenue : ngân sách địa ph-ơng - to be challenged : bị thử thách, bị thách thức - data... : vùng đất duyên hải - expansion : sự mở rộng/sự phát triển - paddy yield : năng suất lúa - cassava : cây sắn ( mì) - sweet potato : khoai lang - seed multiplication system : giống hệ thống/cơ sở nhân - spare part : phụ tùng - maintenance : bảo d-ỡng/bảo trì 24 - extension : sự mở rộng - to emphasize : chú trọng - food crop : cây l-ơng thực - rice monoculture : độc canh cây lúa 25 Lesson 9: S N NH V... Hin nay, Samsung l nh ti tr ln Vitnam Ngoi vic ti tr cho nhiu gii vụ ch th thao qui mụ ln-nh, Samsung ó cp 1,2 triu USD cho cỏc chng trỡnh hc ngoi ng v hun luyn th dc Notes: - doanh thu thng mi: - t: - c tớnh: - con s: - phng chõm: - d ỏn liờn doanh : - hỡnh thnh: - s vn u t : - si tng hp: - cụng nghip ch bin : - nghiờn cu kh thi: turnover/revenue/trade returns reach/achieve estimate figure motto/slogan . Notes: - battle : trËn chiÕn - to be chopped down : bÞ ®èn, bÞ chỈt - emigration : di c- - commercial crop: n«ng s¶n hµng ho¸ - to become aware of : ý thøc - c - sustainable : bỊn v÷ng - to. Thể - to be centralized : tập trung - State Planning Commission : Uỷ Ban Kế Hoạch Nhà N-ớc 11 - budget allocation : việc phân bổ ngân sách - priority programme : ch-ơng trình -u tiên - in. Notes: - wage level : møc l-¬ng - out of date : lçi thêi - relevant ministry : bé cã liªn quan - socio-economic data : sè liÖu vÒ kinh tÕ x· héi 13 - to cause damage to : gây thiệt hại - context
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