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TED KINGDOM Thuyết trình môn Đa dạng Tiếng Anh

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  • TED KINGDOM  Thuyết trình môn Đa dạng Tiếng Anh

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UNITED KINGDOM Group 2 1 Lê Duy Tuyết Mai 187NA15817 2 Nguyễn Thúy Phượng 187NA00560 3 Trần Nguyễn Như Quỳnh 187NA10017 4 Nguyễn Mạnh Hoàng Duy 187NA00102 5 Quách Đinh Tuyết Nhi 187NA00477 6 Nguyễn Th. UNITED KINGDOM Group 2 Lê Duy Tuyết Mai Nguyễn Thúy Phượng Trần Nguyễn Như Quỳnh Nguyễn Mạnh Hoàng Duy Quách Đinh Tuyết Nhi Nguyễn Thị Sâm 187NA15817 187NA00560 187NA10017 187NA00102 187NA00477 187NA00587 SCOTLAND NORTHERN IRELAND ENGLAND WALES Table of Contents 01 ENGLAND 02 SCOTLAND 03 IRELAND 04 WALES 01 ENGLAND Terms used to refer to the English language spoken and written in England include: English English and Anglo-English ENGLISH IN ENGLAND Pronunciation Grammar Lexical main parts ENGLAND – PRONUNCIATION Southern England In the south-east, the broad A is normally used before a /f/, /s/ or /θ/: words such as "cast" and "bath" are pronounced /kɑːst/, /bɑːθ/ rather than /kæst/, /bæθ/ This sometimes occurs before /nd/: it is used in "command" and "demand" but not in "brand" or "grand" In the south-west, an /aː/ sound in used in these words but also in words that take /æ/ in RP; there is no trap–bath split but both are pronounced with an extended fronted vowel ENGLAND – PRONUNCIATION Northern England Northern English tends not to have /ʌ/ (strut, but, etc.) as a separate vowel The accents of Northern England generally not use a /ɑː/ So cast is pronounced [kast] rather than the [kɑːst] pronunciation of most southern accents For many speakers, the remaining instances of RP /ɑː/ instead becomes [aː]: for example, in the words palm, cart, start, tomato The vowel in dress, test, pet, etc is slightly more open, transcribed by Wells as [ɛ] rather than [e] ENGLAND – GRAMMAR In British English, people use the present perfect to speak about a past action that they consider relevant to the present A singular or plural verb can be used with a noun that refers to a group of people or things (a collective noun) The past participle of the verb get is got People often use Shall I ? to offer to something and/or Shall we ? to make a suggestion When American and British people meet, the first obvious difference is their accent, the pronunciation of words However, at a deeper and less apparent level, vocabulary differences give the right to treat the two varieties as two completely different languages ENGLAND – LEXICAL SCOTLAND PHONOLOGY: Consonants Scottish English is a rhotic accent, meaning /r/ is pronounced in the syllable coda There is a distinction between/w/ and /wh/ in word pairs such as witch and which The phoneme /x/ is common in names => Some Scottish speakers use it in words of Greek origin as well, such as technical, patriarch SCOTLAND - GRAMMAR The progressive verb forms are used rather more frequently than in other varieties of standard English - I'm wanting a drink Speakers often use prepositions differently: the compound preposition off of - Take that off of the table - I was waiting on you (instead of "waiting for you”) In colloquial speech shall and ought are wanting, must is marginal for obligation and may is rare SCOTLAND LEXICAL SCOTTICISMS Scottish English has inherited a number of lexical items from Scots, which are comparatively rare in other forms of standard English: wee -small brawfine janitorschool laddie/lassieyoung boy/girl why not?why no? spailsplinter muckle-big bonniepretty kirk-church bairn -child pinkie-little finger 03 IRELAND Irish (Gaeilge) is considered an important part of Irish culture and heritage It serves as a community language in the west and south, Gaeltacht Irish is recognized as the basic national and official language of the Republic of Ireland IRELAND ENGLISH Grammar Lexical Phonology IRELAND Phonology Irish phonology has been studied since the late 19th century Almost all consonants come in pairs, with one having a "broad" pronunciation and the other a "slender" one Broad consonants are either velarized (for example, /k, ɡ/) Slender consonants are palatalized The meaning of a word can change if a broad consonant is substituted for a slender consonant IRELAND - Grammar Irish grammar is more complicated than English grammar Irish is a “VSO” (verb-subject-object) language “The dog ate the food.” Subject Verb Object “D’ith an madra an bia” As Gaelic has no word for ‘yes’ or ‘no’, questions are answered using the same verb that was present in the question - “Do you have a pen?” - “I do.” IRELAND - Lexical There are many interesting differences in the vocabulary of the two versions of English UK ENGLISH IRISH ENGLISH BACON Rashers PENCIL SHARPENER Pencil pairer TRAINERS Runners POLICE Gardai 04 WALES Shortlist of particularly salient features o o o the ‘sing-song’ or ‘lilting’ intonation, particularly in the ‘Valleys’ o a Welsh consonant: voiceless /l/ when the spelling has , as in Lloyd, Llangollen, used in place-names, personal names and a few Welshbased words o o the invariant tag isn’t it?, as in You are enjoying yourself, isn’t it? long medial consonants as in ready, happy, knitting ['nıt:ıŋ] schwa in STRUT words, making a large untidy room homophonous with a large and tidy room and seagull rhyming with eagle (Wells 1982:381) Welsh typically has a very similar vowel On the other hand, schwa does not occur in final checked syllables, as in Welshmen ['wεlʃmεn] the fronting of sentence constituents, for example Singing they were WALES ENGLISH Phonology Grammar Lexical WALES - Phonology STRUT–schwa merger different START, BATH (and to a lesser degree PALM) words are socially sensitive, varying between front and back; in the case of BATH also between long and short NURSE is often rounded in south-east Wales, giving it the quality of [œ:] or [ø:] Welsh voiceless /l/ Northern WelshE doesn’t exist /z/ making, for example, price–prize and seal–zeal homophonous WALES - Grammar double (multiple) negation, ‘nonstandard never’, participles preceded by a- (a-doing), the relatives as and what, generalisation of verb forms (I sees, they likes), ‘unorthodox’ forms of strong verbs (He was took bad), the pronoun her used in the subjective, possessive pronominal forms such as yourn, theirn yes?, as in You’re studying World Englishes, yes? The WelshE correspondence to the cleft sentence exemplified above would simply be Now they’re going, with the emphasis on the first word WelshE has characteristic ways of expressing aspect through use of periphrastic as in I go to chapel every Sunday ‘expletive there’, used in exclamations such as There’s strange it was! corresponding to Standard English How strange it was WALES - Lexical del and bach [ba:x], used as terms of endearment hwyl [hυil] ‘enthusiasm’ bara brith [bri:θ] ‘bread loaf made with currants’ clem ‘starve’ She was pretty, pretty Thank you! -GROUP 2- ... meaning of a word can change if a broad consonant is substituted for a slender consonant IRELAND - Grammar Irish grammar is more complicated than English grammar Irish is a “VSO” (verb-subject-object)... marginal for obligation and may is rare SCOTLAND LEXICAL SCOTTICISMS Scottish English has inherited a number of lexical items from Scots, which are comparatively rare in other forms of standard... words that take /æ/ in RP; there is no trap–bath split but both are pronounced with an extended fronted vowel ENGLAND – PRONUNCIATION Northern England Northern English tends not to have /ʌ/ (strut,
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