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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS THE CURRENT CHANGES OF VILLAGE CULTURE IN HOAI DUC DISTRICT, HA NOI CITY (Case study of Van Lung, Lai Du and Ngu Cau villages) SUMMARY OF PHD THESIS Field of study: Cultural Studies Code: 9229040 HA NOI - 2022 The doctoral thesis is completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: Assoc Prof , Dr Reviewer 1: Reviewer 2: Reviewer 3: The thesis shall be defended in front of the Thesis Committee at Academy Level organized at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At hour date month 2022 The thesis can be found at: The National Library The library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics INTRODUCTION The necessity of the thesis Vietnamese culture is an inherently attractive topic Regardless of the angle, researchers have identified in the Vietnamese culture the commonalities about the essential role of Vietnamese villages in the structure of family - village - country The village is a solid stronghold, fully promoting its strength in the course of the Vietnamese history Vietnamese villages have attracted many people, especially scholars who have deeply studied village culture in different directions They have not only described cultural traditions but also surveyed the changes of village culture The Vietnamese village like all things and phenomena with its property of constant change is not constant but changes to adapt to the impact of the environment All of the urban expansion, the application of science and technology, and the development of the market economy are realities that affect the village culture Although many works have been published since Renewal (Doi moi), they still not keep up-to-date on the reality of development These gaps need investigating and further clarifying, especially in the current period of rapid changes Hoai Duc district, belonging to an ancient strip of land in the suburban of Hanoi city along the left bank of the Day river, has formed and developed in the process of building and defending the Vietnamese country for over the past thousand years The villages and its culture have been established, maintained, and fostered by its residents for many generations, creating its characteristics of rural areas In the process of Renewal, the development of the market economy, urbanization and the industrialization - modernization, especially the application of State's policies over the past 10 years, the villages have been in great changes The village changes reflected in all aspects, including the village culture The thesis "The current changes of village culture in Hoai Duc district, Hanoi city (case study of Lai Du, Van Lung and Ngu Cau villages)" investigates the changes of village culture in Hoai Duc from 2008 to 2020 How has the village culture changed to adapt to the strong impact of factors that have never seen before? It is the change in the environment of the natural land, society and the activities of the cultural subjects performing in those spaces Urban lifestyle, industrial manner of working also interact to influence agricultural lifestyle Gaps in the movement of village culture in that context are contents that need to be further clarified in terms of village's landscape, people's material life, community organization, and spiritual life This will provide one more case to the already diverse situation of research on village cultural change The purpose and tasks of the research: Purpose: From clarifying the theoretical basis, the practical basis and surveying the reality of village cultural changes in Hoai Duc district, the thesis proposes recommendations to contribute to promoting the change of village culture in Hoai Duc to develop towards progress and civilization in the current period 2 Tasks: - Reviewing literature, clarifying the theoretical and practical basis of village culture changes in Hoai Duc - Surveying the reality of village culture changes in Hoai Duc district, in focus on the case study of Van Lung, Lai Du and Ngu Cau villages - Generalizing trends, pointing out problems and proposing recommendations to promote the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district to develop towards progress and civilization The research object and scopes - The research object of the thesis is the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district, Hanoi city in the current period - Research scopes: + Research problem: The thesis studies the changes of village culture in Hoai Duc district on the total aspects, including the village landscape, material life, community organization, and spiritual life + In terms of space: The thesis examines the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district, Hanoi city, mainly focuses on the case study of Van Lung, Lai Du and Ngu Cau + In terms of time: The study is carried out between 2008 (Hoai Duc belongs to Ha Noi) and 2020 Methodology and research methods Methodology The thesis conducted on the basic of methodology of Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh's thought, Vietnamese Communist Party's views on culture and development as well as the approach of cultural studies Research Methods Case study is a specific application method in selecting a typical case to prove a hypothesis However, the cases are not completely the same; this is an intermediate step in finding the commonalities Therefore, the combination of research methods is used in a broader context: - Documentary research methods: used in exploiting and searching for documentary information Those are the theories of cultural changes, the factors of influences, the policies of government, including books, research works, theses, journals; statistics and reports; legal documents, regulations of cultural village - The comparative method indicates the changes of cultural life in specific aspects Through the site survey, the comparison will clarify the common and unique points in the transformation process - The participant observation method helps to build a profile about daily life, production activities, rituals and practices (funerals, weddings, festivals, etc ); diary recording and pictures are specifically useful supplements reflecting the moments of cultural life - Interdisciplinary research method helps to avoid a split view in research This is the unique method of culturology, an interdisciplinary science, helping to have an overview of village culture - In-depth interview method applied in exploiting information from the important people (leaders and managers) and people's opinions (various ages) helps reinforce the vital arguments - Sociological survey: 300 Anket questionnaires with 20 questions distributed according to the size of village population in Van Lung, Lai Du, Ngu Cau (1108 households/4070 people, 324 households/1437 people and 1043 people, respectively 120/60/120), 272 valid votes collected (August 2020) - Analytical and synthesis methods used in analyzing and processing information and data collected from the survey process From there, there are generalizations and assessments of village culture changes Research questions and hypotheses Research questions What are the theoretical and practical bases for the survey and assessment of village cultural changes in Hoai Duc district? How is the reality of village cultural changes in Hoai Duc in focus on the case study of Van Lung, Lai Du and Ngu Cau villages? What needs to be done to promote the change of village culture in Hoai Duc, Ha Noi city to develop towards progress and civilization and eliminate the negative trends? Research hypothesis The study of village cultural changes in Hoai Duc should be based on the theories of cultural change and the researches on the change of village culture For the past time, the village culture in Hoai Duc district has had a rapid change in all aspects, including the village's landscape, material life, community organization, and spiritual life The change of village culture has both positive and negative respects, posing many problems need to be solved In the coming time, to get the village culture developed towards progress and civilization, it is necessary to have practical solutions to promote the positive and to eliminate the negative in village culture changes in Hoai Duc district Contributions of the thesis Theoretically - The thesis contributes to clarifying the theoretical issues about the change of village culture in our country in the current period; raising the theoretical awareness of village culture changes, especially the trend of change at the impact of the process of industrialization modernization and urbanization - The thesis can be used as a reference for studying, researching and teaching majors in cultural studies, social sciences and humanities Practically - From the analysis of the reality of village culture changes in a suburban district of Hanoi city, the thesis contributes to providing scientific data for the government administration to improve their awareness about village culture changes as well as the basis to improve their performance of management in the construction of cultural villages, new rural areas and civilized cities - Contribute to providing important arguments as a firm foundation for adjusting policies and guidelines on building and developing village culture in Hoai Duc district in particular and village culture in general Structure of the thesis In addition to the introduction, conclusion, the author's works, references, the thesis consists of chapters: Chapter LITERATURE REVIEW 1 RESEARCH WORKS RELATED TO THE THESIS 1 Researches on village culture and village cultural change 1 1 Research on village culture The village of Vietnam is a typical example of a rural society organization The village is the self-governing level below the rural commune The commune is the lowest level in the administrative system The village also has many customs, practices, and habits This wideranging aspect has many works both at home and abroad mentioned right from the late 19 century to the first half of 20th century They are The Annamite commune at Tonkin by Paul Ory (1894), Dan Tri Publishing House (republished in 2020); The peasants of the Tonkin delta: a study in human geography by Pierre Gourou (1936), Youth Publishing House, Ho Chi Minh City (republished in 2003); Vietnamese Customs by Phan Ke Binh (1915), published by the Ho Chi Minh Publishing House (republished 1990) They are also Introduction to Vietnamese culture by Dao Duy Anh (1938), Culture and Information Publishing House (republished in 2000); History of Vietnamese Civilization (Civilization annamite) by Nguyen Van Huyen (1939), Writers' Association Publishing House (republished in 2018) The village is a miniature country with its sustainable material and spiritual vitality The village is the basic unit of the country with the production of wet paddy rice as a main livelihood, associated with handicrafts In this group, there has many researches such as Study of Vietnamese cultural identity by Tran Ngoc Them, Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House (1997); Culture of villages and communes in the land of Hung Vuong's ancestors by Vu Kim Bien, the UNESCO Center for Information and Documents on Vietnamese history and culture and Phu Tho province Department of Culture, Information and Sports (1999) They are also Organizational structure of traditional Vietnamese villages in the North by Nguyen Tu Chi, Hanoi Social Science Publishing House; Rural Sociology by Tong Van Chung, Hanoi National University Publishing House (2001) Some researches considered the village culture at a specialized angle on its convention, customs, and habits There are Ancient village conventions in the Northern Delta by Vu Duy Men, Hanoi Social Science Publishing House (2001); Village conventions in the North of Vietnam in comparison with the village law Kan To in Japan, in XVII-XIX centuries by Vu Duy Men, Minh Loi Hoang (2001); The village God (Emperor) in Vietnam and Shinto in Japan by Trinh Cao Tuong, Institute of History, Hanoi (2005); Finding the old Vietnamese village by Vu Duy Men, Hanoi Social Science Publishing House (2018) Some works studying the customs and practices of the village can be mentioned as: Vietnamese village law in the folk memory by Ho Duc Tho, Hanoi Culture and Information Publishing House (2005); Cultural Customs by Hoang Quoc Hai, Hanoi Women's Publishing House (2005); The old habits - Vietnamese villages by Toan Anh, Ho Chi Minh Publishing House (2005); Vietnamese culture from a cultural model of people by Do Lai Thuy, Hanoi Culture and Information Publishing House (2005) There are also several other researches that considered village culture as a whole Both Research on Vietnamese Traditional Culture, Education Publisher (2007) and Village Culture in Vietnam, Hanoi Information and Culture Publishing House (2011) are works by Vu Ngoc Khanh They are also The Red River Delta residents' culture by Vu Tu Lap, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi (1991); Village culture in Phuc Tho by Nguyen Van Truong, National Political Publishing House (1997); Village Culture and Cultural Villages in Quang Ngai by Nguyen Van Manh, Thuan Hoa Publishing House (1999); Vietnamese people in the Northern Delta by Diep Dinh Hoa, Social Sciences Publishing House (2000) The richness and diversity of works proves the interest of people in the village culture with the peasants' life, farming and traditional styles in the countryside 1 Research on the change of village culture Vietnamese villages with its ability to transform in the condition of environmental changes have been attracting the researchers both at home and abroad Firstly, the works survey on the wide range of areas They are Facing the future, reviving the past: a study of social change in a Northern Vietnamese village by John Kleinen, Da Nang Publishing House (1999); Villages in the Red River Delta - an open issue by Olivier Tessier, Philippe Papin in collaboration with Nguyen Duy Quy, Le Ba Thao, published by National Center for Social Sciences and Humanities (2002); The role of culture in the cause of rural, agricultural industrialization and modernization in the Red River Delta, by Le Quy Duc, Culture and Information Publishing House and Institute of Culture (2005); The influence of the traditional village model on the change of villages in the Red River Delta, by Nguyen Lam Tuan Anh, Journal of Culture and Art, No 4, (2005) Secondly, the researchers saw the changes from different angles Regarding the village's fine arts, there are Fine Arts in the communal house of the Northern Delta, by Nguyen Van Cuong, Hanoi Culture and Information Publishing House (2006); The village gates of Hanoi in the past and at present, by Vu Kiem Ninh, Hanoi National Culture Publishing House (2007) Referring to the opportunities and challenges for village culture, Thanh Duy had two books: Vietnamese culture in the face of globalization- opportunities and challenges, Culture Publishing House and Institute of Culture (2007); Vietnam national Identity and Culture, National Political Publishing House (2004) From the perspective of cultural development, Phan Dai Doan had "Vietnamese Villages-Economic, cultural and social issues", National Political Publishing House (2008) Thirdly, they considered the changes as a whole of many aspects Nguyen Thi Phuong Cham had Cultural change in rural villages today: The case of Dong Ky, Trang Liet and Dinh Bang villages in Tu Son district, Bac Ninh province, Hanoi Information Culture Publishing House (2009) Nguyen Van Quyet had the cultural change of agricultural-rural communities during the development of industrial zones (the thesis, 2013) Pham Quynh Chinh had Village culture in the process of urbanization in the Red River Delta today, Hanoi University of Social Sciences and Humanities (thesis, 2016) Some other articles that can be mentioned include: Some changes in village culture in the Northern Delta, by Vu Thi Phuong Hau, Political Theory magazine, No 8-2017; the change in the cultural values of villages in the process of urbanization by Nguyen Thi Hue, Journal of Culture and Art, No 396 (2017) There are also many studies on cultural changes in the village, but it is unable to analyse in detail here due to the thesis's regulatory limitation Some domestic and foreign authors that can be typically listed are Le Thi Mai, To Duy Hop, Nguyen Thi Kim Tuyen, Nguyen Van Thang , Nguyen Thi Hong Tam, Hy Van Luong, Steffanie Scott, Shigehisa Misaki and Miyazawa Chihiro Their works provide important arguments, supplementing information from different angles, providing the basis for a scientific approach to the study of village culture changes 1 The researches on the village culture changes in Hoai Duc 1 Researches on changes village culture in Hanoi in general Firstly, before Hanoi expanded its administrative boundaries in 2008, most of the researches focus on the periphery of the capital Hanoi Tran Duc Ngon had "Traditional culture of villages in the suburbs of Hanoi under the influence of the market economy", Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (2004) Nguyen Huu Minh had "Socio-economic changes on the periphery of Hanoi in the process of urbanization", Journal of Sociology No 89 (2005); Ngo Van Gia had Changes in traditional cultural values in Hanoi suburban villages during the renovation period, National Political Publishing House (2007) Secondly, after Hanoi expanded its administrative boundary, the studies mainly focused on the impact of urbanization From a psychological perspective, Phan Thi Mai Huong had Psychological changes of peri-urban residents in the process of urbanization, Bach Khoa Dictionary Publishing House (2010); Phan Thanh Ta had Traditional culture in Vietnamese villages today, Labor Publishing House (2011), a case study in focus on Da Ton, Ninh Hiep, and Bat Trang villages From the perspective of sociology, Tran Thi Hong Yen had Social and cultural changes in rural villages in the process of urbanization in Hanoi, National Political Publishing House (2013) Nguyen Dinh Tuan had the thesis Cultural change in urbanized communities (2013), surveying Dinh Cong and Minh Khai wards from an anthropological perspective on urban development in Hanoi Thirdly, a number of works mentioned the change of village culture in various aspects, including livelihoods and craft villages In Industrialization, urbanization and livelihood change in the periphery of Hanoi, Hanoi Knowledge Publishing House (2014), Nguyen Van Suu had approached livelihood and livelihood changes in the village In the thesis "The change of traditional craft village culture in Hanoi today (2015), Nguyen Thi Bich Thuy had considered the livehood of craft villages surveying the two villages of Trieu Khuc and Thiet Ung In addition, many works considered the whole of culture in many aspects Nguyen Thi Phuong Cham, Do Lan Phuong in Suburban village and cultural change: The case of Xuan Dinh village, Tu Liem district, Hanoi city, Hanoi Social Science Publishing House (2016), surveyed the changes in many dimensions such as livelihood, lifestyle, entertainment, customs, beliefs, festivals, etc Geographically, Li Tana had Peasants on the move: Rural Urban Migration in Hanoi region, 1996); Philippe Papin had History of Hanoi, World Publishing House, 2014) Trinh Thi Phuong had The current employment situation of people with land acquisiton by the State in Hanoi city, case study of Ha Dong, Quoc Oai, Thach That, Hoai Duc, 2010) These works mainly referred the impact of urbanization, migration and urban lifestyle as well as new way of cultural enjoying 1 2 Researches on the change of village culture in Hoai Duc First, the researches examine the aspects of cultural life Tran Thi Hong Yen had an article "Using labor in La Phu, Hoai Duc, Ha Tay craft villages", Ethnographic Review, No (2) 2006 Nguyen Thi Thanh Binh had "The changes in ritual life in La Phu craft village, Hoai Duc, Ha Tay", Ethnology Magazine, No (4), 2006, (the custom of distinctive feature: "Mr Pig" procession) Nguyen Thi Lan Anh with "Family culture in the countryside in Hoai Duc district, Hanoi (a case study in three communes Yen So, Van Canh, Lai Yen, 2010) examines the family culture in rural areas at the challenges of innovation This research can be a comparison with "The change of urban family culture in Hanoi from 1986 to present" by Vu Thi Hue Nguyen Trung Thuan with Developing craft villages in Hoai Duc district, Hanoi (2012), surveys 51 of 53 villages: According to the craft village criteria by Ha Tay Provincial People's Committee, there are 12 villages passed Nguyen Dinh Phuc had "Impacts of safety box making on village life", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, No 32, (2015), assessing the impact of the job (safety box production) on economic life village (case study of Dai Tu village, Kim Chung commune) Second, several studies' authors drew comparison between the village cultural change in Hoai Duc village and the change in other localities Le Quang Hung had The change of traditional culture in the suburbs of Hanoi in the context of urbanization, World Publishing House (2015) The study researched Kim Chung and An Khanh communes of Hoai Duc district and Phu Thi commune of Gia Lam district Vu Dieu Trung had Cultural change of craft villages in the Red River Delta, Ethnic Culture Publishing House (2016), comparing statistics of craft villages, including 12 in Hoai Duc surveyed In addition, there are a number of authors giving a general description of the cultural space of the village and having articles on few areas of cultural life in Hoai Duc They are Bui Xuan Dinh (Journey to an ancient Vietnamese villages, Hanoi Encyclopedia Publishing House, 2008); Vuong Ngoc Thinh (Implementing the law on democracy at grass root level in Hoai Duc district); Le Thi Diem (The State management of craft villages in Hoai Duc district); Nguyen Trung Thuan (Development of craft villages in Hoai Duc district); Lam Thi Thanh Xuan (Funeral rites change in Yen So under the influence of Buddhism) These works are considered as supplementary references providing an overall picture of material, spiritual life and community organizations in the district over the past decade SOME COMMENTS Issues that have been studied in depth Firstly, the overview shows that village culture has been studied from many different angles and clarified many issues First, the works have shown the diversity of the village (farming villages, craft villages, trading villages ) and describe the village culture in many historical periods (under Feudalism, Resistance, Renewal) Second, the village culture is identified with many common characteristics The village is a common economic community, basically self-sufficient; is an autonomous community; has its own spiritual element (the most typical is worshiping the village god) Third, in addition to good customs and practices, it also contains conservative and backward elements such as hierarchies, problems of localism, (ating and drinking) It's also the village's inactivity, stagnation and "bad customs and practices" Secondly, the studies have shown adaptation in changes from many angles First, from the angle of interaction, village culture changed at the Western civilization in the modern era, under the impact of the renovation, industrialization - modernization and the development of the market economy, especially the process of urbanization Second, from the angle of content, the change of village culture is diverse in many aspects: landscape space, festival beliefs, funerals, weddings Third, from the angle of research methods, it can be generalized in groups They are the group of changes in tangible cultural values and in intangible cultural values; the change in the cultural elements (livelihood, psychology, ethics, festivals ); the overall approach group (economic, political, educational culture, family and religious beliefs); the change group of the cultural structure (upper and lower layers); and the group of cultural values from levels (village - family - personal values) Thirdly, the value of theses works relates to the doctoral thesis First, the results obtained in previous scientific works are the reference sources for the thesis Second, scholarly studies of village cultural change are methodological guidelines necessary for the thesis to be on the right track Third, the studies of village culture changes in Hanoi city, including directly researches in Hoai Duc district are the basis to have an overall picture and the basis for comparison with current changes 2 Issues that need further research The villages and communes of Hoai Duc district after 2008 are in the process of building a new countryside with the Program of National Targets, concretizing the Resolution of 10th Central Committee on agriculture, farmers, rural areas (2010), and the process of Co-op transformation (The Cooperative Law 2012) This is a direct impact on the cultural life of the villages Hoai Duc is also in the process of urbanization in the context of unprecedentedly rapid progress in science and technology, especially in IT (Information technology) globalization Therefore, this is one of the typical cases in the new period of development The research works on the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district mainly stopped in the early years of the twentieth century Most of the individual studies have not kept up with the change of the district in reality Under the influence of unprecedented factors, the village culture has changed in both positive and negative way The industrial working manner and urban lifestyle evidently intertwine with the agricultural lifestyle The approach to the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district as a whole object is basically small in number, mainly at other levels (by commune) and in individual aspect The reality of Van Lung, Lai Du, and Ngu Cau villages in the case study has never been investigated separately, especially the changes in the last 10 years The recent changes in the past decade have not been updated besides some villages deeply surveyed such as Son Dong, Dai Tu and La Phu Thus, the gaps between the reality of changes and the studies of village cultural change need to be clarified in the face of unprecedented impact factors pose problems Firstly, the village landscape culture with typical rural images is also a sign for identification Second, with the change in the village's livelihood of villagers, how is the culture of material life reflected in food, clothing, accommodation and transportation Third, how about the culture of community organization before the changes taking place in villages that have only pure agriculture on the basis of a new economy (coop organizations, clan/ family organizations) Fourth, how are the traditional ties in spiritual life, traditional relations in society, especially the lifestyle of the villagers before the impact of urban lifestyle and industrial working manner Fifth, from that situation, the thesis needs to propose recommendations to promote the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district to develop towards progress and civilization Chapter THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS OF VILLAGE CULTURE CHANGE IN HOAI DUC THEORETICAL BASIC 1 Basic concepts Culture is an organic system of values created and accumulated by people in practical activities to adapt to the environment, exposed in all aspects of life for the sake of survival and development Village is a traditionally residential unit in the countryside forming a material, spiritual living space in the structure of Family-Village-State and in the process of practical activities for the sake of survival and development 11 existing values being "produced" The difference between these two parts reflects the various changes of village culture Second, the cultural elements of village From the perspective of a system of elements, depending on the researchers' view, village culture could be divided and seen in different aspects such as material culture, organizational and spiritual culture (psychological, moral, recreation culture) Third, the expressive forms of village culture The three-part structure of village culture maintains a harmonious relation in the face of environmental change Firstly, the tangible (material) culture is reflected in two aspects of the village landscape and the villagers' material life They may be rice fields, banyan trees; the tiled roof houses, brick yards, village ponds, and village gates; and exposed in eating, wearing, livings, using (technical equipment) Secondly, the culture of community organization is in the forms of village structure They are the traditional agricultural cooperatives, socio-political bodies, clans, groups, and family (same age, same interest, and household model, funeral, and wedding) Thirdly, the spiritual culture is reflected in folk knowledge and agricultural experience (knowledge of calendar, geography, medicine, and treatment methods) They are also taboo beliefs, worship and entertainment activities (clubs' activities, taking care of plants and pets, and virtual games) Fourth, the nature of village culture changes The change is a way to adapt to environments, exploit resources and ensure life It is also a process of receiving new values and supplementing the missing elements leading to the transformation in the traditional elements of village culture All changes are development-oriented to operate the system of cultural elements, balance their relationships and maintain development Analytical Framework: Village culture change Impact factors Material life Community organization Spiritual life Generalization 2 PRACTICAL BASIS 2 Overview of Hoai Duc district Hoai Duc is a long historical land where the Vietnamese community settled early They chose to live, built villages and made dikes to prevent floods During the period of northern domination and domination resistance, Hoai Duc was officially named in Sino-Vietnamese script ( 懷懷) During the period of Dai Viet, the villages built lots of spacious communal houses and pagodas along the dyke During the French colonial period, the district was a stronghold In the early 20th century, people accepted Catholicism During the period of 12 Renewal, the villagers in the district have promoted many rural village crafts, profoundly changed from the village appearance of the landscape, the material life to the spiritual life Hoai Duc belongs to the former Ha Tay province, bordered by North Tu Liem and South Tu Liem to the east, by Quoc Oai, Dan Phuong, Phuc Tho to the west and north and by Ha Dong district to the south Since 2008, Hoai Duc has become a district of Hanoi city with 20 administrative units, including a town The whole district has 54 villages, 132 residential areas with 73 grassroots Party cells Hoai Duc has some 8,493 hectares of natural land, a convenient transportation system, good labor resources (262,943 people in 2018) People in the working age account for about 51% They are educated, diligent, and capable of absorbing new technology and different occupations, especially those in the market economy Hoai Duc district meets the need to reduce the pressure of downtown center and provides the agricultural and handicraft products of the villages to the city 2 Overview of Van Lung, Lai Du, Ngu Cau villages The villages of Van Lung, Lai Du, Ngu Cau belonged to the old Son Tay town, to Hanoi under the Nguyen Dynasty, to Ha Dong under the French period These villages with long cultural history belong to two communes in the south of district now An Thuong commune including Lai Du and Ngu Cau, has a total land area of approximately 785 hectares There were nearly 15,400 people (3861 households) in 2010 An Khanh has five villages (including Van Lung) and two resident zones, had a population of 14,225 in 2008 By 2008, the villages's people were mainly engaged in agricultural production The roads were slippery in the rainy season, dusty in the dry season and far from the district center Farmers two rice crops a year (spring-summer and summer-autumn); in the winter crops they grow potatoes, eggplants and temperate vegetables on their contracted fields Supplement occupations such as animal husbandry, knitting nets, weaving wool, knitting are maintained to provide food and increase income for the household Criteria for choosing research sites These villages were selected as representative examples in the current period Van Lung village in An Khanh commune is located adjacent to the urban areas while Lai Du and Ngu Cau villages in An Thuong commune are on the western edge and outside the urban areas, respectively The research sites are original villages with a long cultural history that ensure accuracy The representative sample was selected at random to ensure objectivity Other villages are also compared for generalization The conversion degree of land use and changes in socio-economic structure are the most important criteria for sample selection They are main factors causing the change of village culture Since becoming a district of Hanoi, the villages in Hoai Duc have a modern transport system connecting They have transformed the coop model; modernized the infrastructure of electricity, water and telecommunications A lot of policies are prioritized for implementation in the area (NQ 15/2008/QH12 on adjustment of administrative boundaries; Decision No 1259/QD-TTg on construction of Hanoi Capital; Decision No 563/QD - People's Committee of Ha Tay province on allocation agricultural land to implement Nam An Khanh new urban project; National target program on new countryside; Decision No 491/QD-TTg on new countryside; Law on cooperatives) Some basic data of the three villages are shown below: 13 Communes Villages Area of land Population Square The Number Immigration People/household Conversion (2008 or left (year) (**) (2020) year) (2020) An Khanh 846,8 ~ 670 ha 17,351 43,994/12,503 762,0 ~50% ~50% 13,445 16,838/4,128 An Thuong (2010) 1/4/2019 1,1 Van Lung 100% 700 4,070/1,108 sao*/person 1,2 1,437 Lai Du ~ 70 200 1,650/406 sao/person (2015) 1,1 Ngu Cau 50% 70 420/112 3,900/1,043 sao/person Source: Hoai Duc Police; *360m2/sao; and ** Heads of villages for statistics (July/2020) These three villages represent the three groups of villages First, they are purely agricultural villages Urbanization and industrial zones planning made the agricultural land acquired, directly affecting farmers' life (An Tho, Phu Vinh, Yen Lung) Representing for this group is Van Lung village Second, villages have been acquired most of their agricultural land Village farmers still rely on agriculture for a living, however they divided into different occupations (An Ha, Dao Nguyen, Ngai Cau) Representing for this group is Ngu Cau village Third, villages have not had their land acquired, developed towards modern and transformed model of agricultural production They not rely on traditional pure agriculture Representing for this group is Lai Du village In addition to randomly selecting sample, there are some notable points in these villages Firstly, the social structure changed from agriculture to non-agriculture, the farmers were "detached from agriculture" but not "out of village", still living and maintaining the village's customs and practices Secondly, the fact that the village infrastructure connected to the modern transport system is an unprecedented phenomenon (Thang Long Avenue, Le Trong Tan Str ; Vinschool, St Paul American International School, Academy of Policy; Paradise Park; Industrial zones - An Binh, An Khanh; and apartment blocks- Golden, Gelmek, Gleximco, Alpha) Thirdly, the source of labor concentrated in the villages because of many jobs for workers and the low cost of living in the villages Chapter REALITY OF VILLAGE CULTURE CHANGES IN HOAI DUC DISTRICT THE CULTURE OF LANDSCAPE AND MATERIAL LIFE 1 The culture of landscape and environment of the village Hoai Duc is an agricultural district, so in the past most of the people lived in rural villages There is not any sight of urban areas After 2015, 65 projects of urban, resettlement and social housing areas had changed the view of villages It is easy to recognize the changes in the landscape of the village Regarding the landscape outside the village, by 2020, the common fields of Dao Nguyen, An Ha and Ngu Cau villages (An Thuong commune); An Tho, Yen Lung, Van Lung, Phu Vinh villages (An Khanh commune) in the early years of the 21st century were 14 changed into urban areas (Hado, Vinhomes and Nam An Khanh) The industrial zones, Paradise Park, and apartment complexes have now replaced those colorful fields before 2008 In terms of road space, before 2008, inter-village and inter-commune roads were just dirt or red gravel, slippery in the rainy season and dusty in the summer By 2020, all roads in the areas are paved and concreted (road from An Khanh Commune People's Committee to the villages with 76 km/4 76 km in total) All villages' alleys are paved with asphalt and concrete with a total length of km and 29 km, respectively Some of them are installed with a modern light system Roads around Lai Du and Ngu Cau villages have been concreted The landscape of the village was renovated By 2020, the villages will have hundreds of blocks of modern houses with wide gates, and glossy paint According to the survey, more than 1,100 households in Van Lung, nearly 1,040 households in Ngu Cau and 400 households in Lai Du built new modern high-rise buildings (mainly 3-4 floors) There still has been dozens of traditional tile houses, including old style house (about 30 only in Van Lung, less than 10 in Ngu Cau) These old style houses are mostly for traditional education rather than for living The leaders of clans run them for the purpose of worship, keeping the large brick yards These houses are decorated in an old-fashioned way with parallel sentences and couplets Today, the Vietnamese language is added next to the Han Nom script (Hoang Ba clan; Dao Van, Hoang Quoc) Regarding the traditional tile house, the survey results show that, until 2010, there is about 50% of respondents confirmed their existence of tile houses Basically, the tile house has a separate kitchen with a separate cooking compartment, a storage space for tools, and a pig house That model is both suitable for a secondary economy (raising cattle below, poultry in the upper attic) and for creating green manure for agriculture In front of the house, there is a drying brick yard and a raining water tank The house has 4-5 compartments (grain storage room, bedroom, and 2-3 middle rooms) The central compartment has an altar, a table and chairs By 2020, hundreds of multi-storey buildings have replaced these typical images Regarding the craft village, the landscape image of traditional crafts villages is quite prominent such as rice paper rolls, vermicelli, bamboo blinds, and sun-shading net In Ngu Cau village, rice paper rolls are dried on regular rows of bamboo sheets, spread all over the village road In Van Lung, bamboo-drying racks are dotted creating images in the village space However, the images of landscape in some sectional areas of the village are not still good-looking The electrical wires look like spider webs; the road surface was dug to install water pipes, causing the loss of smooth surface (near the communal house of Ngai Cau) Outside the village, the areas for gathering domestic and construction waste are rather mess Some land is abandoned with lots of garbage and dust Culture of material life The strong economic foundation thanks to the diversified allocation of resources is the basis for the material life of the village to improve First, some of agricultural laborers changed their jobs in the farm to work in factories and companies Second, some of farmers focus on the self-employment, including transportation services, construction, painting and small size trades Third, some of farmers develop the traditional craft of village and establish large-scale production enterprises (Van Lung bamboo blinds, Ngu Cau spring rolls rice paper) Fourth, some of farmers change their agricultural production model in the direction of modern science Changing the resource allocation in the livelihood culture has diversified their income sources and increased income for households Compared to 10 years ago, the 15 proportion of people with high incomes (over VND million/month) increased, accounting for nearly 50% In 2020, there are not any poor households in these two communes This is the foundation for a comfortable material life In terms of eating and drinking, people now have several new points Firstly, about the dining space, kitchen room and dining room are separated from other rooms in the new house The image of kitchen equipment, dining table, refrigerator and neat cabinets are typical Secondly, old fuels (straw, coal) and surface water sources (village ponds, wells) have been replaced by gas, electricity and tap water The phrase "blowing fire to cook rice" (thổi cơm) is replaced by "plugging in" (cắm cơm an electric rice cooker) Thirdly, the time of meals is flexible; the dishes are diverse The village restaurants are popular, serving from traditional dishes (pho, vermicelli, sticky rice, rolls) to new dishes (imported drinks-Taiwanese milk tea) The demands for family reunions and eating out appear Regarding the villager's clothes, today's highlight was suitability Observations show that, in the early morning, those participating in the club (sports, keep fit, aerobics) wears their own uniforms; the officials wear office clothes; the workers in industrial zones wear protective clothing During class time, students have their school uniforms to go to class In the evening, most people walk, relax and choose to soft clothes Besides, in the specialized farms (Lai Du), farmers wear protective helmets when spraying pesticides They care the usefulness associated with their jobs Regarding means of transport, by 2020, the use of carts that cattle (buffaloes and cows) pulled in the village has been eliminated The cart containers are attached to the motorcycle Bicycles are for the elderly to sports and for children to go to school Motorcycles help workers run business According to the survey, the using frequency of motorbikes "regularly" accounts for 83%, of which the "always" level accounts for 30% However, the rapid development of personal vehicles, especially cars in the past few years, is signaling many problems, such as considerable pressure on traffic system in the village Regarding home equipment, modern houses have complete systems of electricity, water and network cables About running water, pipes are installed to each hamlet for households to connect By July 1st, 2020, An Khanh commune has 4,533 households using tap water About electricity, 100% of households have access to the national electric grid Regarding the telecommunications network, Internet gateways are available for the village people to subscribe to buy services Regarding the habit of using modern appliances, ("electric fans, steam", "washing machines" and "air conditioners") the "regular" frequency has a high rate (86%, 79% and 54%) "Rarely" and "never" use coal, firewood to heat account for a high percentage (90%) Frequency of regular use of TVs and computers connected to the network is quite high (69%); and 74% is the rate of smartphone use Regarding the application of virtual technology (internet), the village's virtual market on apps is unprecedented for the village "Ngu Cau Market, Ngai Cau Market, Van Lung Market" are virtual market addresses on Zalo and Facebook Due to the modern tech, the rural villages are not only visible in the real world but also in the virtual world of cyberspace However, negative effects, addiction to video games, detached from reality, confusion of virtual life in the game with real life are showing clear worrisomeness CULTURE OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION Socio-political organizations and co-op organizations The socio-political organizations in the village and the village's co-op organization, which have traditionally been linked together, have changed to suit the new development The 16 village co-op organization changed under the period of household land using contract and now continues to change First, the farming area in some villages has been acquired Second, the co-op work is reduced due to the partial acquisition of land Third, farmers change production models according to the Target program of new countryside and new co-op model Farmers are no longer members of co-op but become users of service co-op organizations (providing services of electricity, domestic waste collection) Regarding socio-political organizations, the village now has a village leader under the leadership of the Party cell The Youth Union, Mass mobilization group, and Committee of Fatherland Front are the extended arms supporting the propaganda of the Party's policies and State's laws at the grassroots level The Farmers' Union and the Village Women's Union are the cores of the superior associations The Elderly People's Association and the Veterans' Association are organizations of people who have retired Regarding the role of community orientation, village socio-political organizations play a decisive role in traditional agricultural co-op, especially in production management According to current survey data (2020), the level of influence of organizations is generally quite weak The criteria "moderate" and "strong" account for approximately 50% while the "low" and "slightly low" levels are above 50% Influences from the activities of the "Village meeting", "Youth union", "Mass mobilization", "Front", "Farmer's association", "Women's association," and "Village leader" for people's lives is not strong In contrast, people's interest in these organizations' activities is also not high In fact, in addition to the development of communication technology, the commune radio also broadcasts to every hamlet in the village The one-stop procedure also helps farmers have guidance Since then, the role of these organizations' members has decreased 2 The activities of villages'clans and groups Regarding the organization of clans, the movement of clan activities over the past 10 years has been quite active First, the "Clan ancestral anniversary and feast" done every year accounts for 90%; "Ancestral graves visiting" takes place every year, accounting for 71% Second, the clan affairs such as taking care of the clan house for worship, writing a genealogy, and raising funds (living funds, study promotion funds) are all clearly defined Third, the current clans not distinguish between boys and girls (only male in the past) in honoring good studies and success Regarding the traditional male organization, although it no longer exists in the village, its influence is still quite strong in the activities of communal house At present, the arrangement of sitting positions in the village's communal house is based on the age of men only, at least 49 years old According to the custom of respecting the elderly, the elderly sit in solemn seats The newcomers (49 years old) have the task of serving and supporting the village holy work For the group under the age of 49, they set up associations of the same age (male) Each village now has about two dozen associations depending on the village population Regarding women's organizations, those at the age of 50 (lunar calendar) join the association of women and take refuge in the Three Jewels at their village pagoda (village Buddhist association) In turn, the "new Buddhist ladies" take turns in charge of the village's pagoda (cleaning, preparing incense lamps, offerings, blessing ) As for other village pagodas in the region, on the occasion of the death anniversary of the pagoda ancestors (pagoda abbot), the Buddhist association organizes offerings to the Buddha, worships the ancestors, and eats vegetarian food together 17 Regarding the clubs, groups of similar interests, according to statistics of An Khanh People's Committee, the number of clubs in the whole commune is 16; 7/7 villages (residential areas) have their sports fields Ngu Cau and Lai Du have many clubs such as volleyball, keep fit, paper fan dance for the old, Aerobics for the young, the young/elderly Art clubs Chinese chess clubs became a trend They are the nucleus for the games and performances at the annual village festival 3 Family organization In terms of family scale, the family organization changed drastically The onegeneration families are the ones of both parents who let their children live separately; the nuclear families are the ones of two-generation of young couple with children; the threegeneration families are the nuclear with only grandfather or grandmother, living with children; the four-generation ones with great grandparents are rare The survey shows that nuclear families make up the majority (57%), three generations 35% and four generations about 1% The quantity of family members reflects that’s clearly: 67% from three to five members; above five accounted for 25% The ratio of 2-3 generation families accounts for 92%, with an average of four members This is a new trend in the area of traditionally agricultural production Regarding the wedding, maintaining the "traditional rites" is a cultural feature besides the civilized lifestyle First, many steps of traditional wedding (introduction, proposal ceremony, engagement, wedding present requirement, the bride receiving, the newly wed first visit) are flexibly integrated into the proposal, the engagement and the wedding ceremony The cumbersome procedures are eliminated (closes the bride's house gate, ties the rope, the bride's mother avoids) Second, the good or bad times are for reference, while the Catholic followers not care Third, the marriage registration reflects the improved The pre-marriage registration increased; Family arranged marriage no longer exists; the young couple's decision of their marriages increase Fourth, a series of customs has been flexible: Using "betel and areca" to invite is not much; congratulatory gifts are popular with cash; party time moved to the night before and partying place at the village's culture house are on the rise Fifth, the size of feast is larger while the days of feast decrease Regarding the mourning, many old customs have changed First, the burial coffin keeping for a long time has decreased significantly According to the survey, about 50% of people not perform to wait for the good hours and to avoid the bad days; 34% perform, but only during the day Second, few families invite the shaman In Van Lung, the practice of casting magic spells and summoning souls was completely abandoned Third, the "meal" prepared to invite relatives to the funeral is small The number of families that not make accounted for 11% Many customs were removed such as the deceased's children lying under the coffing during the funeral procession Votive paper is not spread out to the street The loud dreary drumming also decreased Lai Du had a team of western trumpets going to mourning families (four parents) to perform ritual music About the method of burial, the villages have separated the newly burial area and the remains reburial area The area of the grave is regulated by the village and indicates the location Many cases chose the one-time burial and cremated However, several cases built oversize graves 3 SPIRITUAL CULTURE 3 Folk knowledge Firstly, the role of agricultural experience of the elderly is less influential The reason is that the family labor force is differentiated from traditional pure agriculture: hired and 18 contracted work Next, the application of engineering, biological and astronomical knowledge is popular (weather information) Then, the mass media disseminate knowledge updated via radio, TV, especially smartphones Therefore, the experience gradually lost its role For example, 24 climate periods a year unused has 45% the answers; the frequent use accounts for less than 10% Secondly, traditional knowledge of geography and medicine varies greatly in application First, the calculation of day time such as "the rooster's crow, the sun at bamboo tops, standing shadow" are almost unused (nearly 80% "not used" or "rarely used"); The lunar day "frequently used" is about 40% The purpose is not for planting, but for worshiping and ancestral anniversaries Second, folk medicine, the habit of healing with plants is still maintained In addition to the traditional healers used, herbal remedies are also trusted in the region However, urban planning changes the area of the garden, so it is difficult to find Some said they had to go to the market to buy Third, about geography, feng shui knowledge is used relatively flexibly Most consider it as a reference Fourth, Han Nom characters are used with Vietnamese characters added The Han Nom script considered to be a decoration of the old style and the tradition in the village is still respected Thirdly, farmers' measurement methods are variable Traditionally the length is measured by fingers, hand spans, arm spans, bamboo poles; the depth of water measured for seedling, land field pouring, dropping duckweed is measured to the ankle (foot), knee and belly The survey shows that, the "always use" estimate is less than 17%; "not used" and "rarely used" are 43% and 44%, respectively The units of "thuoc" (24m2) and "sao" (360m2) are still used, but not much Kilogram and litre are preferre At Van Lung market and Ngu Cau communal market, to measure rice and beans, peanuts, people use table scales… 3 Religious beliefs Firstly, the taboo practices of farmers are quite flexible First, the term "turning power" is applied in many things to choose good from evil, for example in "marriage", "transporting remains" before the funeral Second, the custom of abstaining from names and surnames (grandparents, grandparents) has a response rate of about 20% for the four criteria "never, rarely, occasionally and often" Abstaining from "calling holy names, avoiding the same names" is not much Third, the rate of not abstaining from people believed to have "evil spirits" and "welcoming people with good spirits" (before going to market doing business) has a high rate of 51% and 63%, respectively "Frequently abstaining" and "always abstaining" from evil spirits accounted for 11% and 2%, respectively However, abstaining to keep healthy with the vulnerable (women and young children) received 50% people of frequent practice Secondly, the practice of Tet festivals shows the signs of change First, Tet holidays such as Lunar New Year, Kitchen Gods, Mid-first lunar month festival, Cold food festival, Grave-visiting festival, Double-fifth (Dragon Boat) festival have a high number of replies while Rice harvest festival and Double-ninth festival have only 30% and 15%, respectively In particular, many nuclear families not celebrate Rice harvest festival (Tet 10/10) or even not have the concept of "new rice" (maybe it is because they no longer plant seasonal paddy rice) Second, the worship in the village has three levels: in the family, in the alley, and in the village In the family, every house has a family altar; in the alleys, there are a few shrines in all three villages (insignificant) Almost all of the alleys in Ngai Cau (a village of An Khanh 19 commune) have shrines, some still remain shrine buildings and yards In the village, people worship their villages' Gods at the communal houses About 73% people celebrate on the first day and full moon day every lunar month, mainly for blessings and good fortune Thirdly, about religion in these villages, people mainly follow Buddhism and Catholicism About 500 people in Lai Du and Van Lung are Catholic followers (introduced in 1927 and 1936), having their own habits under the instructions of the church (in the marriage, funeral) Regarding the current ritual practice, it is not necessary to have the whole family present at the church, but representing members Regardless of the big or small church, many young families living in the apartment go to Van Lung church to worship at weekends Regarding Buddhism, all three villages have pagodas, even Lai Du has two pagodas, 46% of people are Buddhist, 5% are Catholic, and 49% are non-religious In fact, the number of nonreligious people still goes to pagoda Almost all of the women at the age of 50 start going to pagoda to take refuge in Three Jewels Tam Bao and being responsible for regular activities at the village pagoda Young people tend to go to pagoda, especially on spring festival - Tet holidays 3 Leisure activities It can be seen that in the "spring festival of the village, the village's entertainment and recreation activities have become prominent features of the rural country side In addition to spring festival days, in today's daily life, various types of Entertainment such as club, entertainment activities thanks to technology are contributing to filling the gaps when neighborly relations are becoming increasingly loose Regarding technology, by 2020 the internet, which is quite popular in the village, has provided additional types of entertainment Listening to entertainment programs from the commune radio is only passive Internet-connected TVs, computers, and smartphones bring new forms of entertainment: playing games, playing chess, listening to music, watching movies Farmers actively approach many kinds of movies and read e-books from different views and updated hourly The survey shows that the highest frequency of "daily use" is TV, computer and smartphone in all forms of entertainment, accounting for 49% However, there are also harmful images, clips, and even negative views that cause anxiety for many people Some have health effects when overused In terms of family entertainment, dining together, family reunion has become a necessity of life with a diversity of livelihoods The percentage of families that organize weekly and monthly meals for their children and grandchildren accounts for 59% ("monthly" is 39% and "every week" is 20%) Gardening with many farmers today has become a hobby Many groups with the same hobby of pets, cockfighting, and bonsai form playgroups In terms of club entertainment, fitness activities, arts, and game skills training have formed groups of similar interests About sports, young men play soccer, girls dance, and dance to music Elderly people join the club of nursing (Van Lung village); fan dance, air volleyball (Ngu Cau) Young girl group with Aerobics club About the art, people who like folk songs or karaoke join the arts club In terms of game competition skills, practicing chess became a trend when many villages restored the folk game of traditional "human chess" with prizes in the spring festival Today, a number of clubs are recognized by the People's Committees of communes encouraging development with their active roles 20 Chapter VILLAGE CULTURE CHANGE IN HOAI DUC DISTRICT: TRENDS, ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS TRENDS 1 Reordering elements, prioritizing development Firstly, it is given the priority to the foundation of material values First, farmers' desire of getting rich to increase economic value is a priority trend in livelihood culture The economy of self-sufficiency has changed to promote the new thinking of emphasis on value of time, money and exchange possibility The household economy is no longer confined to the village; it has become a part of the social economy Second, the transformation of production models to prioritize the culture of new rural livelihood The traditional part-time jobs of the village became the main full-time occupation (making bamboo mats, rice paper, noodles) Small-scale production becomes large-scale (soybean juice; pig, chicken rising for meat and eggs) Growing fruit trees turned into the industrial crops of high economic value (Long'an fruit) Third, the value of material life achieved in adapting to new conditions appeared in landscape culture, material comforts, and means of transportation, technological equipment towards modern civilized life, health care, and beauty Secondly, traditional spiritual values are reinforced First, the village festivals of long tradition that arouse people's pride and love for the homeland Second, restoring, and embellishing relics, popularizing historical stories, linking tradition with the modern times form the symbolic image of the homeland Third, worshiping the village Lords who honored the beauty of the homeland (Van Lung), established the land to build the village (Lai Du) and protected the homeland (Ngu Cau) becomes the village's own spiritual symbol Fourth, the restoration of folk games in the spring festival, associated with the village history (such as playing on swings) has created more cohesion in the community Fifth, the village clans' activities strengthen solidarity and the spirit of the next generation for development Accumulating new elements, adding insufficient values First, freedom, democracy in obedience to the law For the village, this great content prominently displayed in the village convention (Huong Uoc) The village convention is the old name; the convention of cultural village is the present name, built based on the village convention, distilling the traditional beauty of unity and order of the village The cultural village convention is a standard, a set of rules and a measure of behavior in the village that adds the new era's values The cultural village convention aims at protecting people's interests, eliminating bad practices, and superstitions, creating democracy and solidarity The cultural village convention is implemented based on self-discipline, high self-governance to each family without breaking the law The cultural village convention is built by the villagers themselves, placed under the supervision of the local People's Committee according to the process: Drafted by the village, submitted by the commune and approved by the district Second, receiving the scientific and technological values The development of information technology, specifically including smartphones has made a "revolution" for rural people in a short time The folk knowledge is re-identified for development Applying new knowledge is to complement empiricism (empiricism about fertilizers, seedlings, weather) The calculation method of estimation gradually reduced its role, move towards scientific accuracy instead The improvement of production facilities (rice paper machine; spokes splitter, spokes stripper, bamboo curtain knitting machine) is to optimize use value, improve and enhance productivity 21 Causing problems that need correcting Firstly, the conflict in socio-economic relations First, farmers' haste in converting production and setting up workshops on arable land conflict with the land management (Lai Du village's cause) Second, the transformation of cooperative model makes the value commonly serving the village's normal life waste (individuals' benefit) Third, the land planning affects the living environment, causing the conflict with the famers' interest when many adjacent plots of land are not suitable for production Fourth, the interest conflict between immigrants and local people includes localism (the right to be buried in the village cemetery) Secondly, the traditional relationship is loose First, in the family, household size tends to be nuclear family and the private space of individuals requires a relative separation (parents with children) with many rooms Second, in the alley, neighbors rarely interact; the houses have closed gates, high walls, and frequently conflicts over land boundary when the many new houses are built in a short period Third, at the village level, cemeteries have the phenomenon of encroaching on construction area; the belief of a small number of people who "follow the religion, not go to the communal house" also contributes to the loosening of community relations Thirdly, social awareness needs to be raised First, the process of urbanization, modernization, and industrialization does not mean an eradication of agriculture but village agriculture always plays an important role in economic development and social stability Second, in the short term, secularization and sanctification exist side by side Secularization helps to reduce many cumbersome procedures desecrated by scientific explanatory However, the development of science always has a lag, therefore, to bridge the gap and balance the spiritual life, sanctification can be a part of practical life for the time being ISSUES The change of village culture in Hoai Duc district over the past decade has raised several problems as well as shown the remaining and limitations related to many aspects of people's lives Firstly, the investment in the cultural institutions and public spaces That is the implementation of stereotypes, inflexibility and detached from the reality, especially in the context of rapid mechanical population growth due to immigration The village cultural houses' equipment (electricity, water) and means (auditory, visual) serving entertainment activities need to be supplemented That is supplementing the land use planning and investment building schedule to meet the urgent needs of the people Secondly, the efficient issue of socio-political organizations Although the operation is quite active, the approach has not been changed to suit new conditions Therefore, there are still limitations, including the effectiveness in the propaganda and dissemination of policies and laws There are several reasons They may be the development of information technology (easily access legal documents), the convenience of the one-stop-shop mechanism (directly receive advice and solutions) and the compensation regime (poor payment for complex and troublesome tasks in the village) Thirdly, raising people's awareness The social awareness in general needs to be on par with development That is the perception of urbanization, industrialization; the spirit of secularization and sanctification; and awareness of preserving the environment, a healthy lifestyle in the face of traditional social relations tends to be loose and to adjust to deviant lifestyles, especially the "liberal anarchy" (time routine, garbage dumping, etc ) 22 Fourthly, taking advantage of ethical issues for personal gain First, there is a wasteful use of resources from people's donations, spent freely, difficult to quantify, but easy to overcharge Second, there is a lack of management of moneymaking activities from the common resources of the village (the lease of cultural house, public land) Third, the unfortunate circumstances of illness and disaster thoroughly unexplained, the young of ignorance dragged into unhealthy activities easily being taken advantage of In addition, the problem lies in the livelihood and psychological disturbances in the early stages of arable land acquisition It is necessary to prepare, adjust as well as change jobs, especially settle the "service land" and relieve anxiety for farmers in the initial stage of land acquisition RECOMMENDATIONS Firstly, recommendations to the legislative body including the City People's Council and directly Hoai Duc District People's Council First, the steps of planning and implementation after the Law on Planning takes effect (01/01/2019) from the province to the district needs to follow strictly The planning must be overall with a long-term vision It is ensured that there are enough functional areas and reserved land funds to avoid the additional planning and lack of uniformity (former Ha Tay) It is necessary to strengthen the implementation of policies to ensure the participation of the people right from the planning stage Second, the approval of the planning should be definitive and timely to avoid many arable land areas being divided and unfit for production, and to protect farmers from the activities leading to law violations Third, it is vital to ensure a good preparation for the change of occupation, vocational training, and employment, especially strengthen the agreement mechanism between investors and people Fourth, the planning by the State in general and by Hanoi in particular should consider the urban-rural model Urban area has a belt of villages for agriculture in the direction of intensive farming to meet the demand of market of the adjacent urban area Finally, the City People's Council should consider and decide to have a reasonably better remuneration policy for those who operate the villages' complex and troublesome tasks law in a non-professional manner as prescribed by law Secondly, recommendations to managers at all levels, directly the State administrative management at the commune level First, it is necessary to strengthen and perfectly complete the system of cultural institutions and facilities; strictly manage public cultural services, including Public Internet, Café, Karaoke, massage ; encourage folklore activities (contests and festivals), forms of social activities Second, it is vital to strengthen the inspection and supervision of approved construction and repair activities; closely manage land, especially agricultural land; use effectively the remaining land fund to serve local public needs Third, they should organize activities to preserve the environment such as the collection of domestic waste, especially in the craft villages, livestock farms; strictly handling the abuse of chemicals in farming, animal husbandry, preservation of agricultural products; popularizing safe, green and clean production models; encouraging appropriate forms of burial, gradually abolishing outdated practices of unhygienic burial Fourth, more attention should be paid to the migration process, to ensure equal rights; to require household and temporary residence registration; take measures to combat crimes, social evils and deviant lifestyles Fifth, it is necessary to enhance the movements such as "All people unite to build a cultural life", "Cultural family", "Cultural village; advanced residential area" and "All people protect national security" In addition, the management agencies at the commune level need to propagate legal policies such as environmental protection and publish documents on planning and planning adjustment to the villagers 23 Thirdly, recommendations to the residential community - both cultural creators and beneficiaries First, it is necessary to uphold the spirit of studying, understanding the law and strengthening the family moral foundation The achievements have their own scientific basis, not just a random luck The risk of disease is largely due to a polluted environment, indiscriminate use of chemicals, and unscientific habits The lack of law knowledge makes it easy to violate the law unintentionally; lack of financial management skills and indulgence easily make children spoiled In the family, the position of the elderly with agricultural empiricism shaken in the new trend, the decline in health, so it is important to set a good example for them to promote their role and unite generations of descendants Second, it is necessary to strengthen the use of the right to know, discuss and decide as well as the right to supervise and participate in social management in accordance with the provisions by law Third, people need to maintain and further promote their good deeds and actively participate in local movements, especially sports training and keep fit Each person needs to raise the awareness of building a healthy lifestyle, fighting with negative, deviant factors and unite to help each other in difficulties In addition, in the current development process, villagers should maintain multiple forms of service delivery The village market is remarkable form in the village interspersed in the urban areas The belt of villages not only meets the needs of villagers but also meets the needs of residents living in neighboring apartment's blocks and urban areas Particularly, the villagers should promote "the virtual market of the village" in the era of the technology Finally, it is a recommendation to the agency of personnel organization for the local staff/official at the grassroots level To meet the new requirements, besides the ethical qualities and qualifications, they also need to have prestige in the village The government should pay special attention to the cadastral staff, the police and the village chief The security forces are not only available at the commune level, but also in villages with a population of some 4000 people They need to keep close relation with the villagers and to coordinate well with the superior level units to take advantage of the IT achievements, of being close to villagers as a supplement to the blanks in the grassroots activities at the current context CONLUSION Hoai Duc undergoing the major changes is an outstanding area of village cultural transformation over the past decade Generally, the change of village culture here is a creative process to adapt to exploit resources and ensure life when the environment changes The change of village culture is the process of receiving new values, adding incomplete elements, and promoting good traditions towards development The changes taking place in all cultural aspects They are the culture of material life, culture of community organization and culture of spiritual activities Their trends are positive, but mixed with some manifestations of deviation, making a significant impact on the process of development The thesis studies the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district from 2008 to 2020 The thesis has identified a number of instrumental concepts such as culture, village, village culture, cultural change, and village cultural change Based on the Marxist-Leninist's methodology, Ho Chi Minh's thought and the Party's views on culture and development as well as appropriate theories, the thesis has built a theoretical and practical basis for the case study of three villages The thesis uses the case study method in combination with the application of some other suitable methods such as fieldwork, sociological survey, 24 comparison, and meta-analysis to clarify the change of village culture to meet the research purpose requirement and make recommendations The thesis examines the change of village culture in Hoai Duc district in focus on the cases of Van Lung, Lai Du and Ngu Cau villages from 2008 when Hanoi expanded its administrative boundaries to 2020 The thesis has clarified the change of village culture in terms of cultural landscape and material activities, culture of community organization and culture of spiritual activities The change of village culture in Hoai Duc district shows the sign of tendencies towards becoming urban and towards modern civilization For over the past decade, the way that farmers organize their resources has changed The solid economic foundations guarantee culture of material life The village community has been consolidated and changed to suit new conditions The concept of happiness, wealth, and longevity is gradually becoming reality not only in material life but also in spiritual entertainment activities The diversity in forms of entertainment reflects the initiative, positivity, and planning in the reality of village culture changes in Hoai Duc district The thesis generalizes the main trends of change in the direction of positive progress However, it also shows deviant and negative tendencies causing problems They are some issues of the inadequacies causing conflicts in the socioeconomic relationship, a loose relation of social tradition, and constantly demanding social awareness A number of issues such as taking advantage of ethic for personal gain, the practicality in investment, the efficiency in socio-political organizations' activities need resolving to promote the good traditional values, supplement the insufficient values In order to solve these problems, attention should be paid to policies, strict management, and local institutions to building a team of good cadres to carry out the tasks of propaganda, raising awareness, and building the people's movement The thesis is specifically limited in length and time, so some aspects of cultural life have not been described in depth Several data about the transformation process of village culture have been investigated but not evaluated such as villagers' desires (property, position, occupation, education, family habits) and attitudes towards the negative behavior (cheating, quarrelling, disorganization, addiction) Therefore, it is necessary to have further studies on these values of people In summary, the change of village culture should be emphasized as the development of village culture It is vital to eliminate backward, deviant, counter-cultural factors, assimilate new values, and promote traditional values crystallized in village culture for many generations in both tangible and intangible forms to become "cultural capital" for development purposes The villages can be the ones of new countryside promoting the excellent values of traditional village, making a sustainable belt of villages for central urban areas, or it can be the parts of civilized urban area in the process of modernization LIST OF PUBLISHED WORKS BY THE AUTHOR (2021), Urbanization and changes of livelihoods of farmers in the outskirts of Nam An Khanh urban area, Journal of Theoretical Education, (319+320), pp 98-103 (2021), Changes in the practices and customs of villagers in suburban areas, Journal of Arts Education Magazine, (36), pp 13-16 (2021), Transforming folk knowledge in some suburban villages in Hanoi today, Journal of Theoretical Education, (327), pp 72-76 (2021),"Village culture change in the suburbs of Hanoi", Political Theory, (Thematic Issue), pp 52-57 ... Level organized at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At hour date month 2022 The thesis can be found at: The National Library The library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics INTRODUCTION... completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: Assoc Prof , Dr Reviewer 1: Reviewer 2: Reviewer 3: The thesis shall be defended in front of the Thesis Committee at Academy Level... belongs to Ha Noi) and 2020 Methodology and research methods Methodology The thesis conducted on the basic of methodology of Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh' s thought, Vietnamese Communist Party's
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