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Tóm tắt tiếng anh: Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.

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  • Tóm tắt tiếng anh: Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.

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Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non.Chuẩn bị cho trẻ 24 – 36 tháng tuổi thích ứng với trường mầm non. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION TRAN THI KIM LIEN PREPARING FOR 24-36-MONTH-OLD CHILDREN’S ADAPTATION TO KINDERGARTEN Major: Preschool Education Code: 9.14.01.01 THE DOCTORAL DISSERTATION SUMMARY Hanoi, 2022 The research project is completed at FALCUTY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION – HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION Supervisors: Assoc Prof Dr BUI THI LAM Assoc Prof Dr NGUYEN THI HOA Reviewer 1: Prof NGUYEN THI HOANG YEN National Academy of Education Management Reviewer 2: Assoc Prof Dr NGUYEN HONG THUAN The Vietnam Institude of Educational Sciences Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof Dr NGUYEN THI THANH HONG Ha Noi National University of Education The thesis will be reviewed by the Council of Thesis Evaluation at the Department of Psychology – Education, Hanoi National University of Education at… on /…./ 2022 The thesis can be found at: - The National Library, Ha Noi, Viet Nam - The Library of Hanoi National University of Education INTRODUCTION Background 1.1.The constant changes in nature and society require humans the adaptabilities with which they can achieve balance and integration with the new environments Preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten is important, contributing to one of the purposes of early childhood education as “forming and developing children’s psycho-physiological functions, competence and virtue, and necessary life skills appropriate to their ages” 1.2 The first time at school is a turning point to kindergarteners, marking a change in the environment from being surrounded by family only to the kindergarten Children will have more relationships and take part in educational planned activities However, the differences between these two environments make it difficult for children to adapt; some children feel stressed, insecure, or even threatened while others have problems with eating or sleeping, have negative behaviors, and reduce their interaction with nonfamily Therefore, it is necessary to have appropriate preparations to help children gradually adapt to the kindergarten environment 1.3 Recent neuroscientific studies have shown that child care can affect the brain’s structure and development Children aged from 24 to 36 months have a strong development of neural connections; this depends on the adults’ care In addition, at these ages, the close relationship between children and their mother still prevails, so they often show anxiety and vulnerability when separated from their mother However, the child begins to have a need for self-assertion despite still being dependent on the mother Children gradually grow up, develop and start to realize that they are a separate people and different from everyone around them Moreover, the Terrible Threes in this period makes it a difficult time for children and their caregivers when the children want to show independence while their abilities are limited It can be seen that many families send their children to kindergartens when they are between the ages of 24 and 36 months Some kindergartens, mainly public schools, only accept children aged 24 months although kindergartens must accept children aged from months to 36 months as stipulated in Circular 01/VBHNBGDĐT Therefore, preparations for children aged from 24 to 36 months when they first go to kindergartens are necessary and suitable for their development and contribute to solving children and their families’ difficulties 1.4 A number of foreign studies have shown that families and kindergartens also have many difficulties when children first go to school Parents want to get the information and help from the school to reduce their worries, sadness, and guilty feelings when they not know what will happen to their children when approaching a brand new environment It’s also challenging for kindergarten teachers, and they need support from the school as well as the cooperation of the families to increase children’s adaptability Some other studies have also come up with preparation ideas for families and schools to support children's adaptation to kindergartens However, in Vietnam, not many studies on adaptation focus on children preparing for kindergarten A few studies that can be found, have only suggested some measures which can be carried out by the schools and conducted a survey on the teachers; therefore, it is essential to study the process of preparing children from 24 to 36 months old to adapt to kindergarten environment in Vietnam For the above reasons, the thesis chooses to research the topic "Preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten" Aims of the study In the limit of the thesis, the author focuses on the theoretical and practical research to prepare children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten, and based on that, proposes some preparations for children aged 24-36 months in the transition from home to kindergarten, helping them quickly get on well with the new environment and get ready for the next school years Research object and subject 3.1 Research object The thesis studies the ways to prepare 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 3.2 Research subject The thesis focuses on the process of preparing 24-36-month-old children children’s adaptation to kindergarten Scientific hypothesis The process of preparing for 24-36-month-old children to adapt to kindergarten has been a concern by families and schools, but there are still some limitations leading to children’s anxiety, lack of confidence, and uncooperativeness with their teachers and peers Therefore, some measures, by the close coordination between families and the school, should be proposed and implemented to prepare children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten It will help children to adapt to the new environment better Research mission 5.1 Researching on the theoretical basis about preparing children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten 5.2 Conducting a survey on the situation of preparing children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten 5.3 Proposing and experimenting with some ways to prepare children aged 2436 months to adapt to kindergarten Scope of the study - Research object: Preparing for 24-36-month-old children to adapt to kindergarten requires the participation of different forces, but in the limit of the thesis, the author focuses on the family and the kindergarten - Research subjects for the survey: 70 children from 24 to 36 months old going to kindergarten for the first time; 70 parents (of these children) and 70 teachers teaching these children in the kindergarten - Experimental subjects: 03 children from 24 to 36 months old going to kindergarten for the first time - Research area: Nam Dinh city Research approaches and methodology 7.1 Approaches: Development; System; Activities; Integration; Culture 7.2 Research Methods: Researching methods on a theoretical basis; Researching methods on experimentation including observations, conversations, interviews, case studies, pedagogical experimentation; Data processing methods Arguments 8.1 24-36-month-old children face some difficulties in the transition from home to kindergarten Preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten is an impactful process to help children to gain balance and integration with the new environment, reducing the difficulties children often have at this transition 8.2 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation is demonstrated in signs including children show stable emotions; children participate in activities with objects; children establish relationships with adults and peers; children are ready to accept changes in familiar situations and children actively participate in activities of daily routines (eating, sleeping, keeping hygiene) 8.3 The process of preparing 24-36-month-old children to adapt to kindergarten requires coordination between relevant forces, especially the two central forces, which are kindergarten and family 8.4 Preparing 24-36-month-old children to adapt to kindergarten will be effective if measures are taken following stages of the process, with close coordination between the family and kindergarten In which, kindergarten plays a key role in this process Significance of the study 9.1 To enrich the theoretical basis of preparing for children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten The thesis aims at developing the concept of preparing for children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten, identifying how children behave when they have adapted to kindergarten and analyse the process of preparing for children for 24 to 36 months old to adapt to kindergarten 9.2 To illustrate the practice of preparing children from 24 to 36 months old to adapt to kindergarten in Nam Dinh city, from which the thesis establishes a basis for designing and developing measures to support children and their families in the transition from home to kindergarten In addtion, the thesis has inherited and innovated a set of tools to measure the adaptability to the kindergarten of children aged 24-36 months initially meeting the standards of the Cronbach'alpha 9.3 Some proposed measures can be used as a guide for parents and kindergarten teachers in preparing for children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten 10 Design of the thesis In addition to the introduction, conclusions, recommendations, references and appendices, the thesis consists of chapters, organized as follows: Chapter 1: An overview and the theoretical basis on preparing for 24-36month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Chapter 2: The situation of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Chapter 3: Ways to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Chapter 4: Experimentation on preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW AND THE THEORETICAL BASIS ON PREPARING FOR 24-36-MONTH-OLD CHILDREN’S ADAPTATION TO KINDERGARTEN 1.1 Literature review 1.1.1 Studies on the adaptation to the kindergarten of children from 24 to 36 months old The first direction: Studies on children’s behaviors when they first go to kindergarten, namely the studies by Ainslie & Anderson (1984), Ahnert et al., (2004), Griebel & Niesel (2009), and Watamura et al (2003), Blatchford (1983), Field (1984, 1991); Hausken et al (2002)…, claim that on their first day to kindergarten, children show (1) stress, anxiety, (2) decreased social interactions, disagreement and close relation seeking and (3) gradually adapting after a period of getting acquainted The second direction: Studies by Klim-Klimaszewska (2006); Ereky-Stevens (2018); Hausken (2002) analyze objective and subjective factors affecting children’s adaptation to kindergarten The objective factors include (1) the interaction between the teacher and the children, (2) the familiarity of the teacher and their friends, and (3) the time they spend at school The subjective factors that can affect the process of preparing children to adapt to kindergarten are their characteristics, such as temperament, age, gender, lack of essential skills, and the attachment to children’s caregiver These studies are the basis to identify factors affecting 24 to 36-month-old children’s adaption to kindergarten in Vietnam 1.1.2 Studies on the preparation for children from 24 to 36 months old to adapt to kindergarten 1.1.2.1 Studies on the preparation for children to school Among the studies on preparing children to school, studies on preparing children under 36 months old for the transition from home to kindergarten are more limited Especially in the context of Vietnam, studies on this issue are quite lacking 1.1.2.2 Studies on the ways to prepare for children from 24 to 36 months old to adapt to kindergarten There have been a great number of studies on preparing for the connection between kindergartens and families, studies on family and kindergarten’s preparatory content and studies on preparing necessary skills for children to adapt to kindergarten However, it is found that the contents, measures and forms of preparation are conducted on children in all kindergarten ages, and the ones specifically for children from 24 to 36 months old in Vietnam are still quite a few 1.2 Theoretical basis of 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 1.2.1 The concept of 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 1.2.1.1 Adaptation Adaptation is the process in which people accept the changes and adjust themselves to establish the balance and integrate into the new environment 1.2.1.2 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Based on the concept of adaptation, the thesis considers 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten as the process which children accept the changes in the transition from home to kindergarten and adjust themselves to establish the balance and integrate into the new environment 1.2.2 24-36-month-old children’s developments in psycho-physiological characteristics related to their adaptation to kindergarten A child's brain has a tremendous growth in neural connections during the first three years of life, and it reaches its peak at the age of However, if children experience stress and negative feelings such as the first time going to kindergarten, their nervous system will be easily stimulated, and it will affect the development of the brain’s structure The period of 24-36 months is also when children sense and develop languages with the remarkably increasing speed of linguistic development Activities with things or objects are the main activities of children aged 24-36 months Through activities with objects, children's perception becomes more sophisticated and complete Children’s emotions are still strong and spontaneous but directed to a fairly clear and stable object Children still have not been able to control their emotions, easily get worried and afraid and are often emotionally affected by others For children from 24 to 36 months old, the close relationship with their mother still prevails, but they also begin to realize that they are separate individuals and different from everyone around This is the stage when children show anxiety if separated, a nature of attachment Children aged 24-36 months have formed a relatively stable behavior 1.2.3 Manifestations of 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 1: Children show stable emotions 2: Children participate in activities with objects 3: Children establish relationships with adults and peers 4: Children are ready to accept changes in familiar situations 5: Children actively participate in activities of daily routines (eating, sleeping, keeping hygiene) 1.2.4 The meaning of 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Adapting to kindergarten helps stabilize children’s emotions, nourish and protect the nervous system from the stress of changing the environment for the first time at school That children get used to activities in the daily routine such as eating, sleeping, and cleaning helps their body to establish a regular circadian rhythm When children are engaged in activities, they will actively participate in educational activities which are organized in a scientific and purposeful curriculum of the kindergarten, and that will help children develop comprehensively in accordance with their needs and abilities Thereby, children's cognitive ability is well developed Adapting to kindergarten also helps children actively involve themselves in relationships with other people 1.3 Theoretical basis on preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaption to kindergarten 1.3.1 Preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten can be considered as the process of pedagogical impact with purpose and direction in organizing collaborative activities between kindergartens and families to help children establish balance and integrate into kindergarten 1.3.2 The meaning of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten The process of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten is important in helping children reduce anxiety and negative effects when they not adapt to kindergarten, increase the frequency of adaptive behaviors and shorten their adaptation time A good preparation for entering a new environment will prevent most children from suffering the initial stage of stress In addition, preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten also helps children's families and the schools adapt to the transition from home to kindergarten because children’s first time going to school only causes difficulties for children and their families, but it also affects the schools and their teachers Moreover, preparing children’s adaptation contributes to ensuring Children's Rights 1.3.3 The process of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 1.3.3.1 Objectives The aim of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten is to help them get acquainted with the kindergarten environment In particular, families and schools are responsible for supporting children in gradually erasing the disparity between these two environments, reducing anxiety and promoting their adaptation time more quickly 1.3.3.2 Content 1: Psychological preparations help children get on with the new environment 2: Preparing for children for socializing 3: Preparing for children to be familiar with educational activities 4: Preparing for children to get used to activities at kindergartens 1.3.3.3 Forms of preparation for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Families and kindergartens can make use of many different forms such as activities in the family's daily routine, school visits, classes held before children officially go to school, activities with objects or other forms of information and media The process of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten includes main stages: Stage 1: Before children officially go to kindergarten The child still lives in the familiar home environment but begins to participate in activities prepared by the family and the school This stage emphasizes the role of the family as well as the initial cooperation between the family and the child's kindergarten and teacher Stage 2: When children go to kindergarten The first time children go to school (usually the first week) The period when children begin to adapt to kindergarten: Children, families, and teachers gradually figure out a balance in newly established social relationships Children steadily feel secure and respected and have their needs met in the new environment Then, they gradually realize their own position and role in the classroom environment through being active in-class activities and relationships Children also accept small changes in that environment, feeling they belong in the kindergarten environment At this time, the school plays the primary role, and the families continue to support and promote their children to immerse themselves in school life 1.3.3.4 Methods and ways to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten A way to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten is a concrete plan in organizing collaborative activities between kindergarten and family to help children establish balance and integrate into kindergarten 1.3.3.5 Assessment on preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten (1) The preparer assesses the preparation of the family (parents) and the kindergarten (the teacher); (2) The prepared assesses the results of 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 1.4 Factors affecting the preparation for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten There are a number of factors that affect the preparation for children aged 2436 months for kindergarten, including Children's characteristics; Family’s characteristics; Kindergarten characteristics; Community Summary of Chapter Adaptation is the process in which children accept the changes and adjust themselves to establish balance and integrate into the new environment After adapting to kindergarten, children feel familiar and have a sense of belonging to the new environment This is manifested in children’s emotional stability, and initiative, through the appropriateness and effectiveness in caring educational activities, the acceptance of other changes in the new environment, and the activeness in making new relationships with peers and teachers Preparing for 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten can be considered as the process of pedagogical impact with purpose and direction in organizing collaborative activities between kindergartens and families to help children establish balance and integrate into the new environment This process takes place in two main stages (1) before children officially enter the kindergarten and (2) when children go to school The main components of a process of preparing for 24-36 month-old children to adapt to kindergarten consist of objectives, contents, forms, methods, and assessments A way to prepare for 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten is a concrete way of working together between family and kindergarten to help children establish balance and integrate into the new environment CHAPTER 2: THE SITUATION OF PREPARATION FOR 24-36-MONTHOLD CHILDREN’S ADAPTATION TO KINDERGARTEN 2.1 A survey on the current situation of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 2.1.1 Survey purpose The thesis aims at investigating the situation of preparing for children aged 2436 months to adapt to kindergarten Based on the results of the investigation, the thesis establishes a practical basis for developing ways to prepare for children from 24 to 36 months old for kindergarten 2.1.2 Survey content - The situation of parent’s preparation for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten - The situation of preparing for children aged 24 - 36 months to adapt to kindergarten by kindergarten teachers and administrators - The situation of 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten - The factors affecting the adaptation to the kindergarten of children aged 2436 months 2.1.3 Subject of the study and survey area - Subject: The survey is conducted on: + on managers and 70 kindergarten teachers who directly teach 24-36month-old children in kindergartens belonging to two groups of schools (public and private) in the city centres and suburban areas + 70 children aged 24-36 months, 38 of whom are boys and 32 are girls, studying in kindergartens and their parents (70 parents) - Location: Nam Dinh city - Time: August - September 2020 2.1.4 Survey methods and tools 2.1.4.1 Survey methods: Observation, Conversation, Interview, and Data processing 2.1.4.2 Survey tools - For kindergarten teachers and parents: They are given an interview form (KAP) each The questions focus on testing their knowledge, attitudes and implementation to prepare for children aged 24-36 months to adapt to kindergarten - For administrators: The interview form for administrators is used to clarify the school’s views and support policies in preparing for children’s adaptation to kindergarten - For children aged 24 - 36 months: The scale for assessing 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten is built based on the items in the rating scale by A.S Ronzhina and the other items in the rating scale by Pechora K.L To ensure a full assessment on children's adaptive behaviors, the thesis comes up with more items, each of which is rated at levels 10 In addition to the scale to assess children’s adaptive levels at kindergarten, the thesis has built a scale to evaluate the adaptive behaviors when children are at home, assessed by their parents Based on Pechora K.L, Pantyukhina G.V, Golubeva L.G.'s questionnaires for parents, the thesis establishes a scale to assess 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten for parents with 18 items 2.1.5 Survey progress 2.1.5.1 Survey preparation: Developing a tool for surveying the actual situation; Contacting the kindergarten and children’s families; Training survey collaborators 2.1.5.2 Conducting survey: Survey on kindergarten teachers and children’s parents; Survey on the school’s administrators; Survey on the status of adaptation to kindergarten and the factors affecting 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 2.1.5.3 Data processing Collecting and processing data to analyze the survey results on the actual situation of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 2.2 Survey results on the situation of preparation 2.2.1 The situation of parents’ preparation for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Table 2.1 Summary of parents' knowledge, attitudes and implementation in preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten ̅ Level (n=70) SD 𝑿 High (%) Medium (%) Low (%) 2,9 97,1 7,5 3,5 Knowledge 80,0 20,0 13,2 1,6 Attitude 30,0 54,3 15,7 13,7 4,7 Practice The table 2.1 shows the differences in parents’ knowledge, attitudes and implementation in preparing for children aged 24-36 months for kindergarten 97.1% of parents not have knowledge about preparing for children to adapt to kindergarten (average score = 7.5 points), while the number of parents with good attitudes and implementation accounts for respectively 80% and 30% (average score is 13.2 points and 13.7 points accordingly) It can be seen that although parents are not equipped with the knowledge to help children adapt to kindergarten, they are always ready to seek information from different sources and learn from other parents' experiences or their relatives Parents have some activities to prepare for their children for kindergarten even though they not yet understand how what they are doing is meant to help their children’s adaptation 2.2.2 The situation of preparing for children aged 24 - 36 months to adapt to kindergarten by kindergarten teachers and administrators 11 Table 2.2 Summary of the knowledge, attitudes, and practice in preparing for 2436-month-old children to adapt to kindergarten by the kindergarten teachers and administrators ̅ Level (n=70) SD 𝑿 High Medium Low (%) (%) (%) 12,9 87,1 13,6 4,9 Knowledge 77,1 22,9 13,0 2,1 Attitude 17,1 57,1 25,7 14,7 5,2 Practice In the three survey contents for teachers, only the attitude factor has the high level (with 77.1%) Only 22.9% of the kindergarten teachers have a medium level of attitude 87.1% of the teachers have a low level of knowledge; 12.9% of them achieve a medium level, and no teacher has a good level of knowledge This result shows that most teachers are not equipped with knowledge about preparing for children to adapt to kindergarten In terms of practice, only 17.1% of the teachers achieve the good level while 57.1% of the teachers are at a medium level and 25.7% of them get the low one 2.2.3 The situation of 24-36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 2.2.3.1 The situation of 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten in the first four weeks of attending kindergarten 50 47 50 43 35 40 26 30 18 20 10 35 16 0 Tuần Tuần Cao Tuần Trung bình Tuần Thấp Chart 2.1 Children’s level of adaptation to kindergarten in weeks It can be seen from the chart below that the Children’s level of adaptation in weeks has changed The number of children with a high degree of adaptation gradually increases, and that with a low level of adaptation gradually decreases However, the number of children with a medium level of adaptation is still high 12 Table 2.17 24-36-month-old children’s behaviors of adaptation to kindergarten in four weeks Children’s behaviors of Week Week Week Week ̅ ̅ ̅ ̅ adaptation SD SD SD SD 𝑿 𝑿 𝑿 𝑿 Children show stable 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,4 1,9 2,2 2,5 2,8 emotions Children participate in 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,3 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,7 activities with objects Proactivity 1,9 0,7 2,2 0,6 2,5 0,6 2,6 0,5 Concentration 2,2 0,6 2,3 0,6 2,6 0,5 2,6 0,5 Interest in objects/ 2,2 0,7 2,5 0,5 2,7 0,5 2,8 0,4 things Complete the activities’ 2,5 0,7 2,5 0,6 2,7 0,5 2,7 0,5 works Children establish 0,5 0,4 0,5 0,5 2,2 2,4 2,5 relationships with adults 1,9 and peers To adults 1,9 0,5 2,2 0,4 2,3 0,5 2,4 0,5 To peers 2,0 0,7 2,3 0,6 2,4 0,6 2,6 0,5 Children are ready to 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,3 accept changes in 1,7 1,9 2,1 2,2 familiar situations Change in teachers 1,8 0,7 2,2 0,6 2,5 0,6 2,7 0,5 New behaviours 1,2 0,6 1,2 0,6 1,2 0,5 1,2 0,5 10 New toys 2,0 0,7 2,3 0,6 2,5 0,6 2,6 0,5 Children actively participate in activities 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,4 of daily routines (eating, 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,5 sleeping, keeping hygiene) 11 Eating 2,0 0,6 2,2 0,6 2,4 0,5 2,5 0,5 12 Sleeping 2,1 0,6 2,2 0,5 2,4 0,6 2,6 0,5 13 Keeping hygiene 2,0 0,6 2,2 0,6 2,4 0,6 2,4 0,7 Criterion 1: Children’s emotional state was positive and gradually stabilized after weeks with the average score increasing from 1.9 points to 2.8 points In the first weeks, children's emotions were more optimistic but still at a medium level Only when it came to the 4th week, their emotions increase to a high level Criterion 2: The average score gradually went up in weeks from 2.2 points to 2.7 points The first week’s average score was at a medium level while that of the last weeks increased at the high level Children's functioning was also affected when they first enter the school Some children did not participate in any activities while others are overactive 13 Criterion 3: The average score increased steadily in weeks from 1.9 points to 2.5 points, but in general it was still at a medium level This means that the children’s ability to establish relationships with adults and peers has not improved much after weeks The number of children with passive behaviors or refusal to establish relationships get along with adults and their friends was always higher than that of other criteria in weeks 1, 3, and The number of children only participating in relationship-establishing activities with support from other people always accounted for the highest percentage in all weeks Criterion 4: The average score increased stably in weeks from 1.7 points to 2.2 points, but in general it was still at a medium level Children accepted the change in teachers and new toys after weeks, but there are many children showing new behaviors such as thumb sucking or rocking These behaviors show that the children still feel stressed and need to be reassured Criterion 5: The average score increased slowly in weeks from 2.0 points to 2.5 points, but in general it was still at a medium level The stress during the early time of kindergarten also affects children’s eating, sleeping, and hygiene habits Criterion 5, along with Criterion 3, has a regular increase to a high level and a lower decrease in the average score compared to other criteria 2.2.3.2 Level of adaptation to the kindergarten of children aged 24-36 months based on age, gender, birth order, type of kindergarten, level of practice of teachers and parent Children aged from 24 to 30 months old have a tendency of having a higher level of adaptation than children aged from 30 to 36 months The latter group also has a higher rate of high level of adaptation in comparison with the first group, and boys tend to adapt more quickly than girls The adaptation level of children in public schools tends to be lower than those in private schools However, when it comes to ttesting, this difference is not statistically proven with p > 0.05 The survey results show that children's adaptation to kindergarten is influenced by many factors, including children’s own characteristics, parents’ and teachers’ preparation as well as the cooperation between parents and teachers If parents and teachers not have good coordination, the children will not be able to adapt to kindergarten successfully even though well prepared by parents and teachers 2.3 Assessments on the situation of preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 2.3.1 Advantages Parents and teachers have a positive attitude and plan some activities to prepare children for the transition from home to kindergarten Most of the 24-36-month-old children participating in the survey have a medium level of adaptation to kindergarten There is a change in their adaptation during the first weeks of attending kindergarten 14 2.3.2 Limitations According to the survey results, despite having a positive attitude in preparing for children to adapt to kindergarten, the parents have little knowledge about it There’s still a high rate of low-level preparation activities planned by parents In addition, it can be seen that teachers are not well equipped with knowledge about preparing for children for kindergarten There are a few practical activities to help children quickly get used to the new environment, most of which are at medium and low levels The adaptation to the kindergarten of children aged 24-36 months has been improved after the first weeks despite the high rate at the medium level 2.3.3 Causes of the situation The schools and families not have enough knowledge and skills to prepare children for kindergarten Some children adapt quickly because they are already familiar with somebody or something in kindergarten Analysis on the number of children in the classes shows that due to the epidemic, many families did not send their children to school; therefore, there were not as many children as the other years As a result, the teachers could spend more time with the children, helping them to adapt better than in previous years Summary of Chapter Despite having a positive attitude in preparing for children to adapt to kindergarten, the targeted parents and teachers still have insufficient of knowledge and practices 24-36 month-old children’s adaptability to is still relatively low, mostly at a medium level The ability to build relationships with teachers and friends and participate in daily activities such as eating, sleeping, and cleaning are two of the most difficultly established behaviors in children when adapting to kindergarten There is no statistical difference among gender, age, school type and birth order although their average scores differ from each other This shows the diversity of 24-36-month-old children's adaptability to kindergarten 15 CHAPTER 3: WAYS TO PREPARE FOR 24-36-MONTH-OLD CHILDREN’S ADAPTATION TO KINDERGARTEN 3.1 Principles of proposing ways to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten In making a plan to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten, the following principles should be guaranteed 3.1.1 Personalization 3.1.2 Comprehensiveness 3.1.3 Systemization and continuity 3.1.4 Coordination between kindergarten, family and community 3.2 Ways to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Measure 1: Agree on a plan to prepare for the children between kindergarten, family and community The kindergarten's preparation plan should include specific objectives, content, activities as well as the time and participants of these activities Some of the key activities in the school's plan are providing the class list for teachers as soon as possible, contacting the families before children go to school or visiting the school, etc The families should join in the discussions about the rules of the kindergarten Measure 2: Coordinate to organize for children to get acquainted with kindergarten Parents should take a visit to the school with their children regardless of the school type they are going to study in The visit is like a kid's outing to an interesting place with lots of fun and attractions so that children can gradually get acquainted with the new environment without any fear or hesitation Parents can tell children some stories, songs or poems about going to school, teachers, friends, and activities at school (Appendix 13) so that children can get acquainted with them Thereby, parents and children should have a talk about the children's preparation to go to kindergarten In addition, parents should train their children in some self-help skills to daily activities at home and have some suitable adjustments based on the daily routine children will have at school so that they will be less surprised at the new surroundings Besides, parents should let children get used to their absence right in the family space as well as the appearance of many other people (not the family members) so that the children can be braver and more confident Teachers decorate the playground in their classrooms with tools and toys of various materials, colors, and sizes to stimulate children's curiosity Some of the children's household items can be used in a corner to create a connection with the home environment, creating a sense of belonging for the children Measure 3: Working together to create a safe psychological environment for children both at kindergarten and at home Parents should take the children to kindergarten and pick them up home directly and on time and inform the children about the time to pick up as well as 16 regularly talk to children and pat them to make up for the time parents are not around during the whole day in class Teachers can help children reduce negative feelings by planning and organizing activities for them Teachers should identify these feelings and think of when and how to approach to each child in an appropriate time Additionally, to help the parents adapt to the separation, teachers can have a talk, conduct a survey or provide them with necessary information about their children It’s necessary for parents and teachers to share with each other about the children's performance in class and at home and the emotions or difficulties that the children are facing Measure 4: Cooperate in organizing activities suitable for children Teachers can organize activities suitable for children’s needs, interests and abilities When children are engrossed in the activities, they will be even more eager to go to school to discover new things Based on the classroom activities for children provided by teachers, parents can choose the ones that their children love such as reading poems, stories, singing, drawing or puzzles, and them together with children at home Measure 5: Provide opportunities for children to engage in relationships with adults and peers: It’s of important for teachers and parents to respect each child's pace of adaptation and help them get to know other adults and peers at their own pace Based on their understanding about the children, the adults can gradually help them deepen themselves into relationships actively instead of requiring emotional support or passively receiving the interaction from others The proposed measures are based on the two factors that help children stay balanced in the transition from home to kindergarten, namely the familiarity of the environment and relationships These measures have a reciprocal and consistent relationship to the stages of children's adaptation to kindergarten (from the preparation to kindergarten, when children first go to school to when children begin to adapt) Of the proposed measures, the first one is considered the dominant and affects the others Summary of Chapter Proposing measures to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten should ensure a number of principles such as child-centeredness, comprehensiveness, systematicity and continuity, and close coordination between schools and families Families and the kindergarten need to prepare for children’s adaptation before they officially go to school and until they begin to adapt The measures include (1) Agree on a plan to prepare for the children between kindergarten and family, (2) Coordinate to organize for children get acquainted with kindergarten, (3) Working together to create a safe psychological environment for children both at kindergarten and at home, (4) Cooperate in organizing activities suitable for children, (5) Provide opportunities for children to engege in relationships with adults and peers 17 CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENTATION ON PREPARING FOR 24-36-MONTHOLD CHILDREN’S ADAPTATION TO KINDERGARTEN 4.1 Experimentation on measures to prepare for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 4.1.1 Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed measures 4.1.2 Content An experiment is conducted on some proposed measures to prepare for 24-36month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 4.1.3 Time: September - October 2021 4.1.4 Samples 03 Cases:  boys - girl  public school children  private school child  child with low adaptability  children with moderate adaptability Requirements: children going to kindergarten for the first time, not having attended any childcare center before 4.2 Analysing the experimental results of case study The children in case study had a gradual change in adaptive behaviors in the first two weeks in kindergarten, but the speed of changes was not equal in all criteria They have a lot of changes in their ability to establish relationships with adults and friends while the ability to work with things has not improved well to the high level However, when returning home, they are more active with familiar objects The daily habits are better developed, though still at a moderate level, compared to before the experiment However, the positive adjustments in the children's relationships and their eating, sleeping and hygiene habits show the initial effectiveness of the experimental process on children 4.3 Analysing the experimental results of case study It can be seen that the targeted children in case study have improved their adaptation to kindergarten after two weeks, but the speed of adaptation was slower than that of the children in case The children's adaptive behaviors only reveal in the second week One advantage is that the children’s ability to work with objects is good, reflected in the ability to focus and enjoy the toys in the classroom Children's working skills are nice so they can complete their products in the given activities However, it is essential to encourage them to establish better relationships with their peers and the teachers at school 4.4 Analysing the experimental results of case study The children in case study have an increase in adaptability after two weeks (similar to those in case study 1), but some obvious changes are only visible in the 18 second week (similar to those in case study 2) Overall, the level of adaptation goes up from low to moderate level It is worth noting that these children can establish better relationships with teachers to include their friends This may be due to their age (25 months old) with a more limited language ability, so the children still tend to work on everything alone They still need more support and encouragement from teachers when it comes to a change in familiar situations The children begin to have a greater variety of actions with things around and more concentration when playing with new toys although they are still more excited with familiar toys 4.5 Some general comments about the three targeted children Trẻ Trẻ 2.2 1.8 1.5 2.2 1.9 Trước TN TN tuần Trẻ 2.7 2.5 TN tuần Chart 4.4 The three targeted children’s level of adaptation to kindergarten Chart 4.4 shows the increase in the average score of the three targeted children after two weeks in kindergarten; however, their adaptation speed is not the same The children in case studies and have an increasing change from 0,4 to 0,6 points after each week while the child in case noticeably changes in week to 0,5 points In terms of adaptation level, the children in cases and move from moderate to a high level while that of the child in case only changes from low to moderate level Summary of Chapter Before the experiment, the three children’s adaptability was predicted according to the evaluation criteria The result showed that two children were predicted to have a moderate level of adaptation, and the other was at a low level After the experiment, two of them had a change of adaptability from medium to a high level, and that of the other child moved from low to medium level Moreover, some behaviors are improved compared to before the children went to kindergarten By observing children's behaviours day by day in the first two weeks at school, all the children are considered to have positive changes This means that the proposed measures are effective on these three children 19 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion 1.1 Going to kindergarten for the first time is a significant turning point for children because they have to face up to several changes Adaptation is the process in which people accept the changes and adjust themselves to establish balance and integrate into kindergarten When children have adapted to kindergarten, they will express positive emotions, actively participate and perform effectively with objects, establish relationships with adults and peers, accept changes in familiar situations and respond to daily activities appropriately 1.2 Preparing for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten can be considered as the process of pedagogical impact with purpose and direction in organizing collaborative activities between kindergarten and family to help children establish balance and integrate into the new environment This process requires close collaboration between families and schools to define the goals, select the content, use the right measures and formats and evaluate the effectiveness 1.3 The survey results show that parents and teachers have a positive attitude towards the preparation for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten, but their level of knowledge and practice is still relatively low The children’s level of adaptation to kindergarten has gradually increased after weeks, but many of them still reach the moderate level 1.4 Based on the theories and practice, the thesis has proposed five specific measures, including families’ and kindergarten schools’ preparation both before and when children go to school 1.5 The measures to prepare children to adapt to kindergarten are tested on three specific cases with a detailed analysis of children's performance before and when they come to school and initially have effects on specific cases However, there is a need for further studies on the issue of preparing children to adapt to kindergarten on a larger number of children in different regions and on children under 24 months of age going to kindergarten for the first transition Recommendations To make sure the effectiveness of preparation for 24-36-month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten, it is necessary to pay attention to the following issues: 2.1 For departments of education and training - Supplement the content of training and professional development for administrators and kindergarten teachers on preparing for children to adapt to kindergarten - Have consistent directions to kindergartens so that they will pay more attention to supporting children and their families and the kindergarten teachers to facilitate the transition from home to kindergarten as well as improve the effectiveness of child care and early education in the local kindergartens 20 2.2 For kindergarten teachers’ training institutions - Attention and awareness to the contents of instructions on care and education of children in general and prepare children to adapt to kindergarten in particular - Participate in writing guidance documents for kindergarten teachers and parents on preparing children to adapt to kindergarten 2.3 For the kindergartens - Focus on planning and conducting early preparation activities for children aged 24-36 months in particular and other children, in general, to adapt to kindergarten - Scrutinize the teachers of their school by creating good working conditions so that they can be proactive and flexible in carrying out activities to support children and their families in adapting to kindergarten - Improve their children's observation skills to identify children's characteristics, needs, emotions and abilities so that they can provide appropriate support for each child - Respect and accept the different adaptation levels and family circumstances of each child to have close coordination with the child's family, creating good conditions for the child to gradually get used to the kindergarten - Be ready in activities to prepare 24-36-month-old children to adapt to kindergarten, demonstrated by actively learning about children and their families and actively carrying out pre-school preparation activities for children until they have adapted to the school environment 2.4 For parents - Actively seek out information about the kindergarten to have early and appropriate preparations for children to get used to the new school - Respect and have trust in the teachers and actively cooperate closely with the school and the teachers in exchanging information and discussing appropriate ways to deal with the children and their circumstances - Psychologically preparing for children to go to school so that they can feel confident and secure with the changes from the familiar home environment to the new kindergarten one 21 LIST OF THE THESIS-RELATED PUBLISHED WORKS BY THE AUTHOR Tran Thi Kim Lien (2019), Reality of preschool teachers’ awareness about preparing children for kindergarten, HNUE Journal of Science, Vol.64, pg 32-41 Tran Thi Kim Lien (2020), Awareness of the transition from home to kindergarten: A Quantitative research on early childhood education students, International Conference Proceedings “Psychology-Pedagogy for Students'Develoment and Happy Schools”, University of Education Publishing House, pg 63 - 71 Tran Thi Kim Lien (2020), Reality of cooperation between parents and preschool teachers in the transition from home to kindergarten, HNUE Journal of Science, Vol.65, pg.193-201 Tran Thi Kim Lien (2020), Awareness of early childhood education managers about the transition from home to kindergarten, HNUE Journal of Science, Vol.65 (12), pg.138-147 Tran Thi Kim Lien (2020), Teachers’supporting skills to ease the transition from home to kindergarten: A Quantitative research on early childhood education students, International Conference on Teacher Education Renovation – ICTER: “Teacher Competencies for Education 4.0, Thai Nguyen University Publishing House, pg 175 - 190 Tran Thi Kim Lien (2021), Application of attachment theory to preparation for children in transition from home to kindergarten, HNUE Journal of Science, Vol.66, pg.148-157 22 ... for 24- 36month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Chapter 2: The situation of preparing for 24- 36- month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Chapter 3: Ways to prepare for 24- 36- month-old... for children from 24 to 36 months old in Vietnam are still quite a few 1.2 Theoretical basis of 24- 36 month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten 1.2.1 The concept of 24- 36 month-old children’s... Theoretical basis on preparing for 24- 36- month-old children’s adaption to kindergarten 1.3.1 Preparing for 24- 36- month-old children’s adaptation to kindergarten Preparing for 24- 36- month-old children’s
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