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LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS PHẦN MỞ ĐẦU BÍ QUYÊT GIẢI ĐỀ THI HỌC SINH GIỎI MÔN TIẾNG ANH GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ KĨ NĂNG NGHE - LISTENING: 1.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần kiểm tra kĩ nghe hiểu học sinh chủ đề, ch ủ ểm nhà trường – gia đình – xã hội – kĩ giao ti ếp Bối cảnh nghe th ường di ễn t ại khách s ạn, nhà hang, sân bay, văn phòng, đại lí nhà đất, du l ịch Hình th ức nghe th ường cu ộc h ội thoại, điện đàm, phát biểu, nói chuyện vấn đề đ ược đề cập Yêu c ầu nghe g ồm hình thức như: listen for specific details, listen to fill in the missing information, listening comprehension (listen then answer the questions, listen to retell the story,…) Đ ể làm ch ủ ph ần nghe học sinh cần ý vào yêu cầu sau: - Nghe số, thông tin chi tiết vị trí, giá cả, số điện thoại, ngày gi - Nghe số liệu, tên, địa chỉ, phương tiện, hình thức công việc, sắc thái tình cảm - Nghe phán đoán nội dung, tìm chủ đề thông tin đặc biệt - Nghe hiểu cốt chuyện, thuật lại cốt chuyện nội dung 1.2 Một số gợi ý nghe: - Chuẩn bị tốt tâm lí trước nghe cách: + Đọc trước thật kĩ nội dung yêu cầu, câu hỏi phần cần nghe (trên đề) + Đoán chủ đề nghe, liên tưởng kiến thức chủ đề nghe + Chuẩn bị từ vựng, cấu trúc có liên quan (theo phán đoán) + Đoán trước theo nội dung câu hỏi (có thể xác) - Chuẩn bị cho làm cách: + Liệt kê (trên nháp) thứ tự câu hỏi theo đề + Để khoảng cách câu hỏi cho thay đổi đáp án + Điền nội dung đoán trước có - Kĩ nghe: + Tập trung tối đa tinh thần, không lo lắng hay sốt sắng + Chú ý nghe trọng âm, từ nhấn mạnh, điều lặp lại + Suy luận phần không nghe theo kiến thức văn hóa, ngữ pháp, ngữ nghĩa - Hoàn thiện làm: + Kiểm tra thông tin càn thiết, tính logic, hợp lí thông tin nghe + Kiểm tra lại tính tương thíc ngữ nghĩa, ngữ pháp văn phong đáp án + Hoàn thành làm việc suy đoán đáp án không nghe 1.3 Một số địa phương pháp luyện nghe: - Nghe trực tuyến websites như: www.luyennghetienganh.com, - Luyện nghe trực tuyến, ngoại tuyến phần nghe TOEFL, TOEFL iBT, IELTS,… - Sử dụng tài liệu nghe có hiệu sách - Xem phim không phụ đề, không dịch,… - Nghe hát (tốt nhất) GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ PHÁT ÂM - PRONUNCIATION: 2.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần kiểm tra khả nhận biết cách phát âm chữ đ ược g ạch theo cách phát âm nguyên âm, nguyên âm đôi, ba, ph ụ âm, chùm ph ụ âm c t có chương trình liên quan đến chương trình Tiếng Anh THPT hi ện hành Đ ể làm t ốt ph ần tập này, thí sinh cần nắm vững: - Bảng phiên âm quốc tế - Các tổ hợp chữ sản sinh âm dễ gây nhầm lẫn - Các tổ hợp chữ sản sinh âm đặc biệt - Quy tắc phát âm theo cách phát âm giới thiệu sách giáo khoa Tiếng Anh 10, 11, 12 2.2 Bảng phiên âm quốc tế: TT Nguyên âm Nguyên Phụ âm Phụ âm hữu Page 1/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC đơn /i/ / i: / /e/ /æ/ /ɔ/ / ɔ: / /Λ/ / ɑ: / /ʊ/ / u: / /ә/ / з: / âm đôi / ei / / / / ɔi / / aʊ / / әʊ / / iә / / eә / / ʊә / vô /p/ /f/ /θ/ /t/ /s/ /ʃ/ / t∫ / /k/ /h/ MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS /b/ /v/ /δ/ /d/ /z/ /ʒ/ / dʒ / /g/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /r/ /w/ /j/ 10 11 12 13 14 15 2.3 Một số nhóm âm thường kiểm tra: a Tổ hợp chữ tận “ed”: - Phát âm /id/ liền trước tổ hợp chữ phụ âm /t/ /d/ Ví dụ: started /’sta:tid/; acted /’ æktid/; lasted/’la:stid/; listed/’listid/; painted /’peintid/;decided/di’saidid/; provided/pr ә’vaidid/; landed /’lændid/; added /’ædid/ Ngoài có từ bất qui tắc cụ thể gồm: sacred /’seikrid/; hatred/’heitrid/; crooked/’krukid/; beloved/bi’lΛvid/; wicked/’wikid/; naked/’neikid/ - Phát âm /t/ liền trước tổ hợp chữ phụ âm /k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ, p/ Ví dụ: cooked/’kukt/; laughed/’la:ft/; glanced/’gl ænst/; washed/’woʃt/; watched /’wotʃt/; stopped/’stopt/ - Các trường hợp lại phát âm /d/ Ví dụ: earned/’з:nd/; played/’pleid/; employed/im’ploid/; died/’daid/; moved/’muvd/ b Tổ hợp chữ tận “s”: - Phát âm /s/ liền trước chúng âm /p,k,t,f,θ/ Ví dụ: caps/’kæps/; peaks/’pi:ks/; laughs/’la:fs/; tenths/’ten θs/ - Phát âm /z/ trường hợp lại Ví dụ: hands/’hændz/; ears/’i:rz/; boys/’boiz/; apples/’æplz/ c Các cặp nguyên âm đơn: Ví dụ: /i/ vs /i:/; /e/ vs /æ/; /ɔ/ vs /ɔ:/; / Λ/ vs /a:/; /ʊ/ vs /u:/; /ә/ vs /з:/ d Các nguyên âm phụ âm khác 2.4 Một số tập luyện phát âm: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ TRỌNG ÂM - STRESS: 3.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần kiểm tra cách xác định trọng âm t đa âm ti ết t vựng kiểm tra thường có chương trình Tiếng Anh THPT hi ện hành Để làm t ốt ph ần tập này, học sinh cần nắm vững: - Thế trọng âm, trọng âm - Các quy tắc xác định trọng âm từ - Phần phiên âm từ vựng giới thiệu sách giáo khoa Tiếng Anh 10, 11, 12 3.2 Một số qui tắc đánh trọng âm: a Đối với từ có âm tiết - Trọng âm từ có hai âm ti ết thường rơi vào âm tiết thứ động từ (tr trường hợp âm tiết thứ có chứa nguyên âm /ә/, /i/, ho ặc / әʊ/), r vào âm ti ết th ứ từ loại lại (trừ trường hợp âm tiết thứ có chứa nguyên âm đ ơn /ә/) Page 2/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS appeal (v) /ә’pi:l/ brother (n) /’einsәnt/ /’brΛδә/ ancient appear (v) /ә’pir/ color (n) annual /’ænjʊәl/ /’k Λlә/ approach (v) /ә’prɔ:tʃ / dhoti (n) /’hәʊti/ concave /’kɔnkeiv/ arrange (v) /ә’reidʒ / father (n) hardly / ’ha:dli / /’f a:δә/ decide (v) /di’said/ mother (n) / ’nevә / /’mΛδә/ never - Đối với từ có mang tiền tố, hậu tố, trọng âm từ thường rơi vào âm tiết gốc become quickly / ’kwikli / threaten / ’θretәn / / bi’kΛm / react / ri’ækt / builder / ’bildә / failure / ’feiljʊә / foretell / fɔ’tel / lately / ’leitli / daily / ’deili / begin / bi’gin / actual / ’æktʊәl / treatment / ’tri:tmәnt / unknown / Λn’knәʊn / sandy / ’sændi / ruler / ’ru:lә / b Đối với từ có âm tiết - Đối với từ có hai âm tiết, trọng âm thường rơi vào âm tiết thứ ba kể từ âm tiết cuối family /’fæmili/ philosopher /fi’lɔ:sɔfә/ biology /bai’ɔ:lɔdʒi / cinema /’sinәmә / character /’kæriktә/ democracy /di’mɔ:krәsi/ regular /’regjʊlә / interest /’intәrist/ satisfy /’sætisfai / singular /’siŋgjʊlә / internet /’intәnet/ dedicate /’delikeit / international /intә’næʃәnәl/ different /’difәrәnt/ philosophy /fi’lɔ:sɔfi / - Đối với từ có tận “ian”, “ic”, “ience”, “ient”, “al”, “ial”, “ual”, “eous”, “ious”, “iar”, “ion”, trọng âm thường rơi vào âm tiết liền trước tận – thứ kể từ âm tiết cuối ian physician / fi’ziksәn / musician / mjʊ’ziksәn / ic athletic / eθ’letik / energetic / enә’dʒetik / ience experience / iks’priәns / convenience / kәn’veniәn / ient expedient / iks’pediәnt / ingredient / in’gri:diәn / al parental / pә’rentәl / refusal / re’fjʊzәl / ial essential / i’senʃәl/ confidential / kәnfi’denʃәl / ual habitual / hæ’bi:tʃʊәl / individual / indi’vi:dʊәl / eous courageous / kɔ’rægәʊs / spontaneous / spɔn’tænәʊs / ious delicious / de’li:ʃIәʊs / industrious / in’dΛstriәʊs / ion decision / di’si:zn / communication / kәmjʊni’keiʃn / iar familiar / fә’mi:liә / unfamiliar / Λnfә’mi:liә / - Đối với từ có tận “ese”, “ee’, “eer”, “ier”, “ette”, “oo”, “esque”, trọng âm thường rơi vào âm tiết chứa tận ee refugee / refjʊ’dʒi: / employee / implɔi’i: / eer volunteer engineer / endʒi’nIә / / vɔlΛn’tiә / ese Portuguese / pɔtjʊ’gi:s / Vietnamese / vietnΛ’mi:s / ette ushrette cigarette / sigә’ret / / Λʃ’ret / esque bamboo / bæm’bu: / picturesque / piktʃә’res / oo kangaroo / kæŋ’gru: / cukoo / kʊ’ku: / oon saloon / sæ’lu:n / typhoon / tai’fu:n / - Đối với từ có tận “ate”, “fy”, “ity”, “ize”, trọng âm thường rơi vào âm tiết thứ ba kể từ âm tiết cuối ate dedicate / ’dedikeit/ communicate / kә’mjʊnikeit/ fy classify / ’kla:sifai / satisfy / ’sætisfai / ity ability / ә’bi:liti / responsibility / respɔsi’bi:liti / ize recognize / ’rekɔgnaiz / urbanize / ’ɜ:bәnaiz / ety society / sәʊ’saiәti/ anxiety / æŋ’zaiәti / 3.3 Một số tập luyện xác định trọng âm từ: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ THÌ CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ - VERBS TENSES: Page 3/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS 4.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần kiểm tra việc xác định động từ (theo nhòm ngữ pháp The Present Tenses, The Past Tenses, The Future Tenses) dựa vào ngữ c ụ th ể cho t ừng câu hỏi cụ thể Học sinh đặc biệt trọng đến ngữ cảnh l ời nói, d ấu hi ệu v ề th ời gian (tr ạng từ, trạng ngữ, mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian) để xác định cho cách chia c đ ộng t cho trước Cần nắm vững yếu tố sau: - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết đơn (The simple present tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết tiếp diễn (The present progressive tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết hoàn thành (The present perfect tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết hoàn thành tiếp diễn (The present perfect progressive tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết khứ đơn (The simple past tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết khứ đơn (The simple past tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết khứ tiếp diễn (The past progressive tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết khứ hoàn thành (The past perfect tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết tương lai đơn (The simple future tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết tương lai tiếp diễn (The future progressive tense) - Cấu tạo, cách sử dụng, dấu hiệu nhận biết tương lai hoàn thành (The future perfect tense) 4.2 Cấu trúc ngữ pháp khác: - Sử dụng (đơn, tiếp diễn) để nói tương lai - Sử dụng thức bị động cho động từ - Sử dụng câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp - Sử dụng câu điều kiện (loại 1,2,3, loại trộn 1,2, loại đặc bi ệt) - Sử dụng hình thức đảo ngữ - Sử dụng câu giả định: + Giả định với Wish, Would rather + Giả định với As if, As though + Giả định với “It be ADJ that S (should) V” + Giả định với “S1 V1 that S2 (should) V2” 4.3 Một số tập chia động từ: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ TỪ BIẾN THỂ - DERIVED WORDS: 5.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần kiểm tra kiến thức học sinh từ bi ến thể c từ v ựng t từ gốc Động từ - Danh từ - Tính từ - Tr ạng t - Ti ền t ố - H ậu t ố: Các ki ến th ức v ề tr ật t ự từ, cách sử dụng, cách cấu tạo từ phái sinh Học sinh cần nắm: - Kiến thức từ loại - Một số tiền tố, hậu tố thông dụng - Một số thành ngữ, cụm ngữ cố định tiếng Anh - Yếu tố văn hóa nước nói tiếng Anh - Từ vựng xuất học sách giáo khoa Tiếng Anh 10, 11, 12 5.2 Một số tập xác định từ loại: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ NHẬN DIỆN LỖI - ERROR IDENTIFICATION: 6.1 Đánh giá chung: Yêu cầu phần tập nhằm kiểm tra kiến thức học sinh r ất nhiều mảng kiến thức như; ngữ pháp, từ vựng, hòa hợp y ếu t ố c ấu thành câu, m ạo t ừ, giới từ, kiến thức cụm từ, mệnh đề, Để giải yêu cầu phần t ập h ọc sinh phải nắm được: - Từ loại, cấu tạo, số từ, cách sử dụng, chức ngữ pháp - Từ phái sinh, từ ghép, trật tự từ - Các hình thức ngữ pháp phù hợp với từ loại, ngữ nghĩa, tình thái từ loại - Thì động từ, thành ngữ, ngữ cố định - Sự hòa hợp thành tố câu, yếu tố ngữ pháp Page 4/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS - Mệnh đề, liên từ dùng cho mệnh đề, đại từ 6.2 Hình thức tập xác định từ loại: a Xác định bốn phần gạch bị sai: - Xác định từ loại, số từ, động từ, hình thái mệnh đề,… - Loại trừ phần logic ngữ pháp, ngữ nghĩa, chức từ vựng,… b Xác định lỗi dòng: - Xác định từ loại, số từ, động từ, hình thái mệnh đề,… - Loại trừ phần logic ngữ pháp, ngữ nghĩa, chức từ vựng,… - Chú ý từ loại như: + Mạo từ, danh từ đếm được, không đếm được, số ít, nhiều + Lỗi tả,… 6.2 Một số tập xác định từ sai: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ TỪ CHỨC NĂNG – PARTIAL FILLING: 7.1 Đánh giá chung: Yêu cầu tập nhằm kiểm tra kiến thức c h ọc sinh v ề t vựng chức mạo từ, giới từ, cụm ngữ cố định, thành ngữ, Bài tập yêu c ầu ền t khuyết vào câu chưa hoàn tất Để làm tốt tập này, học sinh cần: - Kiến thức từ loại, đặc biệt ý tới partials (từ chức năng) - Động từ giới từ, động từ cụm, ngữ cố định, thành ngữ - Cách sử dụng mạo từ - Từ loại, số từ, lỗi tả viết - Từ vựng xuất học sách giáo khoa Tiếng Anh 10, 11, 12 7.2 Một số tập từ chức năng: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ TỪ VỰNG VÀ NGỮ PHÁP - LEXICO GRAMMAR: 8.1 Đánh giá chung: Bài tập nhằm kiểm tra kiến thức học sinh mảng ki ến th ức như; mạo từ, giới từ, ngữ pháp, hòa hợp yếu tố c ấu thành câu, c ụm t ừ, m ệnh đ ề, thành ngữ, Để giải yêu cầu phần tập học sinh phải nắm được: - Từ loại, cấu tạo, số từ, cách sử dụng, chức ngữ pháp - Từ phái sinh, từ ghép, trật tự từ - Các hình thức ngữ pháp phù hợp với từ loại, ngữ nghĩa, tình thái từ loại - Thì động từ, thành ngữ, ngữ cố định, nguyên thể, danh động từ, - Sự hòa hợp thành tố câu, yếu tố ngữ pháp - Mệnh đề, liên từ dùng cho mệnh đề, đại từ - Câu giao tiếp, tình ngôn ngữ - Các yếu tố văn học, nhân vật tiếng, văn hóa, mẫu câu 8.2 Một số tập ngữ pháp từ vựng MCQs: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ ĐỌC ĐIỀN KHUYẾT - GAPS FILLING: 9.1 Đánh giá chung: Bài Để giải yêu cầu phần tập học sinh ph ải có ki ến th ức ngữ pháp tốt, vốn từ vựng khá, hiểu thành ngữ, đặc bi ệt ph ải n ắm đ ược nhi ều c ụm từ, ngữ cố định tốt Phần tập thường kiểm tra kiến thức: - Kĩ sử dụng từ vựng (cụm từ; collocations; ) - Kĩ sử dụng trật tự từ, mối quan hệ từ vựng,các ngữ cố định, thành ngữ - Hiểu biết thì, mệnh đề yếu tố văn hóa - Sự hòa hợp thành tố câu, yếu tố ngữ pháp - Mệnh đề, liên từ dùng cho mệnh đề, đại từ 9.2 Một số tập đọc điền khuyết: phần thứ hai sách 10 GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ ĐỌC HIỂU - READING COMPREHENSION: 10.1 Đánh giá chung: Để làm tốt loại tập đọc hiểu cần phân tích chia nhóm loại câu hỏi, vân dụng kĩ gi ải nhóm câu h ỏi c ụ thể đ ể hoàn thành t ập Thông Page 5/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS thường, tập đọc hiểu gồm hai đọc với chừng 10 câu hỏi kèm theo thu ộc nhóm câu h ỏi cụ thể sau: Type 1: Vocabulary questions: Khái quát: Identify vocabulary meaning (3 – questions/ passage) Câu hỏi: - The word/ phrase “X” is closest in meaning to - The word/ phrase “X” could/ can be best replaced by - The word/ phrase “X” probably means Type 2: Reference questions: Khái quát: Identify the referent a reference word “refers to” (0 – questions/ passage) Câu hỏi: - The word/ phrase “X” refers to_ Type 3&4: Factual & negative factual questions: Khái quát: Choose an answer that is true or untrue according to the passage Factual (3-6 questions/ passage); Negative factual (0-2 questions/ passage) Câu hỏi: Factual: - Which of the following statements is TRUE of ? - It is indicated in the passage that - According to the passage, _ Negative factual: - Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE of ? - All of the following statements are true EXCEPT Type 5: Sentence simplification questions: Khái quát: Find the best replacement of key information from long and complex sentences (1 question/ passage) Câu hỏi: Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Type 6: Prose Summary: Complete a summary of a passage (1 question/ passage) Type 7: Classify, categorize, organize information questions: Khái quát: Categorize specific facts in the passage (1 question/ passage) Type 8: Inference questions: Khái quát: Make inferences, form generalizations and draw conclusions based on what is implied in a passage (0-2 questions/ passage) Câu hỏi: - It is implied in the passage that - It can/ could be inferred from the passage that - It is suggested in the passage that Type 9: Rhetorical purpose questions: Khái quát: Recognize why an author explains concept in a certain way (0-2 questions/ passage) Câu hỏi: - Why does the author state X? - Why does the author mention X? - The author mentions X in order to 10.2 Một số tập đọc hiểu: phần thứ hai sách 11 GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ CHUYỂN ĐỔI CÂU - SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION: 11.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần tập nhằm kiểm tra tổng hợp kiến thức ngữ pháp, t vựng, lực sử dụng ngôn ngữ, kiến thức văn hóa người học Bài t ập g ồm 5-10 câu hỏi phân chia theo thang nhận thức, vào yêu c ầu v ề chu ẩn ki ến th ức kĩ theo qui định chương trình Nhìn chung câu hỏi phần chủ yếu d ựa vào hình th ức chuy ển đ ổi câu như: - Chuyển đổi câu dựa vào động từ - Chuyển đổi câu dựa vào hình thức câu so sánh - Chuyển đổi câu dựa vào kĩ sử dụng từ vựng: từ, cụm từ, thành ngữ hay cấu trúc cố định - Chuyển đổi câu dựa vào hình thái lời nói: trực tiếp – gián tiếp; chủ động – bị động; lối nói trần thuật – đảo ngữ, nhấn mạnh; Page 6/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS - Chuyển đổi câu dựa tảng kiến thức cụm từ mệnh đề (nguyên nhân; nhượng bộ; mục đích; tác động hiệu ứng; mệnh đề trạng ngữ thời gian; mệnh đề lược; câu chẻ; mệnh đề điều kiện; quan hệ; ) 11.2 Cấu trúc cụ thể: 11.2.1 Time lines: Dòng thời gian Simple Past vs Present Perfect Eg They last met years ago They haven’t The last time he ate this kind of food was when he was in Ha Long He hasn’t She has never had dinner out since 2015 He last We haven’t gathered for months The last time _ Before vs The first/ second/… time: Eg This is the first time they have ever eaten snails They haven’t _ It is the second time he has ever met her He has She has never had dinner out before This is the We haven’t gathered as a close-knit family before It is the _ 11.2.2 Comparisons: Dựa theo cấu trúc so sánh Comparative vs (negative) Positive: Eg Apples are cheaper than oranges Apples are _ He drove more carefully than his brother His brother didn’t _ Superlative vs Comparative: E.g He is the best at English in my class He is better He answered the most intelligently in his group He answered more Superlative vs Positive: E.g He is the best at English in my class No one _ He answered the most intelligently in his group No other pupil _ Comment sentences: E.g It is the biggest party I have ever had I have never He has never met any more kind-hearted person than Mary Mary 11.2.3 Subjunctives: Thức giả định Wish: E.g I am sorry I missed your birthday party I wish _ It is a pity that my wife couldn’t come I wish _ Conditional sentences: E.g I am not rich enough to the charity Page 7/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS If I were _ The sea was too rough for us to go swimming We would have _ 11.2.4 Emphasis: Thức nhấn mạnh Cleft sentences: E.g He was sentenced to death It was he who We had met with a very handsome boy It was a She left on a rainy day It was on Inversions: E.g He can hardly finish his project in time Hardly can As soon as she put down the phone, her boss rang back Scarcely had We didn’t reacognize him until he put off his mask Not until _ 11.2.5 Passive voice: Thể bị động E.g He bought his new shoes when he was on holiday His new shoes Don’t tough that wire That wire You must clean the machine every time you use it The machine 11.2.6 Indirect speech: Câu gián tiếp E.g “Why don’t we go out for dinner?” said Lary Lary suggested “If I were you, I would buy a new car, Harry” he said He advised “Don’t forget to buy me a sandwich on your way back, Peter”, said Matt Matt reminded 11.2.7 Structures: Dựa theo cấu trúc Reason: E.g Beacause of the thick fog, he canceled his hiking trip Because the She failed because of her laziness Because she The heavy rain prevented us from going out Because of the Effects: E.g He was too young to join the army He was not old She was such a nice girl that we loved her very much She was so There were so many applicants that we could provide enough room fro all So many _ Concession: E.g He led a simple life though he was very well-known However well-known _ Despite the bad weather, we enjoyed the match thoroughly Although the weather Page 8/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS Disabled as she was, she lived happily and thought poositively No matter how 11.2 Một số tập viết chuyển đổi câu: phần thứ hai sách 12 GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ VIẾT LUẬN – ESSAY WRITING: 12.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần yêu cầu học sinh viết essay (bài luận) để bàn vấn đề c ụ thể như: đời sống, môi trường, vấn đề xã hội, nhiên li ệu, ô nhiễm, lối s ống, v ấn đ ề c th ời đại, đời sống học đường, giáo dục, y tế, bảo vệ thiên nhiên, đô thị hóa, toàn cầu hóa, Học sinh cần nắm yêu cầu: - Cấu trúc essay ( 200 từ - từ đoạn văn trở lên) - Cấu trúc hành văn, mối liên kết, lập luận - Cách sử dụng ngôn ngữ, lối phân tích: đưa vấn đề - giải thích – chứng minh – ví dụ - Liên từ, mệnh đề, yêu cầu lập luận: Topic – Main idea – Main dea - – Conclusion - Các kĩ cụ thể sau: 12.2 Kĩ viết luận cụ thể: 12.2.1 Writing Essay: Kĩ viết văn a Writing process: Tiến hành viết Đây bước chuyển hóa từ ý tưởng (đã làm phần chuẩn bị đây) thành m ột viết hoàn chỉnh (sản phẩm cuối cùng) Tuân thủ bước sau: Five Writing Steps: Open your notebook and word processor Write the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and closing sentence Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning Focus on the main idea of your essay Use the dictionary to help you find additional words to express your ideas b Editing Essay: Sửa lỗi viết gồm bước sau: * Grammar and Spelling: Chữa lỗi ngữ pháp tả Check your spelling Check your grammar Read your essay again Make sure each sentence has a subject See if your subjects and verbs agree with each other Check the verb tenses of each sentence Make sure that each sentence makes sense * Style and Organization: Chữa lỗi hành văn Make sure your essay has a topic sentence Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea Make sure you have a closing sentence Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea See if your essay is interesting 12.2.2 Useful expressions: Những liên từ, hay cụm từ hữu ích viết văn: Useful expressions Sequencing/ Listing First of all, First(ly), Initially, To begin with; Second(ly); Third(ly); Next; Then; After that (this); Following this (that); Finally; The first reason is…/ The second is…; Last but not least… Adding to what you have Also, Furthermore, In addition, Additionally, Moreover, Besides, As said well as, Similarly, not only…but also…, even beside this/ that Contrasting In contrast to this, On the contrary, In contrast, Conversely, On the other hand, While, Whereas, However, Despite/ In spite of, Although, Even though, Otherwise, Nonetheless Expressing similarity Similarly; Likewise, In the same way Showing results As a result, As a consequence, Consequently, Hence, Thus, Page 9/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS Therefore, So Giving examples For example, For instance, In particular, Particularly, That is to say, Namely, Such as Restating In other words, That is to say, To put it simply Inferring In other words, In that case, or else, Otherwise Summarizing In summary, To sum up, To conclude, To recapitulate, In conclusion, In short, In brief, In a nutshell, Lastly, Finally 12.2.3 Kinds of Essays: Các loại văn Definition Essays: Bài văn để định nghĩa vật, tượng e.g Write an essay giving the definition of a pest Classification Essays: Bài văn để nhóm, hay phân loại s ự vật, hi ện tượng e.g Write an essay discussing two types of energy resources Description Essays: Bài văn miêu tả vật, tượng e.g Write an essay to talk about your most favorite subject Compare and Contrast Essays: Bài văn đề diễn tả so sánh hay tương phản vật, tượng e.g Write an essay comparing the weather in Vancouver and Halifax Sequence Essays: Bài văn mô tả chuỗi, hay tiến trình vật, vi ệc e.g Write an essay outlining how a person becomes the prime minister Choice Essays: Bài văn mô tả chọn lựa e.g Write an essay stating whether you would prefer to play hockey or lacrosse Explanation Essays: Bài văn để giải thích e.g Write an essay explaining why so many Europeans moved to Canada during the nineteenth century Evaluation Essays: Bài văn để đánh gia vật, tượng e.g Write an essay evaluating whether pesticides should be used on farms For and Against Essays: Bài văn để nói tán đồng phản đối e.g Write an essay to show your opinion on the saying “ ” 10 Graph, Chart, Diagram Essays: Bài văn để phân tích bảng biểu, số li ệu e.g Write an essay evaluating whether pesticides should be used on farms 12.2.4 Marking scheme: Tiêu chí chấm Mô tả tiêu chí đánh giá Điểm tối đa Bố cục 0,4 Câu đề dẫn chủ đề mạch lạc Bố cục hợp lý, rõ ràng, phù hợp yêu cầu đề Bố cục uyển chuyển từ mở đến kết luận Phát triển ý 0,25 Phát triển ý có trình tự logic Có dẫn chứng, ví dụ, đủ để bảo vệ ý kiến Sử dụng ngôn từ 0,3 Sử dụng ngôn từ phù hợp nội dung Sử dụng ngôn từ văn phong/ thể loại Sử dụng từ nối ý cho viết uyển chuyển Nội dung 0,3 Đủ sức thuyết phục người đọc Đủ dẫn chứng, ví dụ, lập luận Độ dài: Số từ không nhiều so với quy định 5% Ngữ pháp, dấu câu tả; Sử dụng dấu câu Chính tả: Viết tả 0,25 Lỗi tả gây hiểu nhầm/ sai lệch ý bị tính lỗi trừ 1% điểm viết Page 10/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS A great number of these plants were true ferns, reproducing themselves without fruits or seeds Others had only the appearance of ferns Their leaves had organs of sexual reproduction and produced seeds Although their “flowers” did not have corollas, these false ferns (today completely extinct) ushered in the era of flowering plants Traces of these floras of the earliest times have been preserved in the form of fossils Such traces are most commonly found in shale and sandstone rocks wedged between coal beds Today only tropical forests bear living proof of the ancient greatness of ferns The species that grow there are no longer those of the Carboniferous period, but their variety and vast numbers, and the great size of some, remind us of the time when ferns ruled the plant kingdom What does the passage mainly discuss? A Plant reproduction B How to locate fossils C An ancient form of plant life D Tropical plant life The word “Others” refers to _ A plants B pillars C trees D fronds Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a characteristic of the plants described in the passage? A They once spread over large areas of land B They varied greatly in size C They coexisted with amphibians, mosses, and horsetails D They clung to tree trunks and bushes for support The word “true” is closest in meaning to which of the following? A accurate B genuine C straight D dependable The author states that fossils of early plant life are usually found in rocks located between deposits of _ A coal B shale C sandstone D corollas Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage This symptoms of hay fever include watery and itchy eyes and a runny, congested nose People suffering from hay fever may experience occasional wheezing and repeated bouts of sneezing and may even lose their sense of smell Some victims of hay fever may also have stoppedup ears About 30 percent of those who suffer from hay fever may develop the symptoms associated with periodic asthma or a sinus infection The allergen-antibody theory does not fully explain allergic reactions because the membranes and glands in eyes and ears are controlled by the independent nervous system, which keeps these organs in balance But the independent nervous system itself is part of the emotional- response center and may cause the feelings of anger, fear, resentment, and lack of self-confidence in reaction to allergy-causing substances The most common cause of hay fever is the pollen of ragweed, which blossoms during the summer and autumn When airborne pollen particles, as well mold, come into contact with the victim’s membranes, they can cause allergic reactions that release histamine and result in virtual blockage of air passages To prevent hay fever or to decrease the severity of its symptoms, contact with the ragweed pollen should be reduced Although some communities have attempted to eliminate the plants that cause the reactions, elimination programs have not been successful because airborne pollen can travel considerable distances Antihistamine can help with short but severe attacks Over extended periods of time, however, patients are prescribed a series of injections of the substance to which they are sensitive in order to increase immunity and thus be relieved of the seasonal allergy (Resource: Toefl test strategies by Eli Hinkel, Ph.D) It can be inferred from the passage that the phrase “hay fever” refers to A fodder for cattle B a seasonal discomfort C viral bacteria D a lung disease According to the passage, the symptoms of the allergy are predominantly Page 78/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS A abdominal B intestinal C respiratory D chronic What can be inferred from the first paragraph? A Hay fever may cause severe allergic reactions and even death B The cause of allergic reactions has not been determined C The nervous system balances allergic reactions D People should not have an emotional response to allergic reactions According to the passage, patients suffering from hay fever may also experience A hunger pains B mood swings C nervous blockages D sensory perceptions The word “resentment” is closest in meaning to A reprieve B reprisal C irritation D grief According to the passage, the irritants are transported by A wind B food C travelers D air passages The word “blockage” in the passage is closest in meaning to A obstruction B bleeding C enlargement D dryness According to the passage, to avoid incidents of hay fever, patients need to A avoid interactions with other patients B avoid exposure to pollen C increase their self-confidence D take doses of prescribed medicine Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a cause of allergies? A pollen B mold C flowers D injections 10 A paragraph following this passage would most probably discuss A how the nervous system alerts patients B how the immune system reacts to allergens C what other diseases can be relieved by vaccines D What flowers are harmless to hay fever patients Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage A pilot cannot fly by sight alone In many conditions, such as flying at night and landing in dense fog, a pilot must use radar, an alternative way of navigating Since human eyes are not very good at determining speeds of approaching objects, radar can show a pilot how fast nearby planes are moving The basic principle of radar is exemplified by what happens when one shouts in a cave The echo of the sounds against the walls helps a person determine the size of the cave With radar, however, the waves are radio waves instead of sound waves Radio waves travel at the speed of light, about 300,000 kilometers in one second A radar set sends out a short burst of radio waves Then it receives the echoes produced when the waves bounce off objects By determining the time it takes for the echoes to return to the radar set, a trained technician can determine the distance between the radar set and other objects The word “radar”, in fact, gets its name from the term “radio detection and ranging” “Ranging” is the term for detection of the distance between an object and the radar set Besides being of critical importance to pilots, radar is essential for air traffic control, tracking ships at sea, and for tracking weather systems and storms What is the main topic of this passage? A The nature of radar B History of radar C Alternatives to radar D Types of ranging According to the passage, what can radar detect besides location of objects? A Shape B Size C Speed D Weight The word “exemplified” in the passage can be replaced by _ A “specified” B “resembled” C “illustrated” D “justified” The word “shouts” in the passage most closely means _ A “exclaims” B “yells” C “shoots” D “whispers” Which of the following words best describes the tone of this passage? A argumentative B explanatory C humorous D imaginative Page 79/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS According to the passage, the distance between a radar set and an object can be determined by _ A the time it takes for a burst of radio waves to produce echoes when the waves bounce off the object B the term “ranging” used for detection of the distance between an object and the radar set C the time it takes for the radio waves to produce echoes and bounce off the object D the time it takes for the echoes produced by the radio waves to return to the radar set Which type of waves does radar use? A tidal B sound C heat D radio The word “tracking” in the passage most closely means _ A sending B searching for C ranging D repairing Which of the following would most likely be the topic of the next paragraph? A A history of flying B Other uses of radar C The technology used by pilots D Uses of some technology 10 What might be inferred about radar? A It takes the place of a radio B It has improved navigational safety C It was developed from a study of sound waves D It gave birth to the invention of the airplane Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage Today’s cars are smaller, safer, cleaner, and more economical than their predecessors, but the car of the future will be far more pollution-free than those on the road today Several new types of automobile engines have already been developed than run on alternative sources of power, such as electricity, compressed natural gas, methanol, steam, hydrogen, and propane Electricity, however, is the only zero-emission option presently available Although electric vehicles will not be truly practical until a powerful, compact battery or other dependable source of current is available, transport experts foresee a new assortment of electric vehicles entering everyday life: shorter-range commuter electric cars, three-wheeled neighborhood cars, electric delivery vans, bikes and trolleys As automakers work to develop practical electrical vehicles, urban planners and utility engineers are focusing on infrastructure systems to support and make the best use of the new cars Public charging facilities will need to be as common as today’s gas stations Public parking spots on the street or in commercial lots will need to be equipped with devices that allow drivers to charge their batteries while they stop, dine, or attend a concert To encourage the use of electric vehicles, the most convenient parking in transportation centers might be reserved for electric cars Planners foresee electric shuttle buses, trains, buses and neighborhood vehicles all meeting at transit centers that would have facilities for charging and renting Commuters will be able to rent a variety of electric cars to suit their needs: light trucks, one-person three-wheelers, small cars, or electric/gasoline hybrid cars for longer trips, which will no doubt take place on automated freeways capable of handling five times the number of vehicles that can be carried by freeway today The following electrical vehicles are all mentioned in the passage EXCEPT _ A vans B trains C planes D trolleys The author’s purpose in the passage is to _ A criticize conventional vehicles B support the invention of electric cars C narrate a story about alternative energy vehicles D describe the possibilities for transportation in the future The passage would most likely be followed by details about _ A automated freeways B pollution restrictions in the future C the neighborhood of the future D electric shuttle buses The word “compact” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to _ Page 80/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS A long-range B inexpensive C concentrated D squared In the second paragraph, the author implies that _ A a dependable source of electric energy will eventually be developed B everyday life will stay much the same in the future C a single electric vehicle will eventually replace several modes of transportation D electric vehicles are not practical for the future According to the passage, public parking lots of the future will be _ A more convenient than they are today B equipped with charging devices C much larger than they are today D as common as today’s gas stations The word “charging” in this passage refers to _ A electricity B credit cards C aggression D lightning The word “foresee” in this passage could best be replaced with _ A count on B invent C imagine D rely on The word “commuters” in paragraph refers to _ A daily travelers B visitors C cab drivers D shoppers 10 The word “hybrid” in paragraph is closest in meaning to _ A combination B hazardous C futuristic D automated Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage The Stone Age was a period of history which began in approximately two million B.C and lasted until 3000 B.C Its name was derived from the stone tools and weapons that modern scientists found This period was divided into the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Ages During the first period (2 million to 8000 B.C), the first hatchet and use of fire for heating and cooking were developed As a result of the Ice Age, which evolved about one million years into the Paleolithic Age, people were forced to seek shelter in caves, wear clothing, and developed new tools During the Mesolithic Age (8000 to 6000 B.C), people made crude pottery and the first fish hooks, took dogs hunting, and developed the bow and arrow, which was used until the fourteenth century A.D The Neolithic Age (6000 to 3000 B.C) saw humankind domesticating sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle, being less nomadic than in previous eras, establishing permanent settlements, and creating governments Into how many periods was the Stone Age divided? A two B three C four D five The word “derived” is closest meaning to _ A originated B destroyed C inferred D discussed Which of the following was developed earliest? A fish hook B bow and arrow C hatchet D pottery Which of the following developments is NOT related to the conditions of the Ice Age? A farming B clothing C living indoors D using fire The word “crude” is closest meaning to _ A extravagant B complex C vulgar D primitive The author states that the Stone Age was so named because A it was very durable like stone B there was little vegetation C the stools and weapons was made of stone D the people lived in stone caves The word “nomadic” is closest meaning to _ A sedentary B wandering C primitive D inquisitive The word “eras” is closest meaning to _ A families B periods C herds D tools Which of the following best describes the Mesolithic Age? A people were inventive B people were warriors Page 81/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS C People stayed indoors all the time D people were crude 10 With what subject is the passage mainly concerned? A The Neolithic Age B The Stone Age C The Ice Age D The Paleolithic Age Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage Before the mid-nineteenth century, people in the United States ate most foods only in season Drying, smoking, and salting could preserve meat for a short time, but the availability of fresh meat, like that of fresh milk, was very limited; there was no way to prevent spoilage But in 1810 a French inventor named Nicolas Appert developed the cooking-and-sealing process of canning And in the 1850's an American named Gail Borden developed a means of condensing and preserving milk Canned goods and condensed milk became more common during the 1860's, but supplies remained low because cans had to be made by hand By 1880, however, inventors had fashioned stamping and soldering machines that mass-produced cans from tinplate Suddenly all kinds of food could be preserved and bought at all times of the year Other trends and inventions had also helped make it possible for Americans to vary their daily diets Growing urban populations created demand that encouraged fruit and vegetable farmers to raise more produce Railroad refrigerator cars enabled growers and meat packers to ship perishables great distances and to preserve them for longer periods Thus, by the 1890's, northern city dwellers could enjoy southern and western strawberries, grapes, and tomatoes, previously available for a month at most, for up to six months of the year In addition, increased use of iceboxes enabled families to store perishables An easy means of producing ice commercially had been invented in the 1870's, and by 1900 the nation had more than two thousand commercial ice plants, most of which made home deliveries The icebox became a fixture in most homes and remained so until the mechanized refrigerator replaced it in the 1920's and 1930's Almost everyone now had a more diversified diet Some people continued to eat mainly foods that were heavy in starches or carbohydrates, and not everyone could afford meat Nevertheless, many families could take advantage of previously unavailable fruits, vegetables, and dairy products to achieve more varied fare What does the passage mainly discuss? A Causes of food spoilage B Commercial production of ice C Inventions that led to changes in the American diet D Population movements in the nineteenth century The phrase in season refers to A a kind of weather B a particular time of year C an official schedule D a method of flavoring food The word prevent is closest in meaning to _ A estimate B avoid C correct D confine During the 1860's, canned food products were A unavailable in rural areas B shipped in refrigerator cars C available in limited quantities D a staple part of the American diet The word them refers to _ A refrigerator cars B perishables C growers D distances The word fixture is closest in meaning to A luxury item B substance C commonplace object D mechanical device The author implies that in the 1920's and 1930's home deliveries of ice _ A decreased in number B were on an irregular schedule C increased in cost D occurred only in the summer The word Nevertheless is closest in meaning to _ A Therefore B Because C Occasionally D However Page 82/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS Which of the following types of food preservation was NOT mentioned in the passage? A Drying B Canning C Cold storage D Chemical additives 10 Which of the following statements is supported by the passage? A Tin cans and iceboxes helped to make many foods more widely available B Commercial ice factories were developed by railroad owners C Most farmers in the United States raised only fruits and vegetables D People who lived in cities demanded home delivery of foods Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage May 7th 1840 was the birthday of one of the most famous Russian composers of the nineteenth century: Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, the son of a mining inspector Tchaikovsky studied music as a child and later studied composition at the St Petersburg Conservatory His greatest period of productivity occurred between 1876 and 1890, during which time he enjoyed patronage of Madame von Meck, a woman he never met, who gave him a yearly living stipend Madame von Meck later terminated her friendship with Tchaikovsky, as well as his living allowance, when she, herself, was facing financial difficulties It was during the time of Madame von Meck’s patronage, however, that Tchaikovsky created the music for which he is most famous, including the music for the ballets of “Swan Lake” and “The Sleeping Beauty” Tchaikovsky’s music, well-known for its rich melodic and sometimes melancholy passages, was one of the first that brought serious dramatic music to dance Before this, little attention had been given to the music behind the dance Tchaikovsky died ostensibly of cholera on November 6th 1893, though there are now some scholars who argue that he committed suicide The best title for this passage could be _ A “The Life and Music of Tchaikovsky” B “Development of Tchaikovsky’s Music for Ballets” C “Tchaikovsky’s Relationship with Madame von Meck” D “The Cause of Tchaikovsky’s Death” According to the passage, all of the following describe Madame von Meck EXCEPT _ A she had economic troubles B she was generous C she was never introduced to Tchaikovsky D she enjoyed Tchaikovsky’s music According to the passage, Tchaikovsky’s music is most well-known for _ A it’s repetitive and monotonous tones B the ballet-like quality of music C the richness and melodic drama of the music D its lively, capricious melodies Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage? A Tchaikovsky’s influence on ballet music B Tchaikovsky’s unhappiness leading to suicide C The patronage of Madame von Meck D Tchaikovsky’s productivity in composing It can be inferred from the passage that _ A it was not the music behind the dance that made Tchaikovsky famous B there is suspicion on the cause of Tchaikovsky’s death C Madame von Meck was one of the most famous Russian composers D Madame von Meck was one of Tchaikovsky’s girlfriends Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage Every drop of water in the ocean, even in the deepest parts, responds to the forces that create the tides No other force that affects the sea is so strong Compared with the tides, the waves created by the wind are surface movements felt no more than a hundred fathoms below the surface The currents also seldom involve more than the upper several hundred fathoms despite their impressive sweep The tides are a response of the waters of the ocean to the pull of the Moon and the more distant Sun In theory, there is a gravitational attraction between the water and even the outermost star of the universe In reality, however, the pull of remote stars is so slight as to be obliterated by Page 83/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS the control of the Moon and, to a lesser extent, the Sun Just as the Moon rises later each day by fifty minutes, on the average, so, in most places, the time of high tide is correspondingly later each day And as the Moon waxes and wanes in its monthly cycle, so the height of the tide varies The tidal movements are strongest when the Moon is a sliver in the sky, and when it is full These are the highest flood tides and the lowest ebb tides of the lunar month and are called the spring tides At these times the Sun, Moon, and Earth are nearly in line and the pull of the two heavenly bodies is added together to bring the water high on the beaches, to send its surf upward against the sea cliffs, and to draw a high tide into the harbors Twice each month, at the quarters of the Moon, when the Sun, Moon and Earth lie at the apexes of a triangular configuration and the pull of the Sun and Moon are opposed, the moderate tidal movements called neap tides occur Then the difference between high and low water is less than at any other time during the month What is the main point of the first paragraph? A The waves created by ocean currents are very large B Despite the strength of the wind, it only moves surface water C Deep ocean water is seldom affected by forces that move water D The tides are the most powerful force to affect the movement of ocean water The words "In reality" in the passage is closest in meaning to _ A surprisingly B actually C characteristically D similarly It can be inferred from the passage that the most important factor in determining how much gravitational effect one object in space has on the tides is _ A size B distance C temperature D density The word "configuration" in the passage is closest in meaning to _ A unit B center C surface D arrangement Neap tides occur when _ A the Sun counteracts the Moon's gravitational attraction B the Moon is full C the Moon is farthest from the Sun D waves created by the wind combine with the Moon's gravitational attraction Exercise Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage Millions of people are using cell phones today In many places, it is actually considered unusual not to use one In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people They find that the phones are means of communication – having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected The explosion in mobile phone use around the world has made some health professionals worried Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones In England, there has been a serious debate about this issue Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health On the other hand, medical studies have shown changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones Signs of change in the issues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning equipment In one case, a traveling salesman had to retire at young age because of serious memory loss He couldn't remember even simple tasks He would often forget the name of his own son This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day, every day of his working week, for a couple of years His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use, but his employer's doctor didn't agree What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful? The answer is radiation High – tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation, but they say the amount is too small to worry about As the discussion about their safety continues, it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often Use your regular phone of you want to talk for a long time Use your mobile phone only Page 84/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS when you really need it Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient, especially in emergencies In the future, mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health So for now, it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often According to the passage, cell phones are especially popular with young people because _ A they are indispensable in everyday communication B they make them look more stylish C they keep the users alert all the time D they cannot be replaced by regular phones The changes possible caused by the cell phones are mainly concerned with _ A the mobility of the mind and the body B the smallest units of brain C the arteries of the brain D the resident memory The word "means" in the passage most closely means _ A meanings B expression C method D transmission The word "potentially" in the passage most closely means _ A obviously B possibly C certainly D privately "Negative publicity" in the passage most likely means _ A information on the lethal effects of cell phones B widespread opinion about bad effects of cell phones C the negative public use of cell phones D poor ideas about the effects of cell phones Doctors have tentatively concluded that cell phones may _ A damage their users' emotions B cause some mental malfunction C change their users' temperament D change their users' social behavior The man mentioned in the passage, who used his cell phone too often _ A suffered serious loss of mental ability B could no longer think lucidly C abandoned his family D had a problem with memory According to the passage, what makes mobile phones potentially harmful is _ A their radiant light B their power of attraction C their raiding power D their invisible rays According to the writer, people should _ A only use mobile phones in urgent cases B only use mobile phones in medical emergencies C keep off mobile phones regularly D never used mobile phones in all cases 10 The most suitable title for the passage could be _ A "The reasons why mobile phones are regular" B "Technological Innovation and their price" C "The way mobile phones work" D "Mobile phones – a must of our time" Exercise 10 Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions in the following passage Have you ever thought about the names of the months? Why are “January” and “February” not called “Primo” or “Secondo”? Is it because the original names were created in ancient times? Or is it because the originators preferred odd words? Take February, for example Say it aloud a few minutes and you start to wonder Most people don’t know who developed these names However, a little research reveals that the names of the months came mostly from a combination of the names of Roman gods and goddesses, important festivals, and the original numbers of the months Julius Caesar and Pope Gregory XIII change the calendar to make it more exact Caesar developed a new calendar of 364 and a quarter days, the time it takes the earth to orbit the sun from one spring season to the next The Pope’s astronomers refined the calendar regarding leap years; they determined that there should be no leap year in years ending in 00- unless they were divisible by 400; the years 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2100 would not be considered leap years, while the years 1600 and 2000 would be This new Gregorian calendar was so accurate that today, scientists need Page 85/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS only add leap seconds every few years to the clock in order to keep the calendar matching the Earth’s cycles What is the topic of the passage? A how the modern calendar was named and developed B how the months were named C how the leap year system was developed D how accurate the modern day is calendar It can be inferred from paragraph that the author think the names of the months are A odd B difficult to pronounce C inappropriate D none of the answers The word “they” in paragraph refers to A calendars B days C astronomers D years The word “accurate” in paragraph is closest in meaning to A interesting B informative C correct D simple Which of the following will be a leap year? A 2300 B 2400 C 2200 D 2500 Which of the following is true of the Gregorian calendar? A It needs major improvements B It was so well designed, it needs little adjusting today C It copied the Roman calendar’s formula of leap years D none of the answers Why is Caesar important in calendar making? A He changed the length of the year B He extended summer C He has a month named for him D He altered the number of days in the year In what order is the information in the passage presented? A Caesar’s calendar, the Gregorian calendar, the modern calendar B Roman Gods, important festivals, original numbers of months C names of months, Caesar’s calendar, the Gregorian Calendar D none of the answers The word “refined” in paragraph is closest in meaning to _ A studied B invented C observed D improved 10 Why is the number of 364 and a quarter important? A It is the length of time from the beginning of spring to the end of winter B It is the length of a planetary year C It is the most accurate number for calendars D It was a number randomly chosen by Caesar for his calendar BÀI TẬP VỀ CHUYỂN ĐỔI CÂU - SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION Rewrite the following sentences in such ways that the original meanings of the given sentences remain unchanged We couldn’t have managed without my father’s money → If it hadn’d been for my father’s money, we couldn’t have managed I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back → Hardly had I put the phone down when the boss rang back It was Walter Raleigh who introduced potatoes and tobacco into England → The English owe the introduction of potatoes and tobacco to Walter Raleigh “If my members agree to that, I’ll be very surprised,” said the union delegate → The union delegate observed that he would be very surprised if his members agreed to that While I strongly disapprove of your behavior, I will help you this time → Despite my strong disapproval of your behavior, I will help you this time I’m sorry I missed Professor Baker’s lecture → I’m sorry not to have heard/attended Pro Baker’s lecture We may not be able to give the condert Page 86/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS → The concert may have to be cancelled I was not surprised to hear that Harry had failed his driving test → It came as no surprise to me that Harry had failed his driving test I only recognized him when he came into the light → Not until he came into the light did I recognize him 10 That rumor about the politician and the construction contract is absolutely false → There is (absolutely) no truth in that rumour about the politician and the construction… 11 One runner was too exhausted to complete the last lap of the race → One runner was so exhausted (that) he couldn’t/was unable to complete the last lap of… 12 My mother was the most warm-hearted person I’ve ever known → I’ve never known a more warm-hearted person than my mother 13 They never made us anything we didn’t want to → We were never made to anything we didn’t want to 14 The only thing that prevented the passing of the bill was the death of the Prime Minister → Had it not been for the death of the PM the bill would have been passed/got through 15 It is quite pointless to complain → There’s no point in complaining 16 The workers only called off the strike after a new pay offer → Only after a new pay offer did the workers call off the strike 17 He was sentenced to six months in prison for his part in the robbery → He received a sentence of six months for his part in the robbery 18 You can eat as much as you like for 5$ at the new lunch-bar → There is no limit/restriction to how much you eat at the new lunch-bar 19 She wore a hearing-aid, even though she could hear the phone ring perfectly well → She wasn’t so deaf/hard of hearing that she couln’t hear the phone 20 You will never meet anyone more generous than Mrs Jones → Mrs Jones is the most generous person you will/could ever meet/ (be likely) to meet 21 My parents let me go abroad alone for the first time last year → I was allowed to go abroad alone for the first time last year 22 It was his incompetence which led to their capture → If he hadn’t been so imcompetent they wouldn’t have been captured 23 I’m certainly not going to give you any more money → I have no intention of giving you any more money 24 Our hotel booking hasn’t been confirmed → We haven’t received confirmation of/about our hotel booking (yet) 25 The sales man told me that my new car would be delivered next Wednesday → According to the salesman my new car would/will be delivered next Wednesday 26 The Yeti has very rarely been seen at this altitude = người tuyết → There have been very few sightings of the Yeti at this altitude 27 It’s not certain that Jones will get the job → It is open to question (as to) whether Jones will get the job 28 Everyone started complaining the moment the announcement was made → No sooner had the announcement been made than everyone started complaining 29 As I get older, I want to travel less → The older I get, the less I want to travel 30 A house in that district will cost you at least 100,000$ → You won’t be able to buy/get a house in that district for less than/under $100.000 31 Alan worked too hard at the office, and this led to his illness → Alan’s illness was caused by/brought about/due to/the result of his working too hard at… 32 Keeping calm is the secret of passing your driving test → As long as you (can) keep/stay calm, you will/should/ought to pass your driving test 33 Immediately after his appointment to the post, the new editor fell ill Page 87/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS → No sooner had he been/was he appointed to the post than the new editor fell ill 34 The protest has been so vociferous that the committee has had to reconsider (om sòm) → There has been such a vociferous protest that the committee has had to reconsider 35 You think that fat people are always jolly but you are wrong → Contrary to your belief/opinion, fat people are not always jolly = vui vẻ 36 My boss works better when he’s pressed for time → The less time my boss has, the better he works 37 The patient recovered more rapidly than expected → The patient made a more rapid/a quicker/faster recovery than expected 38 There isn’t a pair of thermal socks left in the shop, Madam (nhi ệt, ấm) → We are completely (sold) out of thermal socks, Madam 39 Their chances of success are small → It is not (very) likely (that) they will succeed 40 The rail workers not intend to call off their strike → The rail workers have no intention of calling off their strike 41 Mrs Scott is proud of her cooking → Mrs Scott prides herself on her cooking/on being a good cook 42 It was the goalkeeper who saved the match for us → If it hadn’t been for the goalkeeper we could/would have lost the match 43 It wasn’t a bit surprised to hear that Karen had changed her job → It came as no surprise (to me) (to hear) that Karen had changed her job 44 You can try to get Tim to lend you his car but you won’t succeed → There’s no point (in) (you/your) trying to get Tim to lend you his car/to borrow Tim’s car 45 John didn’t celebrate until he received the offer of promotion in writing → Not until John (had) received the offer of promotion in writing did he celebrate 46 I don’t really like her, even though I admire her achevements → Much as I admire her achievements, I don’t really like her 47 It’s thought that the accident was caused by human error → The accident is thought/ believed to have been caused by human error 48 House prices have risen dramatically this year → There has been a dramatic increase in (the) house prices this year 49 This affair does not concern you → This affair is no concern/business of yours 50 You must submit articles for the magazine by June 18 th → The final date for you to submit articles for the magazine is June 18th 51 Although Jimmy was the stronger of the two, his attacker soon overpowered him → Despite his (superior) strength Jimmy was (sson) overpowered by his attacker 52 What a surprise to see you here! → Fancy seeing you here 53 I don’t intend to apologise to either of them → I have no intention of apologizing to either of them 54 It was only when I left home that I realized how much my father meant to me → Not until (after) I (had) left home did I realize how much my father meant to me 55 The only reason the party was a success was that a famous film star attended → Had it not been for the attendance/appearance of a famous film star the party would have been a… 56 An and Cam did not decide to move to a bigger house until after the birth of their second child → Only when A and C (had) had their second child did they decide to move to a bigger house 57 You’re under no obligation to accept their offer → Your can please yourself/yourselves about whether you accept their offer or not 58 Martin may not be very well but he still manages to enjoy life → Martin’s poor health does not stop/prevent him from enjoying life 59 The company presents a gold watch to each of its retiring employees Page 88/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS → Each of the company’s retiring employee is represented a gold watch 60 The only thing that kept us out of prison was the way he spoke the local dialect → But for his command of (the) local dialect we would have been jailed/put into jail 61 The Pacific Ocean is on average deeper than the Atlantic → The average depth of the Pacific (Ocean) is greater than that of the Atlantic 62 My father finds maps hard to follow → My father has difficulty/difficulties in following the maps 63 Under no circumstances should you phone the police → The last thing you should/must/ought to is to phone/phoning the police 64 The film star wore dark glasses so that no one would recognize him → The film star avoided recognition/being recognized by wearing dark glasses 65 I am amazed by the mistakes he makes → What amazes me is/are the mistakes he makes 66 We weren’t surprised by his success → It came as no surprise to us (to hear) (that) he was/had been successful 67 “That’s a lovely new dress, Jean” said her mother → Jean’s mother complimented Jean on her lovely new dress 68 We couldn’t relax until all the guests had gone home → Only after/when all the guests had gone home/could we relax/were we able to relax 69 We couldn’t find Geoge anywhere → George was nowhere to be found 70 Customs officials are stopping more travellers than usual this week → An increased number of travellers is/are being stopped by customs officials this week 71 She listens more sympathetically than anyone else I know → She is a more sympathetic listener than anyone else I know 72 No one has challenged his authority before → This is the first time (that) someone has challenged his authority 73 “If Brian doesn’t train harder, I won’t select him for the team,” said the manager → The manager threatened not to select Brian (if he didn’t train harder/unless he trained…) 74 The hurricane blew the roof off the house → The house had its/the roof blown off by/in/during/because of the hurricane 75 You’ll certainly meet lots of people in your new job → You are bound/sure/certain to meet lots of people 76 I left without saying goodbye as I didn’t want to disturb the meeting → Rather than disturb the meeting, I left without saying goodbye 77 There aren’t many other books which explain this problem so well → In few other books would one see this problem so well- explained 78 I dislike it when people criticize me unfairly → I object to people criticizing me unfairly 79 Robert is sorry now that he didn’t accept the job → Robert now wishes (that) he had taken/accepted the job 80 I am having a lot of trouble now because I host my passport last week → If I hadn’t lost my passport last week, I wouldn’t have been having so much trouble now 81 When the police caught him, he was climbing over the garden wall → The police caught him (as he was) climbing over the garden wall 82 It’s sad, but unemployment is unlikely to go down this year → Sad though/as it is, unemployment is unlikely to go down this year 83 It is believed that the man escaped in a stolen car → The man is believed to have escaped in a stolen car 84 Since we had nothing else to do, we decided to go for a walk → Having nothing else to do, we decided to go for a walk 85 “Nothing will persuade me to sleep in that haunted house,” she said Page 89/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS → She flatly refused to sleep in that haunted house 86 It wasn’t necessary for them to call for help after all → They didn’t have/need to call for help after all 87 You won’t find a more dedicated worker anywhere than Mrs Jones → Nowhere will you find a more dedicated worker than Mrs Jones 88 She had hardly begun to speak before people started interrupting her → Hardly had she begun to speak before/when beople started interrupting her 89 It was a bit difficult to get into work this morning → Getting into work this morning was a bit difficult 90 We regret to inform you that your application has not been successful → Much to our regret, we have to/must inform you that your application hasn’t been … 91 He knows really everything there is to know about whales → There’s hardly anything he doesn’t know about whales 92 If we can solve the problem soon, it will be better for an concerned → The sooner we (can) solve the problem, the better it will be for all concerned 93 The demand was so great that they had to reprint the book immediately → So great was the demand that they had to reprint the book immediately 94 I’m absolutely sure that they weren’t playing in this weather → They can’t (possibly) have been playing in this weather 95 “I didn’t steal the car,” he said, “I just borrowed it” → He denied stealing/having stolen the car but admitted borrowing/having borrowed it 96 I only made that terrible mistake because I wasn’t thinking → If I had (only) been thinking, I wouldn’t have made that terrible mistake 97 We had planned to visit grandmother, so we left early in the morning → We were planning to visit grandmother, so we left early in the morning 98 Someone rang the alarm as soon as the burglars left the building → No sooner had the burglars left the building than someone rang the alarm 99 As television programmes become more popular, they seem to get worse → The more popular TV programmers become, the worse they seem to get 100 “I think the whole idea’s ridiculous,” he said → He dismissed the whole idea as (being) ridiculous 101 The authorities will prosecute anyone they find trespassing on this land → Anyone found trespassing on this land will be prosecuted (by the authorities) 102 I prefer going out for a meal to staying at home → I’d rather go out for a meal than stay at home 103 It would have been a super weekend if it hadn’t been for the weather → But for the weather, it would have been a super weekend 104 “You should have waited for us,” the team leader said to John → The team leader criticised John for not waiting/having waited for them 105 It’s possible that he didn’t get my letter → He might not have got my letter 106 The last time it snowed here was six years ago → It last snowed here six years ago 107 I only realized what I had missed when they told me about it later → Only when they told me about it later did I realize what I had missed 108 There weren’t nearly as many people there as I had expected → There were far fewer people there than I had expected 109 When the Minister was asked about the strike, he declined to comment → On being asked about the strike, the Minister declined to comment 110 There was no need for you to have gone to all that trouble → You didn’t need to go to all that trouble 111 Please don’t say things like that Page 90/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS → I wish you wouldn’t say things like that 112 This is the best essay I have ever written → Never had I written such a good essay/a better essay than this 113 I assumed that she would learn how to take shorthand after this course → I took it for granted that she would learn 114 I am terribly sorry; I thought you were a friend of Anna’s → I took you for a friend of Anna’s, I’m sorry 115 Although she was busy, she managed to find the time to proofread for me → Busy as/though she was, she 116 I would prefer you to computer science → I’d rather you did computer science 117 He didn’t get his visa until last Monday → It was not until last Monday that he got his visa 118 They continued to say that I was to blame → They persisted in saying that I was to blame 119 Vietnamese coffee is considered to be one of the best in the world → Vietnamese coffee is regarded as one of the best in the world 120 If you ask me well in advance I’ll be willing to work over time → Provided you asked me well in advance, I’ll 121 “I never used bad language,” she said → She denied using/having used bad language BÀI TẬP VỀ VIẾT LUẬN – ESSAY WRITING Topic 1: School, Studying, Students’ life, matters related to schools: Exercise 1: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the violence in schools nowadays Exercise 2: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of teachers Exercise 3: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of extra-classes Exercise 4: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of references Exercise 5: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of financial matters Exercise 6: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of punishments Exercise 7: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of financial matters Exercise 8: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of technologies Topic 2: Social matters: Exercise 1: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the violence in society Exercise 2: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of public transportations Exercise 3: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of public welfares Exercise 4: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of volunteer work Exercise 5: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the unemployment Exercise 6: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the polluted environment Exercise 7: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the solutions to wildlife extinction Exercise 8: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the overpopulation Topic 3: Family life: Exercise 1: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of a close- knit family Exercise 2: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the parents – first teachers Exercise 3: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the equality in family and society Exercise 4: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the new trends of family life Exercise 5: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of mass media Topic 4: Technologies, Urbanization, Industrialization, Globalization: Exercise 1: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of advanced technologies Exercise 2: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of technologies Exercise 3: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of urbanization Exercise 4: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of urbanization Page 91/88 LIENSON HIGH SCHOOL LAP THACH – VINH PHUC MATERIALS FOR GIFTED STUDENTS Exercise 5: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of industrialization Exercise 6: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of industrialization Exercise 7: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the roles of globalization Exercise 8: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of globalization Topic 5: Breaking news, Facing human’s problems: Exercise 1: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of mass immigration Exercise 2: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of civil war Exercise 3: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of smuggling Exercise 4: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of terrorism Exercise 5: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of black websites Exercise 6: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the bad effects of global warming Exercise 7: Write an essay (around 250 words) to talk about the nationalism Some examples: Exercise Nowadays, the increasing number of schools in Vietnam are facing with the alarming issue, school violence What you think are the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest?” You should write about 250 words Exercise Write an essay (about 250 words) about the following topic: “Sometimes tourists may damage tourist sites.” Explain what some of the negative effects may be Suggest some solutions to this problem Exercise The mass media, including television, radio and newspapers, have great influence in shaping people’s ideas To what extent you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer You should write about 250 words Exercise Write an essay (about 250 words) about the following topic: How the media help you in studying? Exercise ‘Some people feel that certain workers like nurses, doctors and teachers are undervalued and should be paid more’ How far you agree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience You should write at least 250 words THE END Hoàn thành vào tháng năm 2016 Mọi chi tiết liên hệ: Đỗ Bình Trường THPT Liễn Sơn, Lập Thạch, Vĩnh Phúc Emails: binhbac72@gmail.com Website: www.violet.vn/quocbinh72 Page 92/88 ... phái sinh Học sinh cần nắm: - Kiến thức từ loại - Một số tiền tố, hậu tố thông dụng - Một số thành ngữ, cụm ngữ cố định tiếng Anh - Yếu tố văn hóa nước nói tiếng Anh - Từ vựng xuất học sách giáo. .. - STRESS: 3.1 Đánh giá chung: Phần kiểm tra cách xác định trọng âm t đa âm ti ết t vựng kiểm tra thường có chương trình Tiếng Anh THPT hi ện hành Để làm t ốt ph ần tập này, học sinh cần nắm vững:... tả viết - Từ vựng xuất học sách giáo khoa Tiếng Anh 10, 11, 12 7.2 Một số tập từ chức năng: phần thứ hai sách GIẢI BÀI TẬP VỀ TỪ VỰNG VÀ NGỮ PHÁP - LEXICO GRAMMAR: 8.1 Đánh giá chung: Bài tập
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