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Dinh duong Cao hoc chapt?r 3 bo sung Benh do dinh duong 3 3 Bệnh do dinh dưỡng 3 3 2 triệu chứng thiếu chất hoặc ngộ độc 1 Mòn vây 1 Mòn vây 1 Mòn vây FIN EROSION Deficiency of Lysine Tryptophan Zinc[.] 3.3 Bệnh dinh dưỡng 3.3.2 triệu chứng thiếu chất ngộ độc Mòn vây Mòn vây Mòn vây FIN EROSION Deficiency of Toxicity of Lysine Tryptophan Zinc Riboflavin Inositol Niacin Vitamin C Lead Vitamin A Xuất huyết vây, da FIN/SKIN HAEMORRHAGE Deficiency of Toxicity of Riboflavin Pantothenic acid Niacin Thiamine Inositol Vitamin C Vitamin A Vitamin K Oxidized fish oil Cataract Chứng đục nhân mắt CATARACT Deficiency of Toxicity of Methionine Tryptophan Zinc Magnesium Copper Selenium Manganese Vitamin A Riboflavin Choline Oxidized fish oil Chứng lồi mắt EXOPHTHALMIA Deficiency of Toxicity of Pantothenic acid Niacin Folic acid Vitamin A Vitamin E Oxidized fish oil Chứng vẹo xương sống Cá bơn (cá lưỡi trâu) Tật ưỡn lưng Cá bơn bònh thường CYANOCOBALAMIN (VIT B12) CYANOCOBALAMIN (vitamin B12) Salmonids Anorexia, reduced growth, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, fragmented erythrocytes, poor feed efficiency, dark pigmentation (1–2) I punctatus Reduced growth, low haematocrit (3–4) A japonica Reduced growth(5) C major Reduced growth (6) L rohita Reduced growth, low haematocrit, megaloblastic anaemia (7) INOSITOL (Myo-Inositol) Salmonids Reduced growth, distended abdomen, dark colour, increased gastric emptying time (1,8–10) C carpio Reduced growth, skin and fin lesions/haemorrhage, loss of skin mucosa (11) C major Reduced growth (6) A japonica Anorexia, reduced growth, grey-white intestine (5) BIOTIN (VIT H) BIOTIN Anorexia, reduced growth, increased mortality, poor feed efficiency, blue-slime disease (brook trout Salmonid only), lesions in the colon, muscle atrophy, spastic convulsions, thick gill lamellae, pale gills (2–3, 12– s 18) C carpio Reduced growth and activity (19–20) I Depigmentation, anaemia, anorexia, reduced growth, hypersensitivity (21–22) punctatus A Poor growth, dark colouration, abnormal swimming behaviour (10) japonica FOLIC ACID (VIT B11) FOLIC ACID Salmonids I punctatus A japonica Labeo rohita C batrachus Macrocytic normochromic anaemia, poor growth, anorexia, lethargy, dark colouration, pale gills, exophthalmia, distended abdomen with ascites fluid (1–5) Anorexia, increased mortality, lethargy, reduced growth, low haematocrit (7, 14) Anorexia, poor growth, dark colouration (10) Reduced growth and haematocrit (15) Anorexia, reduced growth, fading of body colour, pale gills and liver (16) CHOLINE CHOLINE Salmonids C carpio I punctatus A japonica C major Acipencer transmontanus Reduced growth, fatty liver, poor feed efficiency, haemorrhagic kidney and intestine (1–8) Reduced growth, fatty liver (9) Reduced growth, enlarged liver, haemorrhagic kidney and intestine (10–11) Anorexia, reduced growth, grey-white intestine (12) Reduced growth, mortality (13–14) Reduced growth, diffused fat vacuolation and fatty cyst formation in liver (15) 10 RETINOL (VIT A) Deficiency signs VITAMIN A (Retinol) Salmonids Reduced growth, exophthalmia, depigmentation, clouding and thickening of corneal epithelium, degeneration of the retina (4–5,16) C carpio Anorexia, faded body colour, fin and skin haemorrhage, exophthalmia, abnormal/warped gill operculae (17) I punctatus Depigmentation, opaque and protruding eyes (exophthalmia), oedema, atrophy, kidney haemorrhage, increased mortality (10) Poecilia reticulata Reduced growth, poor feed efficiency, high mortality (18) Toxicity signs VITAMIN A Reduced growth and haematocrit, severe necrosis/erosion of anal, caudal, pelvic and pectoral fins, Salmonids scoliosis, lordosis, increased mortality, pale yellow livers (Hilton, 1983; Poston et al, 1966; toxic level of vitamin A 2.2–2.7 million I.U./kg diet) 11 TOCOPHEROL (VIT E) Deficiency signs VITAMIN E (Tocopherol) Salmonids Reduced growth, exopthalmia, ascites, anaemia, clubbed gills, epicarditis, ceriod deposition in spleen, increased mortality, pale gills, erythrocyte fragility, muscle damage/degeneration, reduced egg hatching rate/spawning efficiency, reduced antibody response (1–6) C carpio Muscular dystrophy, mortality, exophthalmia (7–8) Reduced growth and feed efficiency, exudative diathesis, muscular dystrophy, depigmentation, fatty I punctatus liver, anaemia, atrophy of pancreatic tissue, mortality, ceroid deposition in liver/blood vessels, splenic haemosiderosis (9–12) O anorexia, reduced growth, poor feed efficiency, skin and fin haemorrhage, muscle degeneration, niloticus/au impaired red blood cell production, ceroid deposition in liver and spleen, lack of skin colour, increased reus mortality (13–14) Toxicity signs VITAMIN E Salmonids Reduced blood erythrocyte concentration (5000 mg of di-a-tocopherol per kg of diet; Poston & Livingston, 1969) 12 CHOLECALCIFEROL (VIT D3) D3 Deficiency signs D2 VITAMIN D3 (Cholecalciferol) Salmonids Reduced growth and feed efficiency, anorexia, tetany, elevated liver/muscle lipid content (19– 20) O niloticus x O Reduced growth and feed efficiency, low haemoglobin and hepatosomatic index (21) aureus I punctatus Reduced growth (22–24) Toxicity signs VITAMIN D Salmonids Reduced growth, lethargy, dark colouration (Halver, 1980) Reduced growth, poor feed efficiency (Andrews, Murai & Page, 1980) However, Brown (1988) l punctatus reported no toxic effect up to million I.U./kg) 13 MENADIONE (VIT K3) K1 K2 K3 VITAMIN K3 - MENADIONE Salmonids Increased blood clotting time, anaemia, haemorrhage gills, eyes, and vascular tissue (15–16) l punctatus Skin haemorrhage (9–10) 3.3 Bệnh dinh dưỡng 3.3.3 yếu tố kháng dinh dưỡng nội sinh Các hợp chất độc nguyên liệu làm thức ăn PROTEINS GLYCOSIDES PHENOLS MISCELLANEOUS PROTEASE INHIBITORS HAEMAGGLUTININS GOITROGENS CYANOGENS SAPONINS ESTROGENS GOSSYPOL TANNINS ANTI-MINERALS ANTI-VITAMINS ANTI-ENZYMES FOOD ALLERGENS MICROBIAL/PLANT CARCINOGENS TOXIC AMINO ACIDS Các hợp chất độc nguyên liệu làm thức ăn Feedstuff Anti-nutritional factor CEREALS Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Rice (Oryza sativum) Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Wheat (Triticum vulgare) Corn/maize (Zea mays) ROOT TUBERS Sweet potato (lpomoea batata) Cassava (Manihot utilissima) Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Protease inhibitors, Phytohaemagglutinins, Phytic acid, Estrogenic factors Protease inhibitors, Phytohaemagglutinins, Phytic acid, Estrogenic factors, Antithiamine factor Protease inhibitors, Cyanogens, Phytic acid, Tannins, Amylaseinhibitor Protease inhibitors, Phytohaemagglutinins, Phytic acid, Estrogenic factors, Flatulence factor, Amylaseinhibitor, Dihydroxyphenylalanine Protease inhibitors, Phytic acid, Estrogenic factors, Invertase inhibitor Protease inhibitors, Invertase inhibitor, Protease inhibitors, Cyanogens Protease inhibitors, Cyanogens, Invertase inhibitor, Estrogenic factors Feedstuff Anti-nutritional factor LEGUMES Black gram (Phaseolus mungo) Protease inhibitor, Tannins, Dihydroxyphenylalanine, Phytic acid, Phytohaemagglutinins Protease inhibitor, Cyanogens, Phytic acid, Estrogenic factors, Flatulence factor, Protease inhibitor, Flatulence factor, Phytohaemagglutinins, Phytic acid, Protease inhibitor, Lathyrogens Protease inhibitor, Anti-vitamin E factor, Phytohaemagglutinins, Cyanogens, Phytic acid, Saponins, Flatulence factor, Amylaseinhibitor Protease inhibitor, Phytohaemagglutinins, Cyanogens Protease inhibitor, Phytohaemagglutinins, Saponins, Protease inhibitor, Tannins, Phytohaemagglutinins, Cyanogens, Phytic acid Protease inhibitor Protease inhibitor, Phytic acid, Saponins, Flatulence factor, Anti-thiamine factor Protease inhibitor, Saponins, Phytohaemagglutinins, Cyanogens, Phytic acid, Anti-vitamin E factor Protease inhibitor, Phytohaemagglutinins, Cyanogens, Phytic acid Phytohaemagglutinins Protease inhibitor, Phytohaemagglutinins Protease inhibitor, Saponins, Phytohaemagglutinins, Cyanogens Protease inhibitor, Dihydroxyphenylalanine Protease inhibitor, Phytohaemagglutinins Protease inhibitor, Tannins Protease inhibitor Protease inhibitor, Saponins, Estrogenic factors, Anti-vitamin E factor Protease inhibitor, Phytic acid, Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) Mimosine Broad/faba bean (Vicia faba) Chick pea/bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) Cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) Haricot/kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Hyacinth/field bean (Dolichus lablab) Lentil (Lens culinaris) Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Lupin (Lupinus albus) Mung bean/green gram (Phaseolus aureus) Field pea (Pisum sativum) Pigeon pea/red gram (Cajanus cajan) Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) Sword/jack bean (Canavalia gladiata) Velvet bean (Stizobolium deeringianuum) Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) Carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua) Guar bean (Cyamopsis psoraloides) Alfalfa/lucerne (Medicago sativa) Các hợp chất độc nguyên liệu làm thức ăn Feedstuff Anti-nutritional factor OILSEEDS Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Rapeseed (Brassica campestris napus) Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) Soybean (Glycine max) Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Cottonseed (Gossypium spp.) Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) Protease inhibitor, Saponins, Phytohaemagglutinins, Phytic acid, Protease inhibitor, Glucosinolates, Phytic acid, Tannins, Protease inhibitor, Anti-thiamine factor, Protease inhibitor, Flatulence factor, Phytohaemagglutinins, Anti-vitamin A, E, D and B12 factors, Glucosinolates, Phytic acid, Saponins, Estrogenic factors Protease inhibitor, Tannins, Arginase inhibitor Phytic acid, Estrogenic factors, Gossypol, Anti-vitamin E factor, Cyclopropenoic acid Cyanogens, Estrogenic factors, Antithiamine factor, Anti-vitamin D factor, Phytic acid, Glucosinolates, 3.3 Bệnh dinh dưỡng 3.3.3 Các yếu tố gây độc tự sinh nguyên liệu làm thức ăn ... 59* 33 * 72 81 24* 106 CYS 104 126 67* 141 133 118 137 156 148 96 133 70 130 96 85 130 85 78 93 63* 72 85 89 52* 89 141 289 52* IIS 119 117 120 111 95 92 115 111 91 115 117 1 13 128 128 139 132 ... 83 77 69* 76 76 91 107 VAL 89 81 1 03 125 1 13 102 124 122 98 114 99 118 101 125 116 125 98 127 106 110 122 97 128 158 135 125 164 99 MET 63* 20* 43* 63* 94 52* 83 93 109 61* 39 * 83 46* 63* 63* ... 94 83 100 78 89 91 92 114 92 117 77 97 149 108 98 117 95 94 1 03 94 105 60* 69* 106 60* 86 108 LYS 72 64* 92 43* 41* 52* 42* 43* 33 * 37 * 53* 74 76 74 86 78 101 89 90 92 98 86 86 89 71 71 33 * 79
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