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This page intentionally left blankP1: KNP Top Margin: 0.50186in Gutter Margin: 0.94101infm cuus142 ISBN: 978 0 521 70395 6 April 15, 2008 17:18Demystifying Legal ReasoningDemystifying Legal Reasoning defends the proposition that there are no specialforms of reasoning peculiar to law. Legal decision makers engage in the samemodes of reasoning that all actors use in deciding what to do: open-ended moralreasoning, empirical reasoning, and deduction from authoritative rules. Thisbook addresses common-law reasoning, when prior judicial decisions determinethe law, and interpretation of texts. In both areas, the popular view that legaldecision makers practice special forms of reasoning is false.Larry Alexander is a Warren Distinguished Professor of Law at the University ofSan Diego School of Law. He is the author of Is There a Right of Freedom of Expres-sion? (Cambridge, 2005); (with Emily Sherwin) The Rule of Rules: Morality, Rules,and the Dilemmas of Law (2001); Constitutionalism: Philosophical Foundations(Cambridge, 1998); (with Paul Horton) Whom Does the Constitution Command?(1988); several anthologies; and more than 160 articles, book chapters, and reviewessays in jurisprudence, constitutional law, criminal law, and normative ethics.He has been a member of the faculty at the University of San Diego School of Lawsince 1970. He is coeditor of the journal Legal Theory (Cambridge), and he serveson the editorial boards of Ethics, Law and Philosophy, and Criminal Law andPhilosophy. He is co–executive director of the Institute for Law and Philosophyat the University of San Diego, and he is past president of AMINTAPHIL.Emily Sherwin is Professor of Law at Cornell Law School. She specializes injurisprudence, property, and remedies. She is the author (with Larry Alexander)of The Rule of Rules: Morality, Rules, and the Dilemmas of Law (2001) and haspublished numerous book chapters, articles, and reviews in her subjects ofspecialty. She was a member of the faculty at the University of Kentucky Collegeof Law from 1985 to 1990 and the University of San Diego School of Law from 1990to 2003, when she moved to Cornell University. She is a member of the advisorycommittee for the American Law Institute’s Restatement (Third) of Restitutionand Unjust Enrichment and a regular participant in roundtable conferences ofthe University of San Diego’s Institute for Law and Philosophy.iP1: KNP Top Margin: 0.50186in Gutter Margin: 0.94101infm cuus142 ISBN: 978 0 521 70395 6 April 15, 2008 17:18iiP1: KNP Top Margin: 0.50186in Gutter Margin: 0.94101infm cuus142 ISBN: 978 0 521 70395 6 April 15, 2008 17:18Cambridge Introductions to Philosophy and LawWilliam A. Edmundson, Georgia State UniversityThis introductory series of books provides concise studies of the philosophicalfoundations of law, of perennial topics in the philosophy of law, and of importantand opposing schools of thought. The series is aimed principally at students inphilosophy, law, and political science.iiiP1: KNP Top Margin: 0.50186in Gutter Margin: 0.94101infm cuus142 ISBN: 978 0 521 70395 6 April 15, 2008 17:18ivP1: KNP Top Margin: 0.50186in Gutter Margin: 0.94101infm cuus142 ISBN: 978 0 521 70395 6 April 15, 2008 17:18Demystifying Legal ReasoningLARRY ALEXANDERUniversity of San Diego School of LawEMILY SHERWINCornell Law SchoolvCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São PauloCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UKFirst published in print formatISBN-13 978-0-521-87898-2ISBN-13 978-0-521-70395-6ISBN-13 978-0-511-40908-0© Larry Alexander, Emily Sherwin 20082008Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521878982This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant This page intentionally left blankGlobalisation and the Western Legal TraditionWhat can ‘globalisation’ teach us about law in the Western tradition? Thisimportant new work seeks to explore that question by analysing key ideas andevents in the Western legal tradition, including the Papal Revolution, theProtestant Reformations and the Enlightenment. Addressing the role of law,morality and politics, it looks at the creation of orders which offer the possibi-lity for global harmony, in particular the United Nations and the EuropeanUnion. It also considers the unification of international commercial laws in theattempt to understand Western law in a time of accelerating cultural intercon-nections. The title will appeal to scholars of legal history and globalisation aswell as students of jurisprudence and all those trying to understand globalisa-tion and the Western dynamic of law and authority.Dr David B. Goldman is a Special Counsel at Deacons, Sydney, and an HonoraryAffiliate, Julius Stone Institute of Jurisprudence, University of Sydney.The Law in Context SeriesEditors: William Twining (University College London), Christopher McCrudden(Lincoln College, Oxford) and Bronwen Morgan (University of Bristol).Since 1970 the Law in Context series has been in the forefront of the movementto broaden the study of law. It has been a vehicle for the publication of innova-tive scholarly books that treat law and legal phenomena critically in their social,political and economic contexts from a variety of perspectives. The series partic-ularly aims to publish scholarly legal writing that brings fresh perspectives to bearon new and existing areas of law taught in universities. A contextual approachinvolves treating legal subjects broadly, using materials from other social sciences,and from any other discipline that helps to explain the operation in practice ofthe subject under discussion. It is hoped that this orientation is at once morestimulating and more realistic than the bare exposition of legal rules. The seriesincludes original books that have a different emphasis from traditional legaltextbooks, while maintaining the same high standards of scholarship. They arewritten primarily for undergraduate and graduate students of law and of otherdisciplines, but most also appeal to a wider readership. In the past, most books inthe series have focused on English law, but recent publications include books onEuropean law, globalisation, transnational legal processes, and comparative law.Books in the SeriesAnderson, Schum & Twining: Analysis of EvidenceAshworth: Sentencing and Criminal JusticeBarton & Douglas: Law and ParenthoodBeecher-Monas: Evaluating Scientific Evidence: An Interdisciplinary Frameworkfor Intellectual Due ProcessBell: French Legal CulturesBercusson: European Labour LawBirkinshaw: European Public LawBirkinshaw: Freedom of Information: The Law, the Practice and the IdealCane: Atiyah’s Accidents, Compensation and the LawClarke & Kohler: Property Law: Commentary and MaterialsCollins: The Law of ContractCranston: Legal Foundations of the Welfare StateDavies: Perspectives on Labour LawDembour: Who Believes in Human Rights?: The European Convention in Questionde Sousa Santos: Toward a New Legal Common SenseDiduck: Law’s FamiliesElworthy & Holder: Environmental Protection: Text and MaterialsFortin: Children’s Rights and the Developing LawGlover-Thomas: Reconstructing Mental Health Law and PolicyGoldman: Globalisation and the Western Legal Tradition: Recurring Patternsof Law and AuthorityGobert & Punch: Rethinking Corporate CrimeHarlow & Rawlings: Law and AdministrationHarris: An Introduction to LawHarris, Campbell & Halson: Remedies in Contract and TortHarvey: Seeking Asylum in the UK: Problems and ProspectsHervey & McHale: Health Law and the European UnionHolder and Lee: Environmental Protection, Law and PolicyKostakopoulou: The Future Governance of CitizenshipLacey & Wells: Reconstructing Criminal Learning MedicineEighteenth Edition: How to Become and Remain a Good DoctorLearning Medicine is a must-read for anyone thinking of a career in medicine, orwho is already in the training process and wants to understand and explore thevarious options and alternatives along the way. Whatever your background,whether you are school-leaver or mature student, if you are interested in findingout more about becoming and being a good doctor, this is the book for you.In continuous publication since 1983, and now in its eighteenth edition,Learning Medicine provides the most current, honest and informative source ofessential knowledge combined with pragmatic guidance.Learning Medicine describes medical school courses, explains Foundation yearsand outlines the wide range of specialty choices allowing tomorrow’s doctors todecide about their future careers; but it also goes further to consider the privilegeand responsibility of being a doctor, providing food for thought and reflectionthroughout a long and rewarding career.From reviews of previous editions:“This little volume contains everything that is required by the aspirant in medicaltraining and also answers questions that probably would not be thought about.Particularly valuable are the details of specialisation and the requirements for this.This little volume is a must for all students (and their parents!).”Scottish Medical Journal “Wise, well observed and accurate (not to mention funny!). Rather than just tellingyou how to get into medical school – this book asks you the much more importantquestion: “Will you enjoy it?”” Foundation Year 1 Doctor “…provides a very objective and balanced up-to-date analysis of both medical schooland medicine as a career. It not only gives the potential medical student invaluableinformation about what medical school is really like from day to day, and the careersit could lead to, but also help with decisions such as “is medicine for me?” and “howdo I get in?”.” UCL Medical Student Clinical Year 2 “To read this is to be warned, informed and educated – a very useful piece of ground-work before even applying to medical school.” GP and GP TrainerLearning MedicineHow to Become and Remain a Good DoctorEighteenth EditionPeter Richards MA MD PhD FRCP FMEDSCIPast President, Hughes Hall, CambridgeSimon Stockill BSc(Hons)MB BS DCH MRCGPGeneral Practitioner, LeedsRosalind Foster BABarrister at Law, 2 Temple Gardens, LondonElizabeth Ingall BA MB BChirFoundation Year 1 DoctorWith cartoons by the late Larryand a foreword by Sir Roger BannisterCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São PauloCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UKFirst published in print formatISBN-13 978-0-521-70967-5ISBN-13 978-0-511-37868-3© P. Richards, S. Stockill, R. Foster and E. Ingall 2008Every effort has been made in preparing this publication to provide accurate and up-to-date information which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time ofpublication.Although case histories are drawn from actual cases,every effort has been made to disguise the identities ofthe individuals involved.Nevertheless,the authors, editors,and publishers can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error,not least because clinical standards are constantly changing through research and regulation.The authors,editors,and publishers therefore disclaim all liabilityfor direct or consequential damages resulting from the use ofmaterial contained in thispublication.Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information providedby the manufacturer ofany drugs This page intentionally left blankSociety and PsychosisPsychiatry is in the process of rediscovering its roots. It seemed as if the long history of interest inthe impact of society on the rates and course of serious mental illness had been forgotten,overtaken by the advances of neuroscience and genetics. However, as our knowledge ofphysiological and genetic processes improves, it becomes increasingly clear that social condi-tions and experiences over the life course are crucial to achieving a full understanding. Oldcontroversies are giving way to genuinely integrated models in which social, psychological andbiological factors interact over time, culminating in the onset of psychosis. This book reviewsthese issues from an international perspective, laying the foundations for a new understandingof the psychotic disorders, with profound implications for health policy and clinical practice. Itwill be of interest to academics, researchers, clinicians and all those who work with people with aserious mental illness.Craig Morganis Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UK.Kwame McKenzieis Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto and the University ofCentral Lancashire, and Senior Scientist and Clinician at the Centre for Addictions and MentalHealth, Toronto, Canada.Paul Fearonis Senior Lecturer and Head of the Section of Epidemiology and Social Psychiatryat the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College, London, UK.Society and PsychosisCraig MorganSection of Social and Cultural Psychiatry, Health Service and Population Research Department, Instituteof Psychiatry, King’s College London, UKKwame McKenzieUniversity of Toronto, Canada; University of Central Lancashire, UKPaul FearonSection of Epidemiology and Social Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine and Psychiatry,Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UKCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São PauloCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UKFirst published in print formatISBN-13 978-0-521-68959-5ISBN-13 978-0-511-38654-1© Cambridge University Press 2008Every effort has been made in preparing this publication to provide accurate and up-to-date information, which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication. Although case histories are drawn from actual cases, every effort has been made to disguise the identities of the individuals involved. Nevertheless, the authors, editors and publishers can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because clinical standards are constantly changing throughresearch and regulation. The authors, editors and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of material contained in this publication. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information providedby the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they plan to use.2008Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521689595This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New Yorkwww.cambridge.orgeBook (EBL)paperbackContentsContributors page viiAcknowledgements x1 IntroductionCraig This page intentionally left blankUpper Motor Neurone Syndromeand SpasticitySecond EditionUpper MotorNeuroneSyndrome andSpasticityClinical Management andNeurophysiologySecond EditionEdited byMichael P. BarnesProfessor of Neurological RehabilitationWalkergate Park International Centrefor Neurorehabilitation and NeuropsychiatryNewcastle upon Tyne, UKGarth R. JohnsonProfessor of Rehabilitation EngineeringCentre for Rehabilitation and Engineering Studies (CREST)School of Mechanical and Systems EngineeringNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon Tyne, UKCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São PauloCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UKFirst published in print formatISBN-13 978-0-521-68978-6ISBN-13 978-0-511-39699-1© Cambridge University Press 20082008Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521689786This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New Yorkwww.cambridge.orgeBook (NetLibrary)paperbackContentsList of Contributors page viiPreface to the second edition ix1 An overview of the clinical managementof spasticity 1Michael P. Barnes2 Neurophysiology of spasticity 9Geoff Sheean3 The measurement of spasticity 64Garth R. Johnson and Anand D. Pandyan4 Physiotherapy management ofspasticity 79Roslyn N. Boyd and Louise Ada5 Seating and positioning 99Craig A. Kirkwood and Geoff I. Bardsley6 Orthoses, splints and casts 113Paul T. Charlton and Duncan W. N. Ferguson7 Pharmacological management ofspasticity 131Anthony B. Ward and Sajida Javaid8 Chemical neurolysis in themanagement of muscle spasticity 150A. Magid O. Bakheit9 Spasticity and botulinum toxin 165Michael P. Barnes and Elizabeth C. Davis10 Intrathecal baclofen for the control ofspinal and supraspinal spasticity 181David N. Rushton11 Surgical management of spasticity 193Patrick Mertens and Marc Sindou12 Management of spasticity in children 214Rachael Hutchinson and H. Kerr GrahamIndex 241vContributorsLouise AdaAssociate ProfessorDiscipline of PhysiotherapyUniversity of SydneySydney, AustraliaA. Magid O. BakheitProfessor of Neurological RehabilitationDepartment of Rehabilitation MedicineMount Gould HospitalPlymouth, UKGeoff I. BardsleySenior Rehabilitation EngineerWheelchair & Seating ServiceTayside Rehabilitation Engineering ServicesNinewells HospitalDundee, UKMichael P. BarnesProfessor of Neurological RehabilitationWalkergate Park International Centre forNeurorehabilitation and NeuropsychiatryNewcastle upon Tyne, UKRoslyn N. BoydAssociate ProfessorScientific DirectorQueensland Cerebral Palsy and RehabilitationResearch CentreDepartment of Paediatrics and Child HealthUniversity of QueenslandBrisbane, AustraliaPaul T. CharltonSenior OrthotistJ. C. Peacock & SonNewcastle upon Tyne, UKElizabeth C. DavisConsultant in Rehabilitation MedicineWalkergate Park International Centre forNeurorehabilitation and NeuropsychiatryNewcastle upon Tyne, UKDuncan W. N. FergusonSenior OrthotistJ. C. Peacock & SonNewcastle upon Tyne, UKH. Kerr GrahamProfessor of Orthopaedic SurgeryRoyal Children’s HospitalMelbourne, AustraliaRachael HutchinsonConsultant Paediatric Orthopaedic SurgeonNorfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS TrustNorfolk, UKSajida JavaidSpecialist Registrar in
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