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SKKN Động cơ của học sinh, thái độ của cha mẹ ảnh hưởng đến việc học tiếng Anh của các em học sinh trường THPT

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  • SKKN Động cơ của học sinh, thái độ của cha mẹ ảnh hưởng đến việc học tiếng Anh của các em học sinh trường THPT

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SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM ĐỀ TÀI: "ĐỘNG CƠ CỦA HỌC SINH, THÁI ĐỘ CỦA CHA MẸ ẢNH HƯỞNG ĐẾN VIỆC HỌC TIẾNG ANH CỦA CÁC EM HỌC SINH TRƯỜNG THPT" 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This introductory chapter provides three parts: the reason for choosing the topic, the aims of the study, the scope and significance of the study. 1.1 Reasons for choosing the topic The study of motivation in second language acquisition (SLA) has become an important research topic with the development of socio-educational model on second language (L2) motivation (Gardner & Lambert, 1972; Gardner, 1985; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993; Tremblay & Gardner, 1995). According to Gardner and Lambert (1972), motivation to learn an L2 is grounded in positive attitudes toward the L2 community and in a desire to communicate with valued members of that community and become similar to them. This desire is integrative orientation, which is a support for language learning, while an instrumental orientation is associated with the desire to learn L2 for pragmatic gains such as getting a better job or higher salary (Dornyei, 2001; Gardner & Lambert, 1972). L2 motivation is indeed a prerequisite condition for the success of L2 learners like food for the brain. Successful language learning can only take place if the learner has goals and an inner drive to achieve these goals (Crookes & Schmidt, 1991). L2 motivation can be seen as a desire to study the foreign language to understand and use the language that learners are learning and to serve their purposes. For example, motivation in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) involves a student’s desire to participate in the English learning process (Gardner, 1985). Without L2 motivation, learners would feel bored, and then they just learn to pass the exams or please their parents (Krashen, 1982). Gradually, they would be afraid of studying L2. Motivation plays a significant role in the process of learning a language. Language teachers cannot effectively teach a language if they do not understand the relationship 2 between motivation and its effect on language acquisition as well as its affecting factors. The core of motivation is what might be called passion, which relates to a person's intrinsic goals and desires. Successful learners know their preferences, their strengths and weaknesses, and effectively utilize strengths and compensate for weaknesses. Successful language learning is linked to the learner’s passion (Karaoglu, 2008). One of the factors affecting L2 motivation maintaining is parents. Parents can be considered as the most important in increasing and maintaining student motivation in L2 learning. According to Wlodkowski and Jaynes (1990), parents can greatly influence and maintain their child’s motivation for a lifetime. Parental influences are an integral part of students’ motivation. Indeed, the home environment and family support may be major factors influencing the school student (Walberg, Paschal, & Weinstein, 1985 as cited in Hein & Wimer, 2007). Fortunately, many modern parents nowadays are aware of the fact that failure or success of their children depends greatly on the parents themselves - “the first and long life teacher” (Hein & Wimer, 2007). In order to succeed in education in general and in teaching English in particular, teachers should understand the factors affecting student motivation. Once teachers can understand the parental influence, they would probably find ways to cooperate with parents to motivate students more so that the students could be successful English learners. Important as motivation and the role of parents in maintaining and enhancing motivation are, it is a sad fact that in rural areas in Vietnam like Hungyen, the motivation for English is low. Unlike parents in big cities such as Hanoi and Hochiminh city, many of whom are so involved in their children’s English learning as shown in the number of children taking extra courses and scoring so high in English, parents in non-urban areas do not seem to have given due attention to this subject. Unfortunately, no effort so far has been spent on 3 exploring this aspect of learning as well as the attitudes of the parents towards their children’s English learning. Obviously, an investigation into this area will bring about the information needed to gain an insight into how students in those less advantageous areas are driven toward the most important language in today’s globalization context, how their parents feel toward the subject and how these two aspects are inter-related. 1.2 Aims of the Study The study aimed at investigating the level of student motivation and their parent’ attitudes and involvement in their English learning at DQH Senior High School. 1.3 Scope and Significance of the Study The study was conducted at DQH Senior High School in Vangiang district, Hung Yen province. The study focused on examining student motivation in the language that they are learning: English and their parents’ attitudes and involvement in their English learning. It is expected to provide deeper understanding of how students in less advantageous areas in Vietnam feel toward the language and what kind of motivation is stronger. It is also intended to draw a picture, though far from comprehensive, on how parents in those districts are involved in their children language learning. From all this implications on how to better motivate the students, how to maximize parents’ support, how to initiate and sustain parents’ engagement could be drawn. The study certainly had practical value for teachers teaching English in DQH Senior High School in particular, and for any researchers who would like to improve language teaching as well as learning in general. Knowing the factors affecting student motivation would assist the search for better teaching and learning process. 4 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Motivation as a significant factor in language learning has attracted interest of various researchers and the literature is, therefore, very rich. This chapter, however, limits itself to issues that are most pertinent to the research focus. They are types of motivation, roles of motivation and parental attitudes and involvement in children’s language learning. The review also covers studies into possible roles of parents in shaping the students’ motivation for the language. 2.1 Motivation in L2 learning 2.1.1 Definition Research on motivation in L2 learning has been heavily influenced by the work of Canadian psychologist Gardner and MacIntyre (1993). According to Gardner (1985), a highly motivated individual will want to learn the language, enjoy learning it, and strive to learn it. The Gardnerian theory of L2 learning motivation is based on the definition of motivation as “the extent to which the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity” (Gardner, 1985). In this definition, motivation is described as goal-directed. Gardner (1985) proposes that in order to understand why learners are motivated, it is necessary to understand the learner’s ultimate goal or purpose for learning the language. He refers to this as the learner’s orientation (Gardner, 1985). Besides, he identifies two distinct orientations for learning a language, which are integrative and instrumental orientations. 5 2.1.2 Types of Motivation 2.1.2.1 Integrative Motivation Integrative motivation or integrative orientation refers to a learner’s desire to learn more about the cultural community of the target language (TL) or to assimilate to some degree in the target community (Gardner, 1985). Moreover, integrative motivation refers to a desire to increase the affiliation with the target community. Integrative motivation is characterized by the learner's positive attitudes towards the TL group and the desire to integrate into the TL community (Gardner, 1982; Gardner, 1985). In this sense, the student with integrative motivation likes to learn the TL as he wants to know more about its culture and people. In addition, integrative motivation is a key component in assisting the learner to develop some level of proficiency in the language. When someone becomes a resident in a new community that uses the TL in social interactions, it becomes a necessity to operate socially in the community and become one of its members. It is also theorized that integrative motivation underlies successful acquisition of a native like pronunciation (Finegan, 1999). It is thought that students who are most successful in learning a TL are those who like the people that speak the language, admire the culture and have a desire to become familiar with or even integrate into the society in which the language is used (Falk, 1978). In EFL setting such as Vietnam, especially in small, quiet towns, where there are very few English speakers and the exposure to English cultures is very low, it is important to consider the actual meaning of the term "integrative." As Benson (1991) suggests, a more appropriate approach to the concept of integrative motivation in the EFL context would be the idea that it represents the desire of the individual to become bilingual, while at the 6 same time becoming bicultural. This occurs through the addition of another language and culture to the learner's own cultural identity. As Vietnam is predominantly a monoculture society, opportunities to use the TL in daily verbal exchanges are relatively restricted, especially in the countryside where foreigners rarely appear. Hence, there is limited potential for integrating into the TL community. It could be anticipated that the integrative motivation under investigation would not be very strong. 2.1.2.2 Instrumental Motivation Instrumental motivation or Instrumental orientation underlies the goal to gain some social or economic reward through L2 achievement, thus referring to a more functional reason for language learning (Gardner, 1985). Instrumental motivation is a more utilitarian orientation. It refers to learner’s desires to learn the language in order to accomplish some non-interpersonal purpose such as to pass an exam, to get a scholarship, to advance a career, to meet the requirements for school or university graduation, to apply for a job, to achieve higher social status, and so forth (Clement et al., 1994; Dornyei, 1990; Hudson, 2000; Verma, 2005). This is generally characterized by the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the language study . In brief, it is clear that the latter refers to the need to acquire a language as a means for attaining goals such as career advancement or successful further study. The former, however, refers to the desire to learn a language in order to become closer to the culture and society of the TL group. To gain a clear and deep understanding about motivation roles, types, the following studies are supposed to be useful. 2.1.3 Role of motivation in L2 learning The study of motivation in SLA has become an important research topic with the development of the socio-educational model on L2 motivation (Gardner & Lambert, 7 1972; Gardner, 1985; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993; Tremblay & Gardner, 1995). According to Gardner and Lambert (1972), motivation to learn an L2 is grounded in positive attitudes towards the L2 community and a desire to communicate with valued members of that community and become similar to them. The latter desire is integrative motivation, which is a better support for language learning, while instrumental motivation is associated with a desire to learn L2 for pragmatic gains such as getting a better job or a higher salary (Clement, Dornyei, & Noels, 1994; Dornyei, 2001; Gardner & Lambert, 1972).; Hudson, 2000; Verma, 2005). Without motivation, success will be hard to achieve (Ushioda, 2000). Motivation provides the primary impetus to begin learning a second/foreign language and to sustain the long and difficult learning process (Brown, 2000; Ely, 1986; Gardner, 1985; Gardner & Lambert, 1972; Nunan, 2000; Nunan & Lamb, 1996; Oxford & Shearin, 1994; Scarcella & Oxford, 1992; Williams & Burden, 1997). The role of orientation can help arouse motivation and direct it towards a set of goals, with either a strong interpersonal quality (integrative motivation) or a strong practical quality (instrumental motivation) (Dornyei, 2001). Studies in the psychology of learning affirm that without motivation little can be learned (Williams & Burden, 1997). Additionally, numerous research studies on L2 motivation reveal that, in general, motivation enhances SLA; learners ranking high on integrative motivation work harder and learn faster than those who are low on integrative motivation (Clement et al., 1994; Gardner, 1985; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1991; Tremblay & Gardner, 1995; Liu, 2007, etc.). Therefore, integrative and instrumental orientations or intrinsic and extrinsic motivations contribute to the learning of an L2. Nevertheless, as to which one is more important varies from context to context. Likewise, students in different contexts may be motivated to learn an L2 by different orientations. 8 This is why the issue is still worth further exploration in situations with different groups of learners. It is worth noting that L2 motivation is recognized as one of the prerequisites for successful language learning. Motivation is “a very important, if not the most important factor in language learning” (Van Lier, 1996) without which even “gifted” individuals cannot accomplish long-term goals, whatever the curriculum and whoever the teacher. Instrumental motivation as a contributing factor to learners’ effort and success in SLA: “the greater the value that individuals attach to the accomplishment of or involvement in the activity, the more highly motivated they will be to engage in it initially, and later to put sustained effort into succeeding in the activity” (Verma, 2005; Williams & Burden, 1997). 2.1.4 Studies into integrative and instrumental motivations It has been shown that both integrative and instrumental motivations are important. A student might learn an L2 well with an integrative motivation or with instrumental motivation, or indeed with both, for one does not rule out the other or with other motivation. Both integrative and instrumental motivations may lead to success, but lack of either would cause problems (Gardner, 1985). Firstly, integrative motivation has been found to sustain long-term success when learning an L2 (Ellis, 1997; Taylor, Meynard & Rheault, 1977). In some of the early research conducted by Gardner and Lambert (1972), integrative motivation is viewed as being of more importance in a formal learning environment than instrumental motivation (Ellis, 1997). In later studies, integrative motivation has continued to be emphasized, although now the importance of instrumental motivations is also stressed. However, it is noteworthy that instrumental motivation has only been acknowledged as a significant 9 factor in some research, whereas integrative motivation is continually linked to successful SLA. It has been found that generally students select instrumental reasons more frequently than integrative reasons for the study of languages (Gardner & Lambert, 1972; Liu, 2007; Ushioda, 2000; Wong, 2005). They are also good language learners. Nevertheless, it should be repeated that those who do support an integrative approach to language study are usually more highly motivated and overall more successful in language learning. Gardner and Lambert (1972) conducted an important study in the Philippines. The researchers switched from the study of French to the study of English, which is the most prestigious language in the Philippines. The subjects in this study were high school students who had approximately six years of formal training in English. Additionally, English has been the means of instruction since the third grade. In the study, Gardner and Lambert (1972) concluded that those students who were instrumentally motivated and received support in their homes succeeded in English language development more than those students who were not instrumentally oriented. Nevertheless, those students who identified with the foreign language culture and language seemed to be in a position of advantage in the language acquisition process. Finally, and most important, Gardner and Lambert (1972) concluded that in the foreign language setting, teachers and administrators should try to help students develop integrative motivation toward the foreign language and its culture. In L2 setting, it is of fundamental importance to help students develop both instrumental and instrumental motivations. Man-Fat’s (2004) study focused on the relationship between integrative motivation and L2 achievement among Chinese L2 learners in Hong Kong. The respondents of the study included 41 students at St. Francis Xavier's College (SFXC). SFXC is a boys' school in 10 [...]... motives like being respected The first four items were adapted from Gardner’s (1985) with some minor changes For example, “English”, the TL of this study replaced “French”, the TL, in Gardner’s (1985) study Items 10 to 12 are statements adapted from Clement et al’s (1994) (as cited in Dornyei, 2001) and item 13 from Dornyei’s (1990) (as cited in Dornyei, 2001) Item 14 (English is a compulsory subject at... items 15 to 26 of the questionnaire relating to parental encouragement as perceived by the students As mentioned earlier in section 3.5, item 15 in student questionnaire and item 1 in parent questionnaire which 2 The average score of five items The average score of nine items 4 The average score of 14 items 5 The average score of 16 items 3 36 ... 9-21 =152 subjects (5items) Instrumental Orientation 34.94 4.27 34 22-44 >273 by Vietnamese subjects (9 items) Integrative Orientation by 32.67 Chinese subjects 4.54 35 14-48 485 27-76 6.41 by Chinese subjects (16 items) 4.1.3 Parental attitudes and involvement as perceived by students Table 4 (see p 35) summarizes the results from items 15 to 26 of the... with low socio-economic status lack items such as books, magazines, radios, television, TV games, computers and computer games that can serve to stimulate children intellectually and provide exposure to English This can affect the learners’ ESL proficiency and academic performance since such learners tend to be characterized by a lack motivation, poor academic achievement, poor language skills, inductive... state reasons for their studying English in an integrative way All five items were adapted from Clement et al., (1994) (as cited in Dornyei, 2001) Some of these items were once administered by Sung and Padilla (1998) and Liu (2007) with the same purpose to measure students’ integrative motivation Section B consists of nine statements (from 6 to 14), which focus on the students’ InstO, instrumental reasons... parents due to poor educational backgrounds (Driessen, Vander Slik, & De Bot, 2002) What is more important, parental involvement entails their assistance in high scholastic achievement, offering academic guidance and provision of resources on school related 19 tasks and managing and emphasizing educational activities of their children rather than pleasurable things like TV programs, choice of books and... learn English Section C with 12 statements (from 15 to 26) elicits the students’ perceptions about the support they get from their parents Some statements were adapted from Gardner’s (1985), Sung and Padilla’s (1998) and Madileng’s (2007) studies, which are all aimed at exploring parents’ support from students’ perceptions Again, changes have been made to make the items more suitable for the purpose... learning, the subject of each statement is “my parents” instead of “I” In addition, as mentioned in section B, “English”, which refers to the language that students are learning at school, replaced “French” in Gardner’s (1985) study The original item of Gardner’s (1985) “My parents feel that because we live in Canada, I should learn 23 French” was changed to the statement “My parents feel that because... English homework, whether they tell them to get help from the teacher if 24 they have problems with learning English and support everything for them to study English well Questions 10 and 12 are to discover the information about whether parents feel proud when their children study English well and to ask if they force their children to learn English Responses to items on both the student and parent questionnaires... correlation (John & Christensen, 2000) CHAPTER 4: results AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter presents the results and the discussions of the data collected The chapter comprises the following sections: 1) the students’ integrative motivation in English learning; 2) the students’ instrumental motivation in English learning; 3) the level of parental attitudes and involvement in children’s English learning as . NGHIỆM ĐỀ TÀI: "ĐỘNG CƠ CỦA HỌC SINH, THÁI ĐỘ CỦA CHA MẸ ẢNH HƯỞNG ĐẾN VIỆC HỌC TIẾNG ANH CỦA CÁC EM HỌC SINH TRƯỜNG THPT& quot; 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This introductory chapter provides three. affect the learners’ ESL proficiency and academic performance since such learners tend to be characterized by a lack motivation, poor academic achievement, poor language skills, inductive rather. parental involvement entails their assistance in high scholastic achievement, offering academic guidance and provision of resources on school related 19 tasks and managing and emphasizing educational
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