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(Tiểu luận) mid term report sustainable tourism topic developing human resources for sustainable tourism

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Ngày đăng: 06/02/2023, 09:15

Untitled Vietnam General Confederation of Labor TON DUC THANG UNIVERSITY SOCIAL SCIENCE & HUMANITIES  MID TERM REPORT Sustainable Tourism Topic Developing human reso[.] Vietnam General Confederation of Labor TON DUC THANG UNIVERSITY SOCIAL SCIENCE & HUMANITIES  MID-TERM REPORT Sustainable Tourism Topic: Developing human resources for sustainable tourism 0 Tieu luan Giảng viên hướng dẫn: Gv Hồng Thị Vân Nhóm: N08 Nhóm sinh viên thực hiện: Nguyễn Hoàng Trúc My 319H0237 Huỳnh Đỗ Chiêu Đan 319H0203 Nguyễn Thị Hoài Nhi 319H0068 Nguyễn Lê Diễm Trinh 319H0119 TP HCM, ngày 25 tháng 02 năm 2022 Contents chapter 1: Concept Sustainable Tourism Concepts Human resource concept The relationship between human resources and sustainable tourism: Chapter 2: Research content The current situation of human resources for tourism in Vietnam .5 Number and structure of employees: Quality of human resources Solution 11 General solution 12 Solution group for education and training 12 Solutions to raise awareness and quality of life for tourism workers 12 Group of solutions to solve jobs 13 Chapter Conclusion 13 0 Tieu luan Source 14 Chapter 1: Concept Sustainable Tourism Concepts Sustainable tourism is tourism that minimizes costs and maximizes the benefits of tourism for the natural environment and local communities According to the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (UNWTO), sustainable tourism is “Tourism that takes into account current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addresses needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and the host community” Sustainable tourism provides important economic incentives for habitat protection Revenue from tourism activities is often contributed to nature conservation programs or capacity building of local communities to manage protected areas Furthermore, sustainable tourism can be an important means of raising awareness and promoting positive behavior change for biodiversity conservation among the millions of people who travel globally each year Human resource concept Up to now, due to different approaches, there are still many different understandings when discussing the concept of human resources 0 Tieu luan According to the United Nations, “Human resources are all the knowledge, skills, experiences, abilities and creativity of people that are related to the development of each individual and the country” Thus, here human resources are considered as a source of capital besides other types of physical capital: monetary capital, technology, natural resources In a broad sense, human resources are the source of labor power for social production and human resources for development Therefore, human resources including the entire population can develop normally In a narrow sense, human resource is the labor capacity of society, a resource for socio-economic development, including the working-age population, capable of participating in labor, Social production, that is, all specific individuals involved in the labor process, is the sum total of their physical and mental factors mobilized in the labor process The relationship between human resources and sustainable tourism: Human resources - the key to sustainable tourism development Understanding that the biggest success factor of tourism services is people, in the context of innovation in labor mobility in the community, tourism businesses and related businesses have quickly grasped information sources information and tourism policies of Vietnam as well as of the ASEAN community to initially make changes in human resource management and training Ms Dung (Vingroup) said that Vingroup has shared the difficulties of human resources in the tourism industry with the market through recruitment, training, and skills appraisal activities Not only Vingroup, tourism businesses are also transforming to find solutions in human resource management According to the calculation data of the Vietnam Tourism Human Resource Development Program, it is forecasted that by 2015, the total number of direct workers in the tourism industry will be nearly 505,000 people, of which labor is in the field of state management is about 5,200 people The above information shows that the need for 0 Tieu luan training and fostering human resources is quite large Faced with those practical requirements, businesses that prioritize tourism vocational training, tourism development consulting as well as business strategy building have also been born Mr Nguyen Duc Hoa Cuong, Vice Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Council, Vietnam Institute of Sustainable Tourism - a tourism vocational training unit - consulting on construction and planning of tourism projects said: When businesses When they came to ART VIETNAM, they encountered main problems Group of people: those who have been trained, hold some key positions in the enterprise and those who have just graduated from university, have not had much experience Work In general, most businesses only train employees at a basic level, which can meet the requirements of the job position, but not comply with the general standards of the tourism industry Chapter 2: Research content The current situation of human resources for tourism in Vietnam In recent years, along with the rapid increase of tourists and the development of the infrastructure system of the tourism industry, the workforce is engaged in tourism business in Vietnam increasing also growing rapidly in both quantity and quality If in 1992, only in state-owned enterprises and tourism in Vietnam had more than 35,000 direct employees, by 1994, it increased to over 51,000 employees, the average growth rate was 20.7%/year In the period 1995-2000, direct labor in Vietnam's tourism industry increased by 1.96 times (in 2000 there were about 180,000 employees) Up to now, the number of direct employees is 250,000 Corresponding with the increase of the direct labor force, the number of indirect laborers serving tourism has also increased significantly (over 700,000 people) Although the number of tourism human resources is not much compared to the total number of employees, accounting for 1.94% of the total number of employees in the country, it can be seen the continuous increase of this force along with the growth momentum of the tourism industry As a specific industry, products are mainly services, so the proportion of female employees in the industry is higher than that of male workers (accounting for 55.6%) The labor force in the industry 0 Tieu luan is mostly young workers: workers under 30 years old account for 40%: from 30-40 years old: 36%; 41-50 years old: 21% and workers over 50 years old account for a very small number of 3% of the total number of employees This is a relatively reasonable labor structure between ages Obviously, the tourism industry has an adjacent workforce and the workforce is mature enough to shoulder the task of developing the industry However, although tourism is being paid attention and emphasized by the State as a spearhead economic sector, in fact, the scale of human resources of the industry is not enough in quantity and quality to meet development needs in the coming period The basic human resources for tourism are not highly professional, and there is a shortage of skilled workers The proportion of workers with expertise in tourism (trained and fostered in tourism) is still low, accounting for only about 42.5% of the total, the rest is due to shifting from other industries (accounting for 38.3%) and 19.2% without training or retraining In terms of training level, workers with elementary to intermediate degrees accounted for 47.3% and 19.8% had college degrees, the number of workers with university and postgraduate training in tourism accounted for only 3.11% : number of workers trained in tourism knowledge (below elementary) accounts for 19.4% of the total Considering the qualifications of indirect tourism workers, workers with university degrees account for only 0.21%; universities and colleges 12.75%: intermediate: 15.36%: elementary: 18% and the highest percentage is below elementary level: 53.59% Thus, in general, human resources in the tourism industry are still limited in many aspects, especially foreign language ability As an economic industry with high externality, the job requirements of many fields in the industry must often be in contact with international tourists, but currently, the percentage of workers who use foreign languages only accounts for about 45% of the total total Most of them know English (about 40.87% of the total number of employees); Chinese, French and other foreign languages are evenly distributed due to the unique requirements of each type of customer market and different regions, with corresponding figures of 4.59%: 4.09% and 4.18% In addition, tourism human resources are distributed throughout the country, and there are unequalities among tourist regions Tourism workers are concentrated mainly in two major tourist centers in 0 Tieu luan the North (43.93%) and the South (46.97%), while the Central region has only 9.1% The imbalance of tourism human resources is very evident among localities With the advantage of being the cultural - economic - social center of the country, the capital of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh City has attracted a large number of tourism workers in the country (38.55%) In which, Hanoi is 14.14% and TP Ho Chi Minh City 24.41% For the remaining provinces and cities, tourism workers only account for 61.45% of the total number of tourism workers in the country, with an average of only 1% per province The situation of distribution of tourism labor as above causes great difficulties for the tourism industry with a partial surplus and shortage of labor among localities Like other occupations in the country, labor in the tourism industry is distributed according to the areas of state management and non-business According to statistics, the number of employees in the state management sector and non-business units accounts for about 1.88%, (of which, only 0.74% employees work at state management agencies, I.14% employees working in tourism non-business units) The rest, the number of employees in enterprises accounts for 98.12% of the total number of employees in the industry With the proportion of management workers less than 1% of the total number of employees in the industry, it is too low, while compared with countries with a developed tourism industry, the appropriate rate must be about 5% of the total number of employees in the industry branch This fact shows that the management and supervision of the industry is not effective because the amount is too thin Especially in localities with underdeveloped tourism industry In addition, labor in non-business units accounting for only 1.14% of the total number of employees in the industry is also a challenge for the tourism industry, because these units need to concentrate the number of knowledge workers compared to the number of employees in the tourism industry other areas of the industry and carry out major tasks such as training, research, and tourism development projects To meet the development needs of the country, Vietnam's tourism requires a richer, more diverse and comprehensive knowledge workforce in terms of expertise as well as qualifications and skills at work 0 Tieu luan 1.1 Number and structure of employees: 1.1.1 Number of employees: In 2003, the number of employees in the whole industry (including private enterprises) reached over 830,000 employees, including about 230,000 direct employees According to the Report at the National Workshop "Training human resources for tourism according to social needs" taking place in Ho Chi Minh City on March 7, 2008, the whole country now has more than million employees working in the tourism industry tourism, in which there are about 285,000 direct employees and 750,000 indirect employees, accounting for nearly 3% of the total number of employees in the country, the average annual growth rate is about 4.3% According to the general assessment of Vietnam's tourism industry, the above number of human resources really does not meet the current needs, especially in newly established or expanded enterprises, in delta provinces or regions Mountain In many Departments of Tourism or Departments of Trade - Tourism, the force of state management staff in tourism is still very thin, so the effectiveness of management is still very limited 1.1.2 Labor structure: a Structure by industry Currently, in Vietnam's tourism human resources, management labor accounts for a relatively high proportion (25%) of the total number of employees in the industry; Direct service staff by specialty accounted for 75%, of which receptionists accounted for 9%, housekeeping staff accounted for 14.8%, bar staff (catering service) accounted for 15%, chefs accounted for 10.6%; human resources for tourism and tour guides is 4.9%; touring driving is 10.6%; The rest are laborers doing other occupations 36.5% The labor force in the tourism industry has an unequal proportion in specialized fields (receptionist, room attendant, maid, travel agent, tour guide…) and the percentage of direct labor is low relative to the general workforce It is not difficult to see that today's tourism human resources are formed and fostered from many sides, uneven quality, not suitable for professional requirements 0 Tieu luan According to the general report and forecast of the Department of Tourism Management, the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism predicts the structure of the labor force in the next few years: the hotel - catering industry needs the most labor, accounting for 50.5%; followed by entertainment services, accounting for 35.4% of tourism; tourism accounts for 13.7% b Structure by level According to statistics of the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism, as of 2005, about 0.21% of the total number of employees in the tourism industry have graduate degrees; 12.75% of employees have university or college degrees; most workers in the tourism industry have undergone intermediate vocational training and vocational training or on-the-job training In which, about 25.8% of employees have intermediate qualifications, 18.1% of workers have intermediate qualifications and 43.14% of employees have received on-the-job training Among direct staff, 32% can speak English; 3.2% understand French; 3.6% understand Chinese to varying degrees Not many staff are fluent in other languages c Structure by region The whole country currently has more than million workers, only about one third are direct workers, the rest are indirect workers The distribution of labor among regions is also very uneven, about 40% in the North, 50% in the South, and 10% in the Central region d Age structure According to statistics of the General Department of Tourism, as of 2005, about 40% of tourism workers are under 30 years old; 36% of tourism workers are between the ages of 30 and 40; 21% of tourism workers are between the ages of 41 and 50 3% of tourism workers are over 50 years old Basically, the age of employees in my country's tourism industry is relatively young This proves that we have many advantages in 0 Tieu luan training and retraining, when young people tend to quickly acquire professional qualifications 1.2 Quality of human resources In general, the quality of human resources for tourism in Vietnam is having positive changes In recent years, activities of training and fostering knowledge and skills for human resources in tourism have always been of primary concern and focus However, the current workforce in tourism is still lacking and relatively weak With the exception of some joint ventures with foreign companies, the staff is trained on-site or sent to other countries for training, so the quality is better, meeting most of the requirements and is highly appreciated in the industry, but basically the quality of human resources is still low, the quantity has not met the development needs of tourism to be able to become a spearhead economic sector and the gap is still quite far compared to the standard of tourism countries in the region as well as in the world In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has had tremendous impacts on the tourism industry's operations, of which the most worrying is that the labor force was not enough to serve tourists, and now there are no jobs, unemployment or even job change The quality of tourism human resources is assessed through main levels: cultural level; professional qualifications, skills and foreign languages Education level: Currently, the number of employees who have not graduated from high school accounts for 30% of the total number of employees in the tourism industry, they mainly work in direct service departments such as waiters and waitresses, housekeepers or security guards This ratio can persist for a long time, especially in the Mekong Delta region where the majority of people live off resource development River tourism should be almost "people tourism, family tourism" Expertise and professionalism: The percentage of skilled and professional workers in the tourism industry is still low, accounting for only about 43% of the total number of tourism workers Most of the remaining workers are transferred from other 10 0 Tieu luan occupations or have not been trained or retrained Through the above data, it can be seen that more than 50% of employees in tourism are unskilled Even in some provinces in the Mekong Delta, more than 80% of workers have not been trained and re-trained in tourism The staff - workers in state management as well as enterprises have not kept up with the development and integration with countries in the region and the world, management capacity as well as professional qualifications are still many shortcomings and limitations However, in some state management agencies as well as in some enterprises, there is a management team with high professional and technical qualifications Besides, in most of the state management agencies and other enterprises, the management team still lacks knowledge of business administration in tourism and has no expertise and expertise in tourism This is quite common in tourism businesses owned by the State and small, retail private businesses in many localities Therefore, the professionalism of the business is often limited and almost all imposed according to the leader's thinking The qualifications and skills of a large part of the direct labor force are still limited, and tourism services are still based on habits, experiences and especially natural instincts The tour guide team is not only weak in foreign languages but also lacks basic knowledge such as cultural traditions, history as well as the values of scenic spots Sometimes they have a bad attitude towards tourists Most of the human resources in the tourism industry today are trained in the University of Foreign Languages, but not in the tourism departments of other universities Foreign language proficiency: Currently, more than half of employees working in the tourism industry not know foreign languages, which can be considered a huge limitation of tourism in Vietnam Foreign languages are the most necessary tools for tourism workers to get closer to international tourists The number of employees who know at least one foreign language accounts for 45% of the total number of employees (mainly English) Even the number of workers who know English is only 15% at 11 0 Tieu luan university level, the rest are at intermediate and college level The number of employees who know or more foreign languages is about 28% According to a random survey conducted by TOEIC Vietnam (the unit in 2006 was chosen by the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism as a partner to develop the English standard scale for occupations in the tourism industry) conducted at about 200 hotel and travel businesses A nationwide survey shows that the majority of employees have very low English proficiency compared to their respective positions Thus, it can be seen that the quality of human resources for tourism in Vietnam is currently a matter of concern What we need is a strategy to develop tourism human resources in Vietnam not only to meet the demand in terms of quantity but also to ensure quality with a reasonable structure Solution To realize the goal of developing human resources for tourism in Vietnam, according to our research and selection, we have found a number of solutions to develop tourism human resources as follows 2.1 General solution It is necessary to invest in centers for forecasting and analyzing human resource needs, thereby creating a premise for building human resource development strategies in the industry At the same time, it is necessary to organize, administer, distribute and supervise to change the strategy in accordance with the actual situation 2.2 Solution group for education and training Planning and developing a team of teachers, travel managers, skilled tourism staff in all departments (cabin, desk, kitchen, lobby, customer care, marketing ) according to national and international standards for career guidance, giving priority to training forms such as on-the-job training, domestic and foreign training, and overseas training The training according to international standards not only improves professional 12 0 Tieu luan qualifications, but also enhances professionalism, foreign language ability and the desire to serve tourists Management agencies and businesses need to develop mechanisms to encourage and support the training of new and old tourism human resources, incubating and attracting high-quality talents in other places, industries and fields Promote career guidance activities, through promoting the role of career guidance and job placement centers, in order to mobilize students according to the current and future needs of the tourism industry 2.3 Solutions to raise awareness and quality of life for tourism workers Firstly, improving the quality of the population, thereby gradually raising awareness and income for workers directly and indirectly in tourism-related industries, thereby improving their quality of life Second, to encourage businesses and tourism businesses to reorganize their labor scientifically, improve working conditions and environment, and offer a reasonable amount for employees, creating favorable conditions for income attracting suitable gray matter for employees to have conditions to increase their income and improve their lives Third, especially training financial management skills, effective time management, work plans for employees so that they can upgrade themselves and turn the training process into self-training 2.4 Group of solutions to solve jobs Firstly, calling for investment, encouraging new investment by tourism enterprises, expanding business scale, diversifying tourism types, forming new routes and tourist attractions in a systematic and interconnected manner region Second, linking training with the labor use plan of each specific locality, especially the key tourist areas of the provinces 13 0 Tieu luan Third, link the form of training - use - selection of legacy tourism labor sources between training institutions and tourism business enterprises, especially in peak tourism seasons Fourth, restore traditional craft villages, encourage the movement of mastering and getting rich in craft villages and rural areas; increase the use of indirect tourism labor in the locality, increase income, diversify tourism products and use idle human resources in the locality Fifth, to build tourist information centers and tourism human resources of localities in the provinces; on that basis, strengthen the exchange of tourism human resources with multinational investment partners, labor export in times of oversupply Chapter Conclusion In short, developing Vietnam's human resources is the responsibility of the whole political system, of the whole society, of employers, of each individual and family Since then, it is necessary to promote the socialization of training and human resource development in addition to the investment of the State Training human resources for tourism is an extremely complicated process that must be developed comprehensively (academic, style, ethical and professional, professional), effective and standardized according to the international system of criteria The current tourism human resources have not yet fully met the development requirements of the industry in all aspects (quantity, quality, operational structure and use arrangement) Therefore, in order to turn the tourism industry into the main spearhead economic sector of the country, we need to have solutions (education - training, job creation, development - attraction and use of talents) ,…), in which education - training is the foundation, the key key to the success of the tourism industry in the integration process Source Any solution to the problem of training human resources for tourism in Binh Thuan province, Assoc.Prof.Dr Dang Van Phan, MSc Nguyen Minh Hieu 14 0 Tieu luan Human resources for tourism in Vietnam- Accessed on 23/02/2022 BCKH MSc Vu Minh Hue - Improving the quality of tourism human resources in Vietnam today- Accessed on February 23, 2022 Training human resources in tourism Accessed February 23, 2022 Trung Thu - CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Accessed February 23, 2022 What is sustainable tourism? Trends of sustainable tourism development in Vietnam Accessed February 23, 2022 Ths Drs Tran Le Diem Anh - The concept of human resources - what is human resources Accessed February 23, 2022 15 0 Tieu luan WORK ASSIGNMENT/MEMBERSHIP ASSESSMENT TABLE Criteria WORK ASSIGNMENT Completion rate Huynh Do Chieu Dan 319h0203 Content: Labor structure, solution Synthesize 100% Nguyễn Hoàng Trúc My 319H0237 Content: Quality of personel, solution 99% Nguyễn Thị Hoài Nhi 319H0068 Content: Relationship, status, quantity 99% Name ID students Nguyễn Lê Diễm Trinh 319H0119 Content: Sustainable Tourism Concepts, Sustainable Tourism Concepts, Edit Powerpoint 16 0 Tieu luan 99% ... capital, technology, natural resources In a broad sense, human resources are the source of labor power for social production and human resources for development Therefore, human resources including the... relationship between human resources and sustainable tourism: Human resources - the key to sustainable tourism development Understanding that the biggest success factor of tourism services is... Training human resources in tourism Accessed February 23, 2022 Trung Thu - CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Accessed February 23, 2022 What is sustainable tourism? Trends of sustainable tourism
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