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Luận văn thạc sĩ a study on students’ motivation in learning english at a primary school in hanoi

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  • Luận văn thạc sĩ a study on students’ motivation in learning english at a primary school in hanoi

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* NGUYỄN THỊ THU HƢƠNG A STUDY ON STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT A PRIMARY SCHOOL IN HANOI (Nghiên cứu động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trƣờng tiểu học Hà Nội) M.A MINOR THESIS (Type I) Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Hanoi - 2020 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* NGUYỄN THỊ THU HƢƠNG A STUDY ON STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT A PRIMARY SCHOOL IN HANOI (Nghiên cứu động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trƣờng tiểu học Hà Nội) M.A MINOR THESIS (Type I) Field : English Teaching Methodology Code : 8140231.01 Supervisor : Dr Mai Thị Loan Hanoi – 2020 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this thesis is my own work and effort and that it has not been submitted to any other university or institution wholly or partially Hanoi, 2020 Nguyen Thi Thu Huong Appoved by SUPERVISOR (Signature and full name) Date: i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Mai Thi Loan for her support, encouragement and valuable guidance throughout the process of conducting this study My special thank is for Assoc Prof Le Van Canh and all my other lecturers for their useful and valuable lectures that I got from the MA course at the University of Languages and International Studies, VNU I am indebted to them for basic knowledge on teaching methodology and research methodology This study would not have been completed without the participation of the 4th graders and English teachers at Thang Long Kidsmart Primary School I am grateful for their sharing time on the study with me Finally, I would like to thank all authors and linguists who have provided me with a treasure of knowledge about motivation, so that I can have basic theoretical background for the study Without all these of help, this thesis could not be completed as expected Hanoi, 2020 Nguyen Thi Thu Huong ii ABSTRACT This research aims at finding the typically motivational pattern as well as factors that have influences on the 4th graders‟ motivation in learning English at Thang Long Kidsmart Primary School from both students and teachers‟ perspectives In this study, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used as the main data collection instruments with the participation of sixty-five 4th graders and two Vietnamese teachers The findings from questionnaires and interviews illustrated that the 4th graders at Thang Long Kidsmart Primary School shown their tendency towards intrinsic motivation in learning English Additionally, the researcher found out that both teachers and students agreed factors connecting with the teachers, the learners and the parents were the three most critical elements which influence students‟ motivation in English learning However, the important degree of these factors was perceived differently by students and teachers Other factors like the course, the group and the environment also affect the participants‟ impetus for English studying to some extent Moreover, some implications of teaching English to young learners are also recommended At last, the result of the study is hoped to benefit teachers, students as well as parents in learning and teaching English To motivate children to learn English, all the related parties should take active roles rather than the teachers or the learners themselves iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS L2 Second language L2 learning Second language learning L2 motivation Second language motivation TPR Total Physical Response AMTB Attitudes/ Motivation Test Batteries iv LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1: Cases and responses summary of types of motivation .38 Table 2: Intrinsic motivation frequencies 39 Table 3: Extrinsic motivation frequencies 40 Table 4: Integrative motivation frequencies .40 Table 5: Instrumental motivation frequencies 41 Table 6: Cases and responses summary of elements that have impacts on students‟ impetus for English learning .42 Table 7: Learners-related factors frequencies 43 Table 8: Course-related factors frequencies 45 Table 9: Teacher-related factors frequencies 46 Table 11: Environment-related factors .48 Table 12: Parents-related factors .49 v TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale of the study Aims of the study Scope of the study Significance of the study Research questions Methods of the study .3 Structure of the thesis CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW .5 2.1 Review of previous studies related to the research area of the thesis 2.2 Theoretical background of motivation in second language learning 2.2.1 Definitions of motivation 2.2.2 Types of motivation 10 2.2.3 Factors affecting students‟ motivation in learning English 15 2.3 Theoretical background of children as young learners 21 2.4 Summary 25 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .26 3.1 Restatement of the research questions .26 3.2 The context of the study .26 3.3 Participants 28 vi 3.4 Survey research 29 3.4.1 Survey research definitions .29 3.4.2 Survey research characteristics .30 3.4.3 Steps for conducting a survey 30 3.5 The data collection instruments 31 3.5.1 Questionnaire 31 3.5.2 Interview 33 3.6 Data collection procedures 34 3.7 Data analysis methods 35 3.8 Summary 36 CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS 37 4.1 Analysis of questionnaire 37 4.1.1 Type of the 4th graders‟ motivation in learning English in the context of Thang Long Kidsmart Primary School .37 4.1.2 Factors affecting the 4th graders‟ motivation in learning English 41 4.2 Analysis of interview 50 4.2.1 Students‟ type of motivation in learning English 50 4.2.2 Factors affecting students‟ motivation in learning English .51 4.3 Pedagogical implications 59 4.3.1 Extra-curricular activities 59 4.3.2 The Internet and experience sharing to come up with new teaching ideas .59 4.3.3 Parents‟ involvement in children‟s English learning 60 4.3.4 Appropriate compliments and recognition from teachers and parents 60 4.4 Summary: 60 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION 62 REFERENCES 65 APPENDICES I APPENDIX 1: I APPENDIX 2: IV vii APPENDIX 3: VII APPENDIX 4A: IX APPENDIX 4B: XVII APPENDIX 5: XXV APPENDIX 6: XXXVI APPENDIX 7A XLI APPENDIX 7B XLII viii items/ options that are true for them There is no limited number of right answers Therefore, the first step of the processed data procedure is to define variable sets or to put the same variables in the similar group to form a new one This is the important step to group all the items into questions For example, in question 1, there are 16 variables in total The researcher needs to form four new variables which are relevant to groups of motivation which are intrinsic motivation (variables Mo1.1, Mo1.2, Mo1.3), extrinsic motivation (variables Mo2.1, Mo2.2, Mo2.3, Mo2.4, Mo2.5), integrative motivation (variables Mo3.1, Mo3.2, Mo3.3, Mo3.4) and instrumental motivation (variables Mo4.1, Mo4.2, Mo4.3) Variables for question are formed from six groups or six new variables: learners-related factors (variables factor1.1  factor1.8), course-related factor (variables factor2.1  factor2.3), teachers-related factors (variables factor3.1  factor3.7), grouprelated factor (variables factor4.1  factor4.3), environment-related factor (variables factor5.1  factor5.3), parents-related factor (variables factor6.1  factor6.6) Next, from new variables about motivation, the researcher forms one new variable for question 1: types of motivation Similarly, a new variable for factors affecting students‟ motivation in learning English is created from six already formed variables - Steps to form the new variables from available ones are illustrated below: Click on Analyze on the ribbon Choose Multiple Response  Define Variable Sets In the Define Variable Sets box, click to choose variables in the same group in Set Definition box to move to Variables in Set box Click to Categories Type the numbers into the next two boxes: Range/ through These numbers are similar to the number of the variables in the same group For example, in intrinsic motivation variable, type in box Range and in box through Type the names of the new variable (the names of motivational types/ factors) in the Name box XXVIII Copy the name of the new variable then paste to the box Label Click to Add to complete forming the new variable Follow the same steps to form other new variables of motivational types (4 types) and factors (6 factors) Click Close after finishing forming all the new variables XXIX XXX XXXI XXXII XXXIII - The second step of the data process is calculating the frequency in the form of percentage for each new variable This step is illustrated in the following pictures Click on Analyze on the ribbon Choose Multiple Response  Frequencies Choose all the new variables in Multiple Response Sets box to move to Table(s) for box Click OK to complete the data process The result of the calculation is displayed in the output file (see appendix 6) XXXIV XXXV APPENDIX 6: OUTPUT FILE GET FILE='D:\CAO HOC_ new\motivation - Copy.sav' DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT MULT RESPONSE GROUPS=$INTRINSIC.MOTIVATION 'INTRINSIC.MOTIVATION' (mo1.1 mo1.2 mo1.3 mo1.4 (1,4)) $EXTRINSIC.MOTIVATION 'EXTRINSIC.MOTIVATION' (mo2.1 mo2.2 mo2.3 mo2.4 mo2.5 (1,5)) $INTEGRATIVE.MOTIVATION 'INTEGRATIVE.MOTIVATION' (mo3.1 mo3.2 mo3.3 mo3.4 (1,4)) $INSTRUMENTAL.MOTIVATION 'INSTRUMENTAL.MOTIVATION' (mo4.1 mo4.2 mo4.3 (1,3)) $LEARNERS.RELATED.FACTOR 'LEARNERS.RELATED.FACTOR' (factor1.1 factor1.2 factor1.3 factor1.4 factor1.5 factor1.6 factor1.7 factor1.8 (1,8)) $COURSE.RELATED.FACTORS 'COURSE.RELATED.FACTORS' (factor2.1 factor2.2 factor2.3 (1,3)) $TEACHERS.RELATED.FACTORS 'TEACHERS.RELATED.FACTORS' (factor3.1 factor3.2 factor3.3 factor3.4 factor3.5 factor3.6 factor3.7 (1,7)) $GROUP.RELATED.FACTORS 'GROUP.RELATED.FACTORS' (factor4.1 factor4.2 factor4.3 (1,3)) $ENVIRONMENT.RELATED.FACTORS 'ENVIRONMENT.RELATED.FACTORS' (factor5.1 factor5.2 factor5.3 (1,3)) $PARENTS.RELATED.FACTORS 'PARENTS.RELATED.FACTORS' (factor6.1 factor6.2 factor6.3 factor6.4 factor6.5 factor6.6 (1,6)) /FREQUENCIES=$INTRINSIC.MOTIVATION $EXTRINSIC.MOTIVATION $INTEGRATIVE.MOTIVATION $INSTRUMENTAL.MOTIVATION $LEARNERS.RELATED.FACTOR $COURSE.RELATED.FACTORS $TEACHERS.RELATED.FACTORS $GROUP.RELATED.FACTORS $ENVIRONMENT.RELATED.FACTORS $PARENTS.RELATED.FACTORS XXXVI Multiple Response [DataSet1] D:\CAO HOC_ new\motivation - Copy.sav Case and response summary Types of motivation Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Integrative motivation Instrumental motivation Learners-related factors Course-related factors Teachers-related factors Group-related factors Environment-related factors Parents-related factors Cases Valid Missing N Percent N Percent 65 100 % 0% 52 80% 13 20% 15 23.1% 50 76.9% 34 52.3% 31 47.7% 65 100% 0% 56 86.2% 13.8% 65 100% 0% 58 89.2% 10.8% 36 55.4% 29 44.6% 60 92.3% 7.7% Total Responses N Percent 65 100% 113 65 100% 95 65 100% 35 65 100% 39 65 100% 228 65 100% 67 65 100% 309 65 100% 78 65 100% 66 65 100% 191 INTRINSIC MOTIVATION FREQUENCIES Intrinsic motivation Responses N Percent 47 41.6% 32 28.3% Learning English is fun and interesting Being good at English makes me feel happy and satisfied I enjoy watching English programs English programs, movies; 34 30.1% reading English books and listening to English songs Total 113 100% EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION FREQUENCIES Extrinsic motivation I will feel ashamed if my classmates study English better than me My parents often say that English is important for my future My parents and my teachers will be proud of me if I can learn English well English is one of the required subjects at school I like my English teacher Total XXXVII Responses N Percent 15 15.8% 33 34.7% 20 21.1% 12 12.6% 15 15.8% 95 100% INTEGRATIVE MOTIVATION FREQUENCIES Responses N Percent Integrative motivation I like to talk with foreigners in English and make international friends 10 English will be useful if I travel abroad 11 I want to know more about cultures and people of Englishspeaking countries 12 I want to study and live abroad Total 15 42.9% 10 28.6% 11.4% 17.1% 35 100% INSTRUMENTAL MOTIVATION FREQUENCIES Instrumental motivation 13 I learn English to pass exams 14 I study English to make English easier for me in secondary school 15 I learn English to find a good job in the future Total Responses N Percent 20 51.3% 15 38.5% 10.3% 39 100% LEARNERS-RELATED FACTORS Learners-related factors I want to speak English well I want to communicate with foreigners in English I want to speak English like my English teacher I feel nervous when I make mistakes and my friends laugh at me or my teacher gives immediate and negative feedback I feel nervous when my classmates study English better than me I feel worried when I get bad marks although I study very hard I feel confident when I answer or give a presentation in English in class I‟m not really confident about my English like pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and so on Total XXXVIII Responses N Percent 45 19.7% 25 11% 12 5.3% 48 21.1% 13 25 5.7% 11% 20 8.8% 40 17.5% 228 100% COURSE-RELATED FACTORS Course-related factors The textbook has interesting and updated topics and is well designed and decorated 10 The textbook is suitable for students‟ level, not too easy or difficult 11 Beside studying in class, there are other interesting extracurricular activities like outdoor studying, such as at the park, supermarket, zoo… game shows, mini projects and so on Total Responses N Percent 12 17.9% 10 14.9% 45 67.2% 67 100% TEACHERS-RELATED FACTORS Teacher-related factors Responses N Percent 52 16.8% 56 18.1% 12 Teachers are enthusiastic, friendly, humorous and helpful 13 Teachers have good pronunciation 14 Teachers speak more English than Vietnamese in class or vice 34 versa 15 Teachers organize a variety of games in class for students to practice the target vocabulary and structures with clear instructions 58 and models 16 Teachers make use of modern facilities like computer, projector, and Internet access to show interesting videos, pictures 40 or songs in class 17 Teachers give comments on students‟ performance and 34 progress 18 Teachers praise students or give some rewards like smiley 35 icons or small presents when they perform well in class Total 309 11 % 18.8% 12.9% 11% 11.3% 100% GROUP-RELATED FACTORS Group-related factors 19 Classmates are friendly and helpful 20 Students actively take part in different learning activities such as working individuals, in pairs or in groups 21 Classmates don‟t laugh at me when I make mistakes Total XXXIX Responses N Percent 13 16.7% 17 21.8% 48 78 61.5% 100% ENVIRONMENT-RELATED FACTORS Environment-related factors 22 The classroom is big enough and has modern facilities like airconditioner, computer, projector, Internet access, etc 23 The class is not too crowded with a suitable number of students 24 The classroom atmosphere is comfortable, not too noisy or too quiet Total Responses N Percent 16 24.2% 15 22.7% 35 53.0% 66 100% PARENTS-RELATED FACTORS Parents-related factors 25 My parents buy me English books, stories, CDs, and English apps to practice at home 26 My parents help me with my English homework or practice speaking English with me 27 My parents hire a tutor to help me study English at home 28 My parents encourage me to study at English centers or send me to summer camping programs 29 My parents praise or give me presents when I perform well in class 30 My parents keep an eye on my achievement at school Total XL Responses N Percent 36 18.8% 34 17.8% 20 10.5% 25 13.1% 41 21.5% 35 191 18.3% 100% APPENDIX 7A PHIẾU ĐỒNG THUẬN THAM GIA NGHIÊN CỨU Họ tên: ……………………………………………… Tuổi: …………………………………………………… Tên đề tài tham gia nghiên cứu: Động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội Mục đích nghiên cứu: Nghiên cứu nhằm mục đích tìm hiểu động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội Khoảng thời gian nghiên cứu dự kiến: tuần Số học sinh tham gia nghiên cứu: 65 Phương pháp tiến hành: bảng câu hỏi khảo sát, vấn Sau giải thích mục đích, quyền lợi nghĩa vụ đối tượng tham gia vào nghiên cứu “Động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội.”, em đồng ý tự nguyện tham gia vào nghiên cứu Em xin tuân thủ quy định nghiên cứu Hà Nội, ngày….tháng… năm… Ký tên XLI APPENDIX 7B PHIẾU ĐỒNG THUẬN THAM GIA NGHIÊN CỨU Họ tên: ……………………………………………… Tuổi: …………………………………………………… Tên đề tài tham gia nghiên cứu: Động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội Mục đích nghiên cứu: Nghiên cứu nhằm mục đích tìm hiểu động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội Khoảng thời gian nghiên cứu dự kiến: tuần Số giáo viên tham gia nghiên cứu: Phương pháp tiến hành: bảng câu hỏi khảo sát, vấn Sau giải thích mục đích, quyền lợi nghĩa vụ đối tượng tham gia vào nghiên cứu “Động lực học tiếng Anh học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội.”, đồng ý tự nguyện tham gia vào nghiên cứu Tôi xin tuân thủ quy định nghiên cứu Hà Nội, ngày….tháng… năm… Ký tên XLII ... mainly focus on motivation in English as a second language acquisition rather than a foreign language In Vietnam, there are numerous studies on motivation in learning English as a foreign language... based on the classification of two influential theories, socioeducational and self-determination theories, in which motivation was classified as integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, intrinsic... contrast, those who followed self-determination theory categorized motivation as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation Some scholars have identified other motivational patterns based on
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