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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES PHẠM THỊ HÂN A STUDY ON USING STORYTELLING TO IMPROVE ENGLISH SPEAKING FOR STUDENTS AT A PRIMARY SCHOOL IN HANOI (Nghiên cứu việc sử dụng phương pháp kể chuyện để nâng cao khả nói Tiếng Anh cho học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội) M.A MINOR THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 HANOI- 2020 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES PHẠM THỊ HÂN A STUDY ON USING STORYTELLING TO IMPROVE ENGLISH SPEAKING FOR STUDENTS AT A PRIMARY SCHOOL IN HANOI (Nghiên cứu việc sử dụng phương pháp kể chuyện để nâng cao khả nói Tiếng Anh cho học sinh trường tiểu học Hà Nội) Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Supervisor: Prof Dr Hoang Van Van HANOI- 2020 DECLARATION I, Phạm Thị Hân, hereby certify that the thesis “A study on using storytelling to improve English speaking ability for students at a primary school in Hanoi” is submitted for the partial fulfillment of the Degree of Master of Arts at the Faculty of Post-Graduate Studies, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi Although when doing my research, I have consulted various books, articles, and webpages for my references, I exacted some ideas relating to my study from their work I declare that this assignment is my own work and does not involve plagiarism or collusion Hanoi, 2020 Phạm Thị Hân i ACKNOWLEGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to give my cordial thanks to my supervisor Prof Dr Hoang Van Van for his enlightening support, invaluable feedback and recommendations during my fulfillment of this minor thesis My sincere thanks go to all of the lecturers and the staff of the Faculty of Post Graduate Studies at University of Languages and International Studies for their valuable lectures on which help me to orient the research I would like to convey my warmest appreciation and thanks to invaluable assistance to teachers at Ly Nam De Primary School I truly wish to thank all the students in grade at Ly Nam De Primary School who have actively participated in the research I am deeply grateful to my family for their great encouragement Without their support, I could not have completed this thesis ii ABSTRACT Young learners have spent more time in learning English at primary schools in Hanoi recent years As a result, students have more chances to learn English However, a wide range of young learners face lacking speaking proficiency which their grammar, content, vocabulary, and fluency are limited Moreover, students have low motivation and lack confidence in learning speaking There are different techniques of teaching speaking skills which are employed to be successful One of the concerned techniques is storytelling This research is an investigation into the effectiveness of teaching speaking to young learners through storytelling The primary aim of the study is to determine whether storytelling has an extended impact on young learners’ speaking It also studies students’ attitude to this technique The data were collected through observation, questionnaire, and tests and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively The results of the data analysis indicate that most of the students achieved considerable progress in their speaking after using storytelling Students also participated in the lesson actively and excitedly In addition, storytelling can motivate students to communicate iii TABLE OF CONTENT DECLARATION………………………………………………………… i ACKNOWLEGEMENTS………………………………………………… ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vii LISTS OF TABLES AND FIGURES viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Rationale ………………………………………………………… Statement of the problem………………………………………… Aims and objectives of the study ………………………… …… Research question………………………………………… …… Scope of the study ………………………………………….……… Significance of the study ………………………………… ……… Organization of the thesis………………………………………… CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Speaking…………………………………………………………… 4 2.1.1 Definitions of speaking skill…………………………………… 2.1 Techniques to teach speaking skill to young learners…………… 2.1.3 Assessing speaking skill………………………………………… 2.1.4 Criteria levels for evaluating speaking skill……………………… 2.2 Storytelling…………………………………………………………… 6 2.2.1 Definition of storytelling………………………………………… 2.2.2 The advantage of storytelling………………………….………… 2.2.3 Storytelling techniques…………………………………………… 2.2.4 Criteria for selecting storybooks………………………………… 2.3 Students’ attitude…………………………………………………… 10 10 2.3.1 Students’ attitude………………………………………………… 2.3.2 Characteristics of primary students……………………………… iv 11 2.4 Previous studies in the world and in Vietnam…………………… 12 2.5 Summary……………………………………………………………… 14 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY………………………………………… 15 3.1 Context of the study…………………………………………………… 15 3.1.1 Setting of the study……………………………………………… 15 3.1.2 Participants……………………………………………………… 17 3.1.3 Materials………………………………………………………… 16 3.2 Research design………………………………………………………… 16 3.2.1 Research approach……………………………………………… 16 3.2.2 Research procedures……………………………………………… 16 3.3 Data collection instruments…………………………………………… 23 3.3.1 Questionnaire…………………………………………………… 23 3.3.2 Test……………………………………………………………… 24 3.3.3 Observation……………………………………………………… 25 3.4 Data analysis methods…………………………………………… 25 3.5 Summary…………………………………………………………… 25 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 27 4.1 Data analysis………………………………………………………… 27 4.1.1 Analysis of test results………………………………………… 27 4.1.2 Analysis of questionnaires……………………………………… 32 4.1.3 Analysis of observation………………………………………… 37 4.2 Findings and discussion……………………………………………… 39 4.2.1 To what extent can storytelling technique affect children’s 39 speaking ability? ……………………… 4.2.2 Students’ attitude towards storytelling ………………………… 40 4.3 Summary……………………………………………………………… 40 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION…………………………………………… 42 5.1 Recapitulation……………………………………………………… 42 5.2 Concluding remarks………………………………………………… 42 v 5.3 Limitation of the study……………………………………………… 43 5.4 Recommendations and suggestions for further study………… 43 REFERENCES…………………………………………………… 45 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: LESSON PLAN………………………………………… I APPENDIX 2A: POST-TREATMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (ENGLISH VERSION) …………………………………………… …… …… …… V APPENDIX 2B: POST-TREATMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (VIETNAMESE VERSION) ……………………………………… …… VIII APPENDIX 3A: PRE-TEST OF SPEAKING SKILL…………………… X APPENDIX 3B: POST-TEST OF SPEAKING SKILL………………… XII APPENDIX 4: SPEAKING RUBRIC…………………………………… XIV APPENDIX 5: THE FORMULA OF MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION AND MEDIAN……………………………………….…… XVI APPENDIX 6: TEACHER’S OBSERVATION………………………… vi XXV LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS %: Percentage vii LISTS OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1: The course procedures …………………………………… 18 Table 2.1: The students’ content of speaking … ……………………… 27 Table 2.2: The students’ fluency of speaking ……………………………… 28 Table 2.3: The students’ grammar of speaking …………………………… 29 Table 2.4: The students’ vocabulary of speaking ………………………… 29 Table 2.5: Record of students’ test scores………………………………… 30 Table 2.6: Comparison of mean, standard deviation, mode, minimum and maximum between the pre-test and post-test……………………………… 31 Table 3: Students’ attitude toward storytelling…………………………… 32 viii value (the mean) -Formula: Standard deviation uses the following formula: Where: x is the sample mean AVERAGE(number1, number2 ) n is the sample size Excel formula: STDEV(number1,number2 ) Note: Number1, number2 are to 255 number arguments corresponding to a sample of a population For example: calculating standard deviation of students in pre-test Click on cell B16-the location where the standard deviation will be entered Click on the Formulas tab Choose More Functions ->Statistical from the ribbon to open the function drop down list Click on STDEV in the list to bring up the function's dialog box Highlight cells B3 to B17 in the spreadsheet to enter the range into the dialog box XVIII Click OK The answer 3185.80 should appear in cell B16 When you click on cell B16 the complete function = STDEV(B2:B15) appears in the formula bar above the worksheet XIX XX Median Definition: is the middle number of a group of numbers; that is, half the numbers have values that are greater than the median, and half the numbers have values that are less than the median Formula: Median uses the following formula: Where: Mdn is the median L is the lower limit of the interval containing the median N is the total number of scores is the sum of the frequencies or number of scores up to the interval containing the median fw is the frequency or number of scores within the interval containing the median i is the size or range of the interval XXI Excel formula: MEDIAN (number1,number2 ) Note: Number1, number2 are to 255 numbers for which you want the median -For example: calculating the median of class A in pre-test Click on cell B16 - the location where median will be entered Click on the Formulas tab Choose More Functions>Statistical from the ribbon to open the function drop down list XXII XXIII TEACHER’S OBSERVATION MEETING LESSON Teacher’s observation Activities Students’ - 16 students participation - came late - was absent - were on time Homework No homework checking checking The extent of the - Discuss about the time, rules in the storytelling periods - The planed periods and frame work in five weeks were lesson’s informed effect on -In the pre-test, most students lacked vocabularies to students express their opinion, they answered in the same ways by using the general action such as “I can cook, I can clean the house to make my family happy” or “I buy medicine when my mother is sick”, and they reacted the situation in the impolite ways Students’ attitude - They were willing to take part in the pre-test - However, they did not that they would have the test and test’s topic so they were surprised, some students were afraid - They made the class too noisy After being informed the next storytelling lesson, they were curious XXIV MEETING LESSON Activities Group 1( Experimental group) Students’ All 14 attended the class participation- - students early - - students on time, - - students came to class late Homework No homework checking checking The extent of the lesson’s - - students met difficulties in understanding effect on - - All students were lack of fluency, content, grammar and students vocabulary at the beginning of the lesson but at the end of the lesson, all of these behaviors were improved Students’ attitude -Most students were eager to the lesson, however, students were little bit reserved XXV MEETING LESSON Activities Students’ Group 1( Experimental group) 14 students attended the class participation - students were so early - students were late - students were on time Homework - 13/14 students finished the homework before the lesson checking - All their sentences were meaningful They related the words in the lesson to their lives - All students sometimes put the verbs in the incorrect forms - students had problem in spelling words in the writing exercise The extent - of the lesson’s choosing situation with these words - effect on students All students learnt by heart the vocabulary and reacted the 11 students answered the question relating to the story correctly - students got the detail of the stories incorrectly and needed teacher retold - All students read the story with the intonation - Students had great imagination when they made the questions to ask their friends and prepared the solutions in their lives Students’ - attitude They were positive to join the lesson, eager to give the opinion, speak more freely - However, there were students were also shy on speaking because they did not know how to arrange the idea in the XXVI whole sentences After having teacher’s support, they were ready to speak out MEETING LESSON Activities Students’ participation Homework Group 1( Experimental group) 14 students attended - students waited for the lesson from early - 3students came to the class on time - students were late for class All students completed the homework with high responsibility checking The - All students joined speaking activity extent - 12 students were confident to speak out but students were of the reserved However, at the end of the class, with the support lesson’s effect of teacher, all students were better than before - on students They were ready to listen teacher’s comment on the homework - Students joined the pair activity to share the story with high motivation Students’ - Content, vocabulary and grammar was improved so much - Students’ fluency was also limited - attitude They were eager to listen to friends’ stories with the curiosity They told about the lesson from the story until going the class - 13 students were confident but students also were reserved XXVII MEETING LESSON Activities Students’ participation Homework Group 1( Experimental group) 14 students attended the class - students came to class so early - students came to class on time - All students completed the homework with high motivation checking They told the story by their own words and introduced the members in the family with inflexible words The extent - of the Some students were reserved to answer teachers’ question because they limited the words to express the ideas lesson’s - Some students made mistakes of grammar when expressing effect on - Students caught up with the story and distinguished between students Tasks the bad and good behaviors in the story - Many grammar mistakes existed - Fluency were limited because lacking vocabs Students’ - Students were curious and motivation in the lesson attitude - However, some students were also reserved with the reason that they did not know how to express the ideas XXVIII MEETING LESSON Activities Group 1( Experimental group) Students’ - 14 students attended the class participation - All of the students came to the class so early Homework - All students were eager to submit the homework without teacher’s reminding checking - They were better in grammar The sentences were more creative and meaningful The extent of - Some students also had the letter mistakes - They got familiar with learning storytelling so they caught the lesson’s up with the process so quickly effect on - They all got the content of the story students - They followed the teacher’s process and gave their opinion tasks Students’ attitude positively - They could draw the precious lessons from the story - On the sixth day, they paid attention to the lesson and were eager to the lesson All students told the stories one by one There was one student who needed teacher’s support XXIX MEETING LESSON Activities Students’ Group 14 students attended the class participation Homework - 14 students were motivated to finish the homework checking - students were not confident to submit the homework until the teacher’s reminding - All students could rewrote the story by themselves with the correct sequence and content - All students improved grammar and spelling Some students had no mistakes The extent of - the lesson’s All students could retell the story with the correct sequence of the story effect on - They could have more precious lessons from the story students - Vocabulary, grammar and intonation improved clearly - Most of the students were eager to the lesson apart from tasks Students’ attitude students were quite reserved because they did not learn by heart the story at home XXX MEETING LESSON Activities Students’ Group 1( Experimental group) All students joined the class early participation Homework No homework checking checking The extent of Results were on the test the lesson’s effect on students tasks Students’ They were ready to join the test attitude XXXI ... accuracy, vocabulary, grammar and communication He advises using a scale for grading students? ?? performance on speaking tests rather than a marking scheme It is better to use a rating scale containing... improve English speaking ability for students at a primary school in Hanoi? ?? to gain some insights into speaking strategies and find out the good ways to help the students improve their speaking. .. Hoang Van Van HANOI- 2020 DECLARATION I, Phạm Thị Hân, hereby certify that the thesis ? ?A study on using storytelling to improve English speaking ability for students at a primary school in Hanoi? ??

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