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Luận văn thạc sĩ a study of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in some english and vietnamese contemporary short stories from cognitive perspective

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ĐÀO THỊ THÙY LINH A STUDY OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS DENOTING FEAR IN SOME ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE CONTEMPORARY SHORT STORIES FROM COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE Nghiên cứu ẩn dụ ý niệm nỗi sợ hãi số truyện ngắn Anh –Việt đương đại góc nhìn tri nhận M.A THESIS (PROGRAM 1) Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201.01 HANOI - 2019 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ĐÀO THỊ THÙY LINH A STUDY OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS DENOTING FEAR IN SOME ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE CONTEMPORARY SHORT STORIES FROM COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE Nghiên cứu ẩn dụ ý niệm nỗi sợ hãi số truyện ngắn Anh –Việt đương đại góc nhìn tri nhận M.A THESIS (PROGRAM 1) Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201.01 Supervisor: Huỳnh Anh Tuấn, Ph.D HANOI - 2019 DECLARATION I declare that this thesis “A study of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in some English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories from cognitive perspective” has been composed solely by myself and that it has not been submitted, in whole or in part, in any previous application for a degree This thesis is submitted after a carefully checking progress in order to fulfill the requirements of the M.A degree Hanoi, 2019 Đào Thị Thùy Linh i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Throughout the writing of this thesis, I have received a great deal of support and assistance Firstly, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Huỳnh Anh Tuấn, Ph.D for the all support of my research, for his patience, motivation, and immense knowledge His guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis I am greatly indebted to all my lecturers at University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, for their endless enthusiasm and undeniable helpful lectures I would be very grateful to the staff of the Faculty of Graduate Studies for their support during my time of studying I would also like to thank my leaders and colleagues at the place where I work They gave me opportunities and supported me so that I completed the program the best I can Finally, I gratefully acknowledge my family for all for providing me constant encouragement, divine presence and supporting me spiritually throughout Hanoi, 2019 Đào Thị Thùy Linh ii ABSTRACT This paper attempts to investigate and compare the conceptual metaphors of fear in English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories FEAR is one of the basic emotions of human beings, and it has both similarities and differences among different languages Analysis of features of conceptualization is a critical part of the semantics of emotions This study aims to compare and contrast the use of metaphors of fear in two languages, which are English and Vietnamese The study provides some important findings Firstly, metaphor is common in conceptualizing and expressing emotions in English and Vietnamese short stories Secondly, English and Vietnamese have several common cognitive metaphors of fear Thirdly, the differences of English and Vietnamese metaphors in fear have relations to cultural models Due to the limited research on the conceptual metaphors denoting fear used by short story writers, the findings add to the body of knowledge related to these areas of conceptual metaphors The study also suggests several implications for translation, language learning and teaching iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv PART I: INTRODUCTION .1 Rationale of the study Objectives of the study Research questions Scope of the study Significance of the study Organization of the study PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND .5 1.1 Literature review 1.2 Theoretical background 10 1.2.1 Cognitive linguistics 11 1.2.2 Metaphor 12 1.2.3 Conceptual metaphor 13 1.3 Summary 20 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21 2.1 Approach 21 iv 2.2 Method 21 2.3 Data collection procedure 22 2.3.1 English contemporary short stories 24 2.3.2 Vietnamese contemporary short stories 25 2.4 Data analysis procedure 27 2.5 Summary 33 CHAPTER 3: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 34 3.1 Qualitative analysis 34 3.1.1 Conceptual metaphors of fear in English short stories 34 3.1.2 Conceptual metaphors of fear in Vietnamese short stories 41 3.2 Quantitative analysis 50 3.3 Similarities and differences in the use of conceptual metaphors between English and Vietnamese short stories 52 3.3.1 Similarities 52 3.3.2 Differences 54 3.4 Summary 56 PART III: CONCLUSION .57 Recapitulation .57 Implications 58 Limitations and suggestions for further study .59 3.1 Limitations 59 3.2 Suggestions for further study 60 REFERENCES 61 v PART I: INTRODUCTION This chapter provides the overall structure and concept of the study, including the rationale, objectives, research questions, scope, contribution and organization of the study Rationale of the study Cognitive linguistics is the approach to the study of language that began to emerge in the 1970s and has been increasingly active since the 1980s Until now, a large amount of research has been carried out in the light of cognitive linguistics over the world in general and in Vietnam in particular, and most of them have focused on semantics with a deeper insight into the use of conceptual metaphors in languages Conceptual metaphors involve two concepts and have the form A is B, where the most abstract concept A such as love, life, economy, and argument is comprehended in terms of the more concrete concept B including war or a container Therefore, the investigation of conceptual metaphors to find out similarities and differences of using this kind of meaning transference among languages in the world brings great benefits to the English teaching, learning, and translating process Everyday emotions like happiness, sadness, anger and fear and love turn to be metaphorical The basis of this research is relatively small but important for describing fear Metaphors arise when a familiar, well-understood concept (the source) is used to explain or structure another less-familiar one (the target) There is an important connection between stories and emotion metaphors The research entitled “A study of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in some English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories from cognitive perspective” is conducted to contribute to the process of understanding and interpretation of conceptual metaphors in English and Vietnamese short stories Objectives of the study The study is intended to fulfill the following objectives: - investigating how conceptual metaphors denoting fear are expressed in English and Vietnamese short stories from cognitive perspective - discovering and explaining the similarities and differences in conceptual metaphors of fear in English and Vietnamese short stories Research questions In order to achieve the above objectives, the following research questions could be put forward: - How are the conceptual metaphors of fear conceptualized in English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories? - What are the similarities and differences of the conceptual metaphors denoting fear in English and Vietnamese short stories? Scope of the study This research investigates the way of conceptualizing metaphors denoting fear in some English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories Seventeen short stories in both languages, five in English and twelve in Vietnamese, are chosen as follows: English short stories  Allan and the Sundered Veil (2000)  Eclipse (2007)  The doll (2011)  The sloan men (2013)  The open window (2013) Vietnamese short stories  Hoang Đường (2005)  Cánh đồng bất tận (2005)  Áo đỏ bắt đèn (2005)  Thiên thần nhỏ (2008)  Áo rách nắm bụi (2011)  Lời nguyền bầy sói (2013)  Ngồi khóc (2013)  Những kẻ đợi chết (2013)  Núi mây bồ câu xám (2014)  Cơm vắt Điện Biên (2014)  Bảy bước tới mùa hè (2015)  Xuyên đêm (2015) Significance of the study This study attempts to provide learners with a potential source of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in English and Vietnamese stories Moreover, it helps learners understand the differences between English and Vietnamese cultures and know how to apply the knowledge of conceptual metaphors in stories not only in studying but also in real life The study aims to make important contributions First, it investigates the conceptual metaphors of fear in English and Vietnamese based on the theory of cognitive metaphor Second, it discovers and explains the similarities and the dissimilarities in conceptual metaphors of fear in English and Vietnamese Third, it suggests several implications for translation, communication, and language teaching Organization of the study This study will cover the following parts with chapters: Part I - “Introduction” This part will present the rationale, the objectives and research questions of the study It is also devoted to the scope, the significance and the organization of the study Part II – “Development” This part will comprise three chapters Chapter – “Literature review and Theoretical background” This chapter will present previous studies related to the paper and provide the fundamental knowledge of metaphors in general and conceptual metaphors in particular Theoretical matters related to the study such as the theories of cognitive linguistics, metaphor, definition, classification, features of conceptual metaphors and fear CONTAINER, FEAR IS A HUMAN BEING, FEAR IS AN ANIMAL, and FEAR IS A FLUID IN A CONTAINER have the same frequency of conceptual metaphors of fear, making up about 11% of the total In comparison with Vietnamese stories, the selected English stories not use two types of conceptual metaphors FEAR IS AN ILLNESS and FEAR IS FOOD For Vietnamese short stories, FEAR IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER is the most commonly used conceptual metaphor of fear with a percentage of nearly 31% Following this, FEAR IS AN OBJECT is the next commonly used conceptual metaphor, taking up 25% of the total Compared with English short stories, Vietnamese short stories not use those conceptual metaphors of fear, such as FEAR IS AN ANIMAL, FEAR IS A BURDEN and FEAR IS A CONTAINER 3.3 Similarities and differences in the use of conceptual metaphors between English and Vietnamese short stories After analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively, some similarities and differences are identified between English and Vietnamese short stories 3.3.1 Similarities In ontological metaphors, the stuff of everyday existence such as objects, entities, and containers are employed to explain other abstract target concepts like an activity, emotion, or idea As analyzed in the previous parts, it can be concluded that most of ontological metaphors are found in both English and Vietnamese short stories After analyzing the use of metaphors of fear in English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories, the results show that English and Vietnamese writers share the same frequency of using this metaphor FEAR IS AN OBJECT In this conceptual metaphor, fear is conceptualized as a thing which can be seen, brought and sent The metaphorical expressions could be found in which fear is understood as an object in both languages such as “bring back all my fear”, “fresh panic”, ngửi thấy mùi sợ hãi”, “nỗi sợ đâu mất”, etc As regards the metaphor FEAR IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER, 52 English and Vietnamese authors mainly use body parts as a container, such as the stomach, eyes, throat, and head Especially, the eyes as the container are used similarly in English and Vietnamese short stories to cover fear It can be seen in some examples, “a dazed horror in her eyes”, “icy fear pooled in my stomach”, “sự ghê sợ, kinh tởm mắt cha”, “nỗi sợ truyền đời thêu dệt đầu Súa” Also, English and Vietnamese stories conceptualize fear as a human being who can have a specific power to affect the activities of other people, can teach a lot of lessons for people and can hurt people as well as reduce the pain of other people For instance, some words such as “make”, “taught”, “ghim chặt”, “làm dịu lại” are used in both English and Vietnamese short stories Additionally, COLD as a source domain for fear is also employed commonly in both languages, for example, “icy fear”, “clammy fear”, “cái lạnh nỗi sợ mơ hồ” The common comparison in this source domain is that fear is associated with the physical reactions of human beings when they are cold, which are shivering, shuddering, and trembling The last conceptual metaphor shared in both languages is FEAR IS A FLUID IN A CONTAINER The human body is a container for the emotions and the emotions are fluids in a container For example, in English, “ooze down my spine”, “leaking through his control” and in Vietnamese, “sợ vỡ mật” In brief, it is common knowledge in cognitive linguistics that some conceptual metaphors encountered in one language have their counterparts in other languages Cognitive linguists have convincingly proven that some common bodily reactions that are experienced by people universally provide an experiential grounding for near-universal metaphors such as anger, sadness and fear So, English and Vietnamese writers employ conceptual metaphors of fear in their short stories, with creation and imagination in using appropriate metaphorical expressions to denote fear This enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of language factors in short stories 53 3.3.2 Differences In addition to these similarities, English and Vietnamese also show differences in the use of metaphors of FEAR From the quantitative analysis, it can be seen that English short stories tend to employ some specific types of conceptual metaphors of fear, namely FEAR IS COLD, FEAR IS A BURDEN, FEAR IS A HUMAN BEING, FEAR IS AN ANIMAL, FEAR IS A FLUID IN A CONTAINER, and FEAR IS A CONTAINER On the other hand, Vietnamese short stories are more inclined to use FEAR IS AN ILLNESS, FEAR IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER, and FEAR IS FOOD The second difference is that the selected English short stories not use conceptual metaphors FEAR IS AN ILLNESS and FEAR IS FOOD Meanwhile, a number of conceptual metaphors are not found in the selected Vietnamese short stories, including FEAR IS AN ANIMAL, FEAR IS A BURDEN and FEAR IS A CONTAINER From the qualitative analysis, it is shown that English and Vietnamese short stories differ in some ways of using conceptual metaphors of fear Firstly, Vietnamese stories tend to conceptualize fear as food which is a subcategory of an object while English stories not often use this kind of conceptualization Secondly, in English, head, heart, eyes, and face are frequently used as the containers which cover emotions of human beings such as fear In Vietnamese short stories, fear is conceptualized as a substance that can be put in another type of containers, that is, in someone‟s throat Thirdly, in English short stories, fear is conceptualized as a human being in more various ways than in Vietnamese short stories For example, fear can teach as a senior person, fear can hurt people, and fear can have strong effects on people in English stories Meanwhile, in Vietnamese stories, fear can affect other people and reduce pain Furthermore, the metaphor FEAR IS A BURDEN cannot be found in the selected Vietnamese stories, but it is used lively in English stories When people feel the fear, they experience similar feelings as when they have burdens, such as tired and scared When fearful things 54 disappear, people feel like relieving pressures Finally, the metaphor FEAR IS ILLNESS is only found in Vietnamese stories They use symptoms of a disease to describe the fear and this shows fear has serious impacts as an illness does Apart from linguistic factors and the conceptualization process, there are also several cultural impacts on the conceptualization of fear in English and Vietnamese short stories One of the dimensions which metaphors vary is the cross-cultural dimension A culture could use a set of different source domains for a particular target domain or one culture shows a clear preference for some of the conceptual metaphors that are employed For examples, English writers shows the preference for the conceptual metaphor FEAR IS A CONTAINER and FEAR IS AN ANIMAL while Vietnamese writers prefer to use source domains such as food and illness Besides that, English writers tend to use the entire body as a container more than Vietnamese writers do, whereas Vietnamese writers are in favor of using body parts Fear could be conceptualized as a substance or a fluid in a container which is so various in Vietnamese short stories In addition to the heart, the chest and the eyes, the head, Vietnamese writers also use other parts such as the liver and gallbladder as a container to store the fear It is due to the influence of traditional medicine which views body organs as the center of humans where emotions generated and located Additionally, the use of body parts like heart or liver to depict fear could mirror Vietnamese character which is characterized by introversion and pessimism, compared with extroversion and optimism embodied in western people‟s character When Vietnamese people encounter something fearful, for most of them, the actions they perform are to keep it in heart or some other body organs English and Vietnamese belong to different language and culture system English culture is greatly affected by the four-humor doctrine which originates from the ancient western medicine and philosophy, while Vietnamese culture is somehow influenced by the ancient Vietnamese and Chinese philosophy and theories in traditional medicine Different cultural influence brings out the differences in the conceptualization of fear in English and Vietnamese short stories 55 In short, Vietnamese have a tendency to get values exchange with other countries, with those of both the similar and different cultural backgrounds Thus, it makes smooth cross-cultural communication feasible and helps the development of harmonious society as well as the interpersonal relationship 3.4 Summary In short, this chapter is first analyzed qualitatively in two small parts including conceptual metaphors of fear in English short stories and those in Vietnamese short stories In particular, there are sets of conceptual metaphors of fear in English short stories, including Fear is cold, Fear is a burden, Fear is a substance in a container, Fear is an object, Fear is a human being, Fear is an animal, Fear is a fluid in a container and Fear is a container Regarding Vietnamese short stories, they include the use of major sources of mapping It is classified into different sets, including Fear is a substance in a container, Fear is a fluid in a container, Fear is a human being, Fear is an object, Fear is food, Fear is cold and Fear is an illness Then the quantitative is used to indicate the frequency of conceptual metaphors denoting fear used in English and Vietnamese short stories This chapter also includes the information collected and compared between the stories in English and Vietnamese, showing the similarities and differences between the usage and application of conceptual metaphors denoting fear between two languages 56 PART III: CONCLUSION This chapter will summarize the study‟s results and present the suggested implications for learning, teaching and translating conceptual metaphors in English and Vietnamese as well as limitations and suggestions for further study Recapitulation The traditional theories have considered metaphor as a figure of speech for a long time Meanwhile, the cognitive metaphor theory considers it as a cognitive phenomenon and an important way of thinking The cognitive metaphor enables people to understand a domain by another Also, it has been shown that cognitive metaphor plays an important role in expressing thoughts and emotions of human beings in daily life The cognitive linguists believe that metaphor is a critical tool in cognition and thought of human beings, and it is of importance in conceptualizing human emotions Thus, emotion concepts have close relationships with cognition Abstract concepts, including human emotions, are broadly understood and expressed in terms of cognitive metaphors Using the cognitive approach with the combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the study strives to discover how conceptual metaphors denoting fear conceptualized in English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories as well as to find the similarities and differences in English and Vietnamese metaphors of fear There are overall 10 sets of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in this study including Fear is cold, Fear is an illness, Fear is a burden, Fear is a container, Fear is a substance in a container, Fear is a fluid in a container, Fear is an object, Fear is a human being, Fear is an animal and Fear is food The study also provides important findings The first, conceptual metaphors are commonly used to conceptualize and describe emotions in both English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories The second, English and Vietnamese have numerous similar conceptual metaphors of fear This finding supports the suggestion of Lakoff and 57 Kövecses (1987) that emotional concepts have a basis in bodily experience Overall, the conceptual metaphor FEAR IS AN OBJECT has the highest frequency of use in English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories, being about 24% Besides, FEAR IS A FLUID IN A CONTAINER, FEAR IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER, and FEAR IS COLD are used similarly in both languages The third, each language has its preferred conceptual metaphors of fear to use This can be seen by the fact that some metaphors are used more frequently in English and other metaphors are used more frequently in Vietnamese short stories It can be seen from this study that English short stories tend to employ some specific types of conceptual metaphors of fear, namely FEAR IS COLD, FEAR IS A BURDEN, FEAR IS A HUMAN BEING, FEAR IS AN ANIMAL, FEAR IS A FLUID IN A CONTAINER, and FEAR IS A CONTAINER On the other hand, Vietnamese short stories are more inclined to use FEAR IS AN ILLNESS, FEAR IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER, and FEAR IS FOOD The last, differences between English metaphors and Vietnamese metaphors of FEAR are related to cultural models of these countries English writers tend to use the entire body as a container more than Vietnamese writers do, whereas Vietnamese writers are in favor of using body parts In addition to the heart, the chest and the eyes, they also use other parts like the liver and gallbladder It is clear that culture of a particular country plays a vital role in our comprehending and interpreting the world, and culture also limits the selection of metaphors Implications According to Kövecses (2003), people living in a certain kind of habitat, are familiar with things and phenomena that are characteristics of that habitat; and they will make use of them for the metaphorical comprehension and creation of their conceptual universe Therefore, we should pay attention to the dissimilarities to avoid misunderstanding and to enhance understanding in the cross-culture communication, thus eliminating obstacle communication capabilities 58 and cultivating cross-cultural Conceptual metaphor is proved that it exists in everyday life So the cognitive approach has become more common in the development of teaching and learning languages For learners, applying conceptual metaphors could help them understand one concept in terms of other concept, improve reading comprehension and learning linguistics in relation to understanding abstract concepts and simply analyzing them by specific domains For teachers, they should raise the awareness of their students of significance of conceptual metaphors and its applicability in everyday life Teachers could also encourage learners to read more books, newspapers, stories, etc or to write articles and stories, especially in foreign languages to improve their learning skills Besides, non-native students seldom think in English way; they know little problem, beside teaching the students the meanings and usages of certain words of expression, teachers should pay more attention to leading students to think in English, and to help establish a conceptual system of the target language In addition, it is advisable that the more teachers provide students with cultural backgrounds, the better they understand English and Vietnamese expressions or idioms For translators, some cultural elements that have effects on using metaphors should be aware so as to have a good translational equivalent of conceptual metaphors It is advised that the translators should understand conceptual metaphors in cross-cultural communication and consider carefully when translating their own cognitive mode of metaphors into another and vice versa Limitations and suggestions for further study 3.1 Limitations The thesis focuses on studying the use of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in English and Vietnamese short stories However, due to the limited time and resources as well as the author's limited experience in academic research, some problems are unavoidable in this study in terms of both breadth and depth The sources of samples, which are only seventeen contemporary short stories, are limited in specific aim of the thesis All of the samples are from short stories, not 59 including novels, poems or songs The limitation of the amount of short stories in this study may lead to the lack of information or the bias in the insight that implied from this study and this may impact to the results implied from this study as well Besides, the differences of culture make the researcher have some difficulties in this research The author only view stories by experience on the linguistics field So all the meanings in those stories may not be fully understood In addition, all the results of this study are only one way to analyze and classify the conceptual metaphors denoting fear because there are many different types of conceptual metaphors and mappings from source domains to target domain Fear 3.2 Suggestions for further study 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Scope of the study This research investigates the way of conceptualizing metaphors denoting fear in some English. .. investigate and compare the conceptual metaphors of fear in English and Vietnamese contemporary short stories FEAR is one of the basic emotions of human beings, and it has both similarities and. .. intensity of fear (Afrashi and Ghouchani, 2018) E.g.: Her head was full of fear e Fear is a container According to Afrashi and Ghouchani (2018), the heart and head are often used as containers of emotions
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Xem thêm: Luận văn thạc sĩ a study of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in some english and vietnamese contemporary short stories from cognitive perspective , Luận văn thạc sĩ a study of conceptual metaphors denoting fear in some english and vietnamese contemporary short stories from cognitive perspective