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Luận văn Thạc sĩ Supporting young learners’ vocabulary through pictures An action research approach

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  • Luận văn Thạc sĩ Supporting young learners’ vocabulary through pictures  An action research approach

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* DƯƠNG THU TRANG SUPPORTING YOUNG LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES: AN ACTION RESEARCH APPROACH (Hỗ trợ việc học từ vựng học sinh tranh ảnh) M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 HANOI - 2019 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* DƯƠNG THU TRANG SUPPORTING YOUNG LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES: AN ACTION RESEARCH APPROACH (Hỗ trợ việc học từ vựng học sinh tranh ảnh) M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Supervisor: Assoc Prof Lê Văn Canh HANOI - 2019 DECLARATION I hereby make an oath that this thesis is my own work and it has not been submitted anywhere for any award Hanoi, July 2019 Dương Thu Trang i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to all people who gave a hand with giving me the chances to complete this thesis First of all, I would like to show my deep appriciation to my supervisor, Prof Lê Văn Canh for his worth advice, careful instruction and endless encouragement during my time of conducting this thesis Secondly, it is my lecturers in the Faculty of Post – graduate Studies, the University of Foreign Languages and International Studies that gave me various beneficial lecturers motivating me to investigate my own teaching situation to reach a more professional level Thirdly, I would like to send my thanks to all the teachers and students at the chosen English center in hanoi for being willing to join my research for eight weeks Finally, my family and friends are the people I would like to show my genuine appriciation Without their support and encouragement, I could not have completed this thesis due to daily life routine ii ABSTRACT Vocabulary is one the most important elements in English acquisition Without words, human cannot express their ideas, feelings or thoughts In the chosen English center in Hanoi, teaching and learning is paid attention to with a view to improve the students‟ English acquisition and one of the major concern here is vocabulary teaching and learning through images of young learners To explore how images support young learners‟ vocabulary acquisition, the study was carried out among forty 2th grade students for eight weeks with six units in their books They were divided equally into two groups and each one was taught in two different ways of vocabulary teaching: one with traditional method – the translation method while the other by using pictures The classroom observations and tests were instruments to collect the data for the research After the treatment time, the results showed that the experimental group gained higher scores by using pictures to learn vocabulary and the classroom atmosphere was vey comfortable and ludic while the control group obtained not as good results as the experimental one It can be inferred from the results that images make a greater dedication to enhancing not only young learners‟ vocabulary acquisition but also their motivation in English learning than not using them iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF CHARTS vi LIST OF TABLES vii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale of the study .1 Aims of the study Method of the study Significance of the study .2 Structure of the thesis .2 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Vocabulary knowledge .4 2.2 Approaches to vocabulary learning and teaching 2.3 The role of images in vocabulary learning 2.4 Teaching vocabulary to young learners .9 2.4.1 Characteristics of young learners 2.4.2 Techniques of teaching vocabulary to young learners 12 2.5 Studies on teaching vocabulary to young learners through pictures 15 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 19 3.1 Action research in language teaching 19 3.1.1 Purposes of action research .19 3.1.2 Features of action research 20 3.1.3 Steps in action research 21 3.2 Why is action research chosen? 21 3.3 The context of the study .22 3.3.1 The current situation of teaching and learning English at the center 22 3.3.2 The teaching program and materials .23 iv 3.4 Research procedures 23 3.4.1 Research question 23 3.4.2 The participants .24 3.4.3 Design of the procedures 24 3.5 Data collection instruments 28 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 30 4.1 Analysis on classroom observations 30 4.1.1 Interest .30 4.1.2 Interaction .33 4.2 Analysis on test results .35 4.2.1 Analysis on immediate tests 35 4.2.2 Analysis on delayed tests 38 4.3 Discussion of the findings 39 CHAPTER 5: RECAPITULATION .42 Conclusion 42 Implications 43 Limitations and recommendations for further studies 43 REFERENCES 45 APPENDICES I APPENDIX I APPENDIX IV APPENDIX VIII APPENDIX IX APPENDIX X APPENDIX XII v LIST OF CHARTS Chart 4.1: Students‟ interest in learning activities 30 Chart 4.2: Classroom interaction 34 Chart 4.3: The students‟ mean score of immediate tests‟ average mark 37 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Characteristics of young learners……………………………………… 12 Table 3.1 Design of the study…………………………………………………… 33 Table 4.1: The two groups‟ results of six immediate tests Error! Bookmark not defined Table 4.2:The two groups‟ results of two delayed tests 38 vii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Rationale of the study English is playing a more and more major role in various sectors in nonnative speaking English countries Therefore, it is not hard to realize that it is now one of the most widely – learned foreign language which is taught in Vietnam As it is noted, English teaching and learning include four skills: speaking, listening, reading and writing, and of these mentioned skills, Vietnamese students are making an endeavor to master communicative competence – which is “speaking” Language is a tool for communication Communication exists where there appears speech Without speech, a language will have an intention to become a mere script According to Chaney, speaking is “"the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts" (Chaney, 1998: 13) To master speaking is to put words under control, which helps listeners completely understand what speakers mean “If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh.” (Harmer 1993: 153) The acquisition of an adequate vocabulary is necessary for successful second language use because without an extensive vocabulary, it is difficult to apply the structures and functions into comprehensible communication It leads to the fact that vocabulary is regarded as a cornerstone which contributes to the existence of a language Speaking will become senseless if it has only structures „„When students travel, they don‟t carry grammar books, they carry dictionaries‟‟ (Krashen, as cited in Lewis, 1993, p25) Many researchers argue that vocabulary is one of the most important-if not the most important- components in learning a foreign language, and foreign language curricula must reflect this Nowadays, there have existed more and more concerns about vocabulary acquisition, even though these two (acquisition of grammar) are independent Vocabulary is like vital organs, and grammar skeleton of a language For this reason, English teachers have to be able to put teaching and learning activities in the right order and use materials with appropriate technique to help learners master the lesson expertly, especially vocabulary in long – term memory teaching, 1, 1–12 26 Nation, P (2013a) What Should Every EFL Teacher Know? Seoul: Compass Publishing 27 Nelson, D & Castaňo, D (1984) Mental representations for pictures and words: Same or different? American Journal of Psychology, 97(1), 1-15 28 Nunan, David (2003) Practical English Language Teaching New York: McGraw Hill Company 29 Phillips, S (1993) Young Learners Oxford: Oxford University Press 30 Piaget, J (1970) The science of education and the psychology of the child New York: Oxford 31 Sankey, M., Birch, D and Gardiner, M (2010) Engaging students through multimodal learning environments: The journey continues In: C.H Steel, M.J Keppell, P 32 Smith, F (2006) Ourselves: Why we are who we are; A Handbook for Educators Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 33 Gerbic & S Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future Proceedings ascilite Sydney 2010 pp 852-863 34 Scott.A.Wendy and Ytreberg, H.Lisbeth.1990.Teaching English to children, London.New York:Longman 35 Slatterly, M., & Willis, J (2001) English for primary teachers Oxford: Oxford University Press 36 Vygotsky, L (1962) Thought and language Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 37 Williams, M (1991) A framework for teaching English to young learners Teaching English to Children From Practice to Principle Eds C Brumfit, J Moon and R Tongue London: Collins ELT 203 – 212 38 Zarei, G and Khazaie, S (2011) L2 vocabulary learning through multimodal representations Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (1), pp.369- 375 47 APPENDICES Note: T: Teacher Ss: Students APPENDIX LESSON PLAN (Week – the control group) Unit 3: On the street I Objectives: At the end of the lesson, students can: - Remember the words in the lesson – the words about things on the street - Sing a song included II Materials: Textbook and audio tape III Students: - Number of students: 20 - The control group IV Time allowed: 45 minutes Stage Activity Teacher’s activities Students’ activities Warm up - T ask Ss to recall the words - Tell T the words last lesson (5 mins.) in the last lesson “At the - Have to write the words on the café” board - T require Ss to write the already words in the last lesson Introduction - Ask Ss to look at the name Answer T‟s question by finding (10 mins.) of the lesson and tell them it the name of the topic is the topic - Ask Ss tell some words Raise their hands to show T and about things they can see on the class some words they know I the street about things on the street - Require Ss to look at the Tell T the words they can see picture on page 12 and 13 and tell T the words mentioned (five, Mike, bike, slide) - Ask Ss the words‟ meaning Give the Vietnamese meanings if in Vietnamese, if they not they know or listen to T‟s know, T will give them explanation if they not - Request Ss to repeat the Repeat after T and then write written new words on the down the words in the notebooks board after T pronoune them and then ask them to write down the words in their notebooks Practice - Activity 1: Divide Ss into Read the chant in group and show (15 mins.) group and read the chant in the class the performance of the exercise in group After chant minutes, ask each group to stand in front of the class to read it - Activity 2: Tell Ss to read Fill in the gap as instructed exercise and it (fill in the gap with the suitable words matching with the pictures) - Activity 3: Play audio tape Sing along with the recorder and ask Ss to sing along with the song Production Ask Ss to make sentences Build up complete sentences with (5 mins.) with the new words in the the new words II lesson Review Ask Ss to name the words Tell T the words (2 mins.) they have already been taught Conduction of Give Ss immediate test and Do as T instructs Immediate then play the recorder for test (6 mins.) them to tick the right pictures Wrap up - State the topic of the lesson - Tell T the topic (2 mins.) - Give homework to Ss - Write notebooks III homework in the APPENDIX LESSON PLAN (Week – the experimental group) Unit 3: On the street I Objectives: At the end of the lesson, students can: - Remenber the words in the lesson – the words about things on the street - Sing a song included II Materials: Textbook, pictures and audio tape III Students: - Number of students: 20 - The experimental group IV Time allowed: 45 minutes Stage Activity Teacher’s activities Students’ activities Warm up - Divide Ss into four group - Ss work in group and (5 mins.) - Show the pictures of the words in join the game that T tell the last lesson “At the café” and ask - The group that has more Ss to recall the words marks will be the winner - The group having the fastest answer will get a mark - The group that has the most marks will be the winner Introduction - Ask Ss to look at the name of the Answer T‟s question by (10 mins.) lesson and tell to guess what the topic finding the name of the is topic - Ask Ss tell some words about Raise their hands to show things they can see on the street IV T and the class some words they know about things on the street - Show the pictures matching with the Guess the words they can required words in the lesson and ask see in the pictures them guess the word of each picture + If one gives the right answer, T ask the whole class repeating the word along with pointing at the picture + If not, T will invite the others and still have the right answer, T give them the words - Request Ss to repeat the written new Repeat after T and then words on the board after T pronoune write down the words in them and then ask them to write down the notebooks the words in their notebooks Vocabulary in the lesson: Mike Bike V Slide Five Practice - Activity 1: (15 mins.) + Divide Ss into groups and read the Work in groups and chant in exercise in group Ss will discuss the pictures be looking at the pictures to notify the words they have been taught + After minutes, ask each group to Read aloud in front of the stand in front of the class to read it class and point at the Each student will read one sentence things matching the along with poiting at the thing words mentioned in it - Activity 2: Tell Ss to read exercise Tell T what they can see + Ask Ss to look at the picture in the by textbook and desribe what using the already the known words children are doing + Fill in the gap with the suitable Fill in the gap as required words matching with the pictures - Activity 3: Play audio tape and ask Sing VI along with the Ss to sing along with the song While recorder singing, Ss will the and the action actions matching with the content of the song Production Ask Ss to make sentences with the Build sentences with (5 mins.) new words in the lesson Review Ask Ss to name the words they have Tell T the words (2 mins.) already been taught Conduction Give Ss immediate test and then Do the tests in allowed already known words of Immediate play the recorder for them to tick the time and then give T test (5 right pictures them mins.) Wrap up - State the topic of the lesson - Tell T the topic (2 mins.) - Give homework to Ss - Write homework in the notebooks VII APPENDIX Name:…………………………………… Date:……………………… IMMEDIATE TEST – UNIT 3: On the street Time allowed: minutes Teacher’s comments Mark Exercise: Listen and tick Question 1: a b Question 2: a b VIII APPENDIX Name:…………………………………… Date:……………………… IMMEDIATE TEST – UNIT 4: At the ice cream van Times allowed: minutes Teacher’s comments Mark Exercise: Look and match a ice cream b beach c tea IX d peach APPENDIX Name:…………………………………… Date:……………………… IMMEDIATE TEST – UNIT 5: In the woodland Time allowed: minutes Teacher’s comments Mark Exercise: Look and circle Question 1: Sheep A B Question 2: Tree A B X Question 3: Sweets A B Question 4: Bee A B XI APPENDIX Name:…………………………………… Date:……………………… DELAYED TEST (UNITS – 5) Time allowed: 30 minutes Teacher’s comments Mark Exercise 1: Listen and tick Question 1: Question 2: A A B B Question 3: A B XII Exercise 2: Listen and tick or cross: Question 1: Question 2: Question 3: Question 4: Exercise 3: Read and tick: Question 1: It’s a slide A Question 2: I like ice cream A B B Question 3: She’s my mother A B XIII Exercise 4: Listen to the teacher’s three questions about the following picture and awnswer them XIV ... famous person or people in action) - Pictures of places - Pictures from history - Pictures with information - Pictures of fantasies - Pictures of the news - Pictures of maps and symbols With the description... including: - Listen, point and repeat - Point and say - Chant - Listen and tick - Let‟s talk - Look and write - Sing With the design, this book requires students to remember and use simple words and... UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ********************* DƯƠNG THU TRANG SUPPORTING YOUNG LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES: AN ACTION
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