The problem of poor sales activities at ul vs việt nam laboratory

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UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY International School of Business NGUYỄN TRUNG DŨNG THE PROBLEM OF POOR SALES ACTIVITIES AT UL VS VIỆT NAM LABORATORY MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ho Chi Minh City – Year 2021 UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY International School of Business NGUYỄN TRUNG DŨNG THE PROBLEM OF POOR SALES ACTIVITIES AT UL VS VIỆT NAM LABORATORY MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SUPERVISOR: Dr Đoàn Anh Tuấn Ho Chi Minh City – Year 2021 Table of Contents Abbreviation List of Figures List of Tables Acknowledgment Executive Summary COMPANY OVERVIEW 1.1 UL Global 1.2 UL VS Viet Nam Co., Ltd 12 1.2.1 Overview 12 1.2.2 Organization Chart 14 1.2.3 Company Context 15 SYMPTOMS 16 2.1 Symptom 1: Low Revenue Growth Rate 16 2.2 Symptom 2: Not Profitable 18 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 20 3.1 Potential Problem 3.1.1 Poor Sales Activities 3.1.2 Wrong Cost Allocation 3.2 Problem Validation 20 20 10 3.2.1 Poor Sales Activities 10 3.2.2 Wrong Cost Allocation 15 3.2.3 Important of Main Problem 16 CAUSE VALIDATION 4.1 Potential Causes 17 17 4.1.1 Insufficient Salesman Resource 18 4.1.2 Lack of Sales Motivation 20 4.1.3 Ineffectiveness Forecasting 20 4.1.4 Poor Training Effectiveness 22 Page of 72 4.2 ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS 5.1 23 25 Alternative Solution 1: Internal Resources Relocation to and Fulfillment booking/ billing from Vietnam 26 5.2 30 Alternative Solution 2: Backfill for Sales and Customer Service Manager ACTION PLAN 32 6.1 Solution Selection 32 6.2 Action Plans 33 SUPPORTING INFORMATION 40 7.1 Interviewees Participants 40 7.2 Methodology 40 7.2.1 Research 40 7.2.2 Interview Design 40 Transcript summary 41 7.3 Validating Cause REFERENCES 50 Page of 72 Abbreviation UL: Underwriter Laboratories EVP: Executive Vice President HVACR: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning OCT: Over – the – Counter VS: Verification Services CPLP: Consumers Products Lean Process P&L: Profit and Lost KPI: Key Performance Indicator KAM: Key Account Manager LMS: Learning Management System EHS: Environmental, Health and Safety POI: Point of Influence POS: Point of Sales SG&A: Sales, General and Admins FY: Full Year YTD: Year to Date CoR: Cost of Revenue TIC: Testing, Inspection and Certification RFQ: Request for Quotation RFP: Request for Proposal ERP: Enterprise resource planning systems CapEx: Capital Expense B2B: Business to Business SBRM: scenario-based Road-mapping method MSD: Microsoft Dynamics SOPs: Standard Operating Procedures TA: Talent Acquisition Page of 72 List of Figures Figure 1: UL Global Execute Team O-Chart .11 Figure 2: Operation Process of Testing 13 Figure 3: Organization Chart of UL VS Viet Nam Laboratory 14 Figure 5: Revenue Trend Per Year– K’USD Statistic 17 Figure 4: Revenue Statistic 2018-2020 (K’USD) 17 Figure 6: Total Revenue Per Year– K’USD Statistic 18 Figure 8: Total Expense trend by monthly 19 Figure 7: Total Expense per year (K’USD) 19 Figure 9: Total P&L by year – K’USD 20 Figure 10: Total P&L by year – % .20 Figure 11: Purchasing Process .8 Figure 12: Purchasing Information fields .9 Figure 13: Purchasing Information fields .9 Figure 14: Preliminary Cause and Effect Tree 10 Figure 15: General Sales Process of TIC industrial .11 Figure 16: The Process Model of Customer Journey and Experience for re-purchases .14 Figure 17: Updated cause-effect map 18 Figure 18: Sales Team Organization Chart of ULVS Vietnam Laboratory 18 Figure 19: Customer Services Team Organization Chart of ULVS Vietnam Laboratory 19 Figure 20: Research/ Measurement Model 20 Figure 21: Scenario – based road mapping method diagram .21 Figure 22: The consequences of sales training .22 Figure 23: Fish bone analysis diagram of poor sales activities 23 Figure 25: The sales process framework of B2B customer reacquisition efforts 25 Figure 26: Approval hiring request process 27 Figure 27: 2020 Revenue updated and P&L with revenue from customer does not recognize added (K’USD) .29 Figure 28: Hiring Process 32 Page of 72 List of Tables Table 1: Monthly Revenue Trend – K’USD Statistic 17 Table 2: Monthly Expense Trend – K’USD .18 Table 3: P&L Trend by monthly – K’USD 19 Table 4: Customer database Table 5: Total Cost of Revenue in detail 2019 and 2020 – K’USD .6 Table 6: Total SG&A Cost in detail 2019 and 2020 –K’USD .6 Table 7: Cost Breakdown contribution rate Table 8: Cost Breakdown contribution rate Table 9: Random pickup data of purchasing with cost allocation Table 10: Revenue breakdown of customer which does not recognize in Vietnam (K’USD) .28 Table 11: Revenue breakdown if include revenue from customer not recognized (K’USD) 28 Table 12: 2020 P&L updated if include revenue from customer not recognized (K’USD) 29 Table 13: Alternative Comparison Table .33 Table 14: Comparison Cost of Solution - USD 33 Table 15: Master Plan of Project with detail timeline and activities 38 Table 16: Network Diagram of Master Plan 39 Page of 72 Acknowledgment I’d like to say thanks and express appreciation to all of my friends, colleagues at the workplace, ex-colleagues, classmates and lecturers who supported me during this Master Business Administration course as well as giving me the ideas, opinions and contribution for this thesis study I also would like to send my thankfulness and special appreciation to my supervisor Dr Doan Anh Tuan, who has been very helpful on the advisory, motivation, guidance, encouragement, instruction and monitoring process of this thesis writing I am so glad to give my sincere gratitude’s Dr Doan Anh Tuan for all his support, encouragement, valuable suggestions and precious advice throughout the period of this study In addition, my sincere thankfulness to my family for their supportive, encouragement and motivation led me to join and finish this course NOTICE: Mutual of Non-Disclosure Agreement The company information provided is confidential All of the information, financial data, and reports might be used for study purposes ONLY, you are not allowed to publicize or share these outside of the class Nguyen Trung Dung Page of 72 Executive Summary The Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) industry is the type of business to provide TIC service to customers who need their products meet or exceed the expectations about the product’s quality of their buyers, end users, required standards, global/ regional/ national regulation, and/ or market demands Testing is the process to examine characteristics/ specifications of the products by using international/ national standard methods or in-house test method to evaluate the performance quality/ safety of products depending on the market demand, customer’s needs, regulatory or verify against with the claims with the purpose of make sure the quality of products meet or exceed with expectation of international/ national markets regulatory and/ or commit to customers Inspection is a process that involves checking, examining and assessing production processes to make sure the quality and quantity of products before leaving the company Basically, there are three types of quality inspection: pre-production, in-line, and final Certification is a process to demonstrate products, processes, systems and/ or services that comply with international/ national regulations to certify them TIC service providers is the business organization with the revenue and P&L figure is the performance measures tools for the success The sale activities are the key factor to enhanced revenue growth of the organization which contributed to P&L performance This paper provides the whole process of solving the problem of poor sales activities of the laboratory in the TIC industry, the paper provides the way to identify symptoms/ potential/ main problem, validate problem, potential causes/ main cause and how to validate them depend on nature business context, real data of the specific organization and literature research Basing on the validated cause, the solutions proposed in order of solving the problem of the firm and fulfillment with requirement of the company about the business, currently resources, budget, and so on Page of 72 COMPANY OVERVIEW 1.1 UL Global UL stands for Underwriters Laboratories, they are global safety science leaders, and UL provides the expertise, insights and services necessary to solve critical business challenges They help their customers achieve their safety, security and sustainability goals, meet quality and performance expectations, manage risk and achieve regulatory compliance (https://www.ul.com/about) (1) UL’s mission is working for a safer world Below principles drive every decision that they make (https://www.ul.com/about/mission) (2):  To promote safe, secure and sustainable living and working environments for people by the application of science, hazard-based safety engineering and data acumen  To support the production and use of products which are physically and environmentally safe and to apply our efforts to prevent or reduce loss of life and property  To advance safety science through research and investigation  To concentrate our efforts and resources on public safety in those areas where we can make valuable contributions  To work with integrity and focus on quality to enhance the trust conveyed by our certification marks and services  To charge fair prices that allow us to meet our obligations, sustain our growth, and invest in safety science and education  To invest in our people and to encourage our people to invest in themselves  To be a good example of corporate citizenship and social responsibility They focusing to below industries for the business: Industries Products and Components 1) Automotive and Mobility 1) Appliances 2) Building and Construction 2) Batteries 3) Chemicals and Materials 3) Beauty and Personal Care Page of 72 Table 15: Master Plan of Project with detail timeline and activities Source: Data Collected Page 38 of 72 Table 16: Network Diagram of Master Plan Source: MS Project of Master Plan Page 39 of 72 SUPPORTING INFORMATION 7.1 Interviewees Participants Experienced No Name Position UL Industry Mr Philip Nguyen Operations Manager years 21 years Ms Scarlet Phan Sales Executive – South VN months years Ms Jessica Nguyen Sales Executive – North VN months 11 years Mr Nhut Phan Customer Service Professional years years Mr James Nguyen Lab supervisor years 15 years Mr Danny Duong Lab Supervisor years 15 years Ms Rosa Le Lab Supervisor years 16 years Ms Alice Nguyen QA Supervisor years 13 years 7.2 Methodology 7.2.1 Research With the limitation of the project assignment and problem solving for the problem, the main problem and main cause which lead the poor sales activities in UL VS Viet Nam Laboratory was generated throughout the primary and secondary data as below:  Primary data: qualitative research through the preliminary and in-depth interview  Secondary data: collected throughout literature, journals review and the ULVS Viet Nam laboratory information such as Quality Manual, Financial Summary, Jobs Description and Sales map 7.2.2 Interview Design The interview process designed 04 steps with the purpose to understand more about the laboratory process, situation and finding the existing main problem a) Introduction: introduction together to learn about the purpose of the interview, looking for the interviewee’s information such as roles, responsibility, titles and exchange some personnel information as well b) Intake interview: with the purpose of qualitative research So, there are some questions designed and given to interviewees as below These questions would help us understand their satisfaction with the company or not and/ or current duties/ workload or not  What is your working experiment in the company and in the same industry?  How long you handle current roles and responsibilities with the company?  What you think about the working environment with the company, does it meet with your expectations or not and why?  c) d) What you think about your duties and your workload at this moment? In-deep interview: the questions was designed by following  Open-ended question and avoid Yes/ No question  Prompt question  Confirmation and opinion comments Final open panel meeting with all the interviewee’s participant and principal in order of looking for the activities, tasks for the solution designed with purpose to build up master action plan 7.3 Transcript summary Question and Answer Coding Q1: Could you please share with me three Looking for nearest continuous periods of a financial statement Symptoms or report of the company? Operations Manager: I don’t have the report for the whole company as in our company, each of the business units and departments will manage the financial performance by themselves Also, our company only has the financial summary which states the revenue, total expenses in detail The financial summary also includes some analysis Category Intake meeting Finding All financial figure content in one file Page 41 of 72 Question and Answer such as target of revenue, month to date, year to date data with comparison in growth/ decline Q2: As for the financial summary of 2020, what are the key points that you are concerned about? Operations Manager: Our laboratory revenue result is ahead with adjusted budget plan 18.3% However, generally still not meeting the budget from the beginning of year (31.3%), besides the P&L is still lost continuously years from (58%) to (24%), having said that we are losing money and our laboratory business performance is totally not effective Q3: How is your laboratory building up revenue forecasting? Operations Manager: We are depending on the POI confirmation after they work with customers and set up as the target, on the other hand that the growth rate is dependent on the top management about the business growth Q4: What is your laboratory financial performance? Operations Manager: our laboratory continuously keep losing the money What is your preliminary comments about this situation? I think we are overhead cost in operation and SG&A, beside that the depreciation cost is very high and fixed Q5: As your perspectives what is the reasons of leading the revenue not meet with the target? Operations Manager: per my point of view, there are several major reasons which leading revenue not meet with the target The first one is due to COVID-19 pandemic crisis which made the both of materials supply chain and market demand affected, second one is the sales performance is not good, third one is customers losing/ declining in revenue and the last one is that we have not identified the target customers Q6: Could you please elaborate more about the sales performance and customers lost/ decline issue? Operations Manager: the quantity and revenue of new customers (growth) increased is not covered for lost/ declined customers Coding Validate the Symptoms Category Intake meeting Validate the symptom Finding The sales revenue is not meet with target Top down target without aid of tools Looking for the problem Intake meeting Potential reasons of problem Looking for the problem Intake meeting Potential reasons of problem Looking for the problem Intake meeting New customer not covered for lost customer Page 42 of 72 Question and Answer Q7: Do you know what the reason of these issues is and consequence? Operations Manager: the low growth of new customers in order of revenue and quantity is because we are inefficiency customer outreach process which is one of important factor of TIC industrial The customer experience is the reason of customer lose These ones has make consequence of low revenue Q8: What is your customer lost/ declined rate compared with new customer’s on boarded? Operations Manager: The quantity of customer lost/ declined is covered by new customer on board but unfortunately that the revenue not covered so that why our revenue lower than with last years Q9: What is the keys factors affecting to the successful rate of customers outreach? Sales Executive: We need to some sales activities such as customers seminars, research on customer’s needs, visit customer’s site, technical training, and so on to increase customer engagement and knowing about what service we can provide to them Q10: Is there anything else of sales activities that you think it is can make more efficiency? Sales Executive: the daily tasks such as cold calling, email outreach, social outreach, schedule to follow up with activities, qualify with inbound sales (customer services), customer relationships care, mailing feedback, internal communication, and appointment planning and researching and so on Q11: Regarding to P&L data, what is the reason of not profitable? Operations Manager: There is two thing that make the laboratory not profitable, as I mentioned before revenue lower than with the target so it is not covered for expense and the second thing is overhead cost Q12: What is your investigate for overhead cost? Operations Manager: As my checking in details of expense details, I found that the cost allocation is significant affected Example: there are some maintenance, assets cost was booked in to the materials costs and especially that there is some Coding Looking for the problem Category Intake meeting Finding Customer outreach process inefficiency Looking for the problem Intake meeting New customer not covered for lost customer Looking for the problem Intake meeting Sales activities Looking for the problem Intake meeting Sales activities Looking for the problem Intake meeting Not profitable Looking for the problem In deep interview Wrong cost allocation Page 43 of 72 Question and Answer cost from another department was booked under cost center of UL VS Vietnam laboratory Q13: Could you please share me the sales nature process of UL VS Vietnam lab? Operations Manager: Generally, the TIC industrial business depended on the nomination process except some special products that controlled by governance and/ or based on the national/ country has specific nominated Global sales directors or Global/ Regional Key account manager will be contact with buyers/ retailers to get approval as nominated third party testing laboratory The approval process normally go through the RFQ or RFP depending on the customers system, this process will provide all testing prices, package proposal for customers requirement for their own products according to their quality manual of products, the RFQ and RFP will be presented as globally perspective about pricing and commitment services Q14: What is the roles and responsibility of local salesman, Vietnam laboratory sales? Operations Manager: Local salesman has responsible to make the local quotation to support for RFQ/ RFP process, outreach customers on the level of vendors/ agents/ suppliers Our commercial team is responsible for sales, business development The sales process is quite complicated and many roles in the commercial team such as Global Sales, Global KAM, Regional Sales, Region KAM In Vietnam, we don’t have KAM and only have local sales Q15: Could you please elaborate more about the nomination or approval type? Operations Manager: As the nature of TIC industrial, there are two kind of third party testing nomination: exclusive and one of approval Exclusive meaning that only one testing service provider approved for their products testing One of approval meaning that there are more than one testing service providers approved for their product testing Another segment of customer is local and self-reference test Q16: What is the contribution rate between two customer segments, nomination and local? Sales Manager: it is around 80/20 Coding Category Finding Looking for process In deep interview Point of Influence is from market that products sold or headquarter of buyers/ retailers Looking for process In deep interview RFQ/ RFP process Looking for process In deep interview Nature of approval type Looking for process In deep interview Contribution rate of Page 44 of 72 Question and Answer Coding Category Finding customer segments There is no KPI setting up for outreach activities Q17: Do we have a target for outreach vendors/ suppliers? Sales Executive: We not have the target successful rate of outreach vendors/ suppliers Generally, we only target for revenue Q18: What is the sales activities we have done in 2020 so far, is it effectiveness enough? Operations Manager: in 2020, the sales activities is very poor due to the COVID 19 restriction and social distancing The other hand that we have not enough the salesman to these activities Q19: How many sales we have in the laboratory in 2020? Operations Manager: our salesman situation in 2020 very unstable As the beginning of the year we have 04 sales plus one sales manager, the sales manager left but without backfill then another sales executive in the North Vietnam resign on August and another sales executive in the South Vietnam also left on September Q20: How many customer we have? Customer Service Leader: We have around four hundred customers but you know, currently only me to handle all with supporting from temporary people while at the same time last year our team has four people Q21: How many peoples that your team have before? Customer Service Leader: Our team have 04 peoples before Sales Executive: Local sales team have 05 peoples before and from September 2020 we have no any sales Testing Leaders: our team has not change in the headcounts but management team has relocated our resources to another team for further leverage workload among the laboratory Q22: How is your team performance impact due to this shortage manpower? Customer Service Leader: the customer satisfaction is low as only me unable to serving and cover for all customer from handling request to the booking order in the system Looking for process In deep interview Validate the problem In deep interview Poor sales activities Validate the problem In deep interview Lack of salesman Validate problem Deep interview Insufficient manpower Validate problem In deep interview Insufficient manpower Validate problem In deep interview Over load works Page 45 of 72 Question and Answer Q23: Do you have plan to hiring for replacement backfill? Operations Manager: Yes, I have raise up the request for hiring at the same time once I received tenders resign letter from those but unfortunately that due to COVID-19 very uncertain so the management not approve for the hiring Q24: What is your daily activities to increase customer experience? Customer Service Leader: I did the support via many tools such as emails, website, text message via chat application, and social media too And not only answers the customers question, I need to give them the turnaround time for their submission and make it happen via connecting with laboratory operation to push them release the testing results, not only answer the phone Q25: What is the sales activities in the TIC industrial? Operations Manager: there are many activities for salesman in TIC industrial such as make the sales presentation plan, plan selling activities, call on new accounts, provide feedback, prepare the quotation, send quotation, make closure and obtain order, monitor competitors’ service, customers outreach, manage customer’s orders, looking new opportunities with existing customers, forecast, customers visit, … and so on They need to work very hard to win the deal and keep relationship with customers Q26: As the results of analysis and further information provided by the person in charge what is your comment about the sales activities? Operations Manager: Yes, the sales activities is poor to make the engagement of existing and new customers as well, the problem is happening in both side of customer experience and reaction with news opportunities customers as well Q27: What is your comments about the cost of material supplies? Operations Manager: the costs trend is quite illogical and not reflected to the revenue generated Q28: What is the purchasing process in your company? Testing Leaders: We go to ERP system to make the requisition, create the request, then my Coding Validate problem Category In deep interview Finding Headcount plan not approved Validate problem Deep interview Over load works Validate problem Deep interview Sales activities Confirmatio n In Deep interview Problem confirm Validate Problem Deep Interview Cost allocation Validate Problem Deep Interview Purchasing Process Page 46 of 72 Question and Answer supervisor will giving approval, after that buyer approval and create the PO for us Once we have the PO, we will send to supplier, follow with delivery and make the payment request Q29: What cost center that you are used for purchase the materials and equipment? Testing Leaders: We didn’t know about the cost center, we just go the system and select the category as materials supplies and go for further step Q30: Referring to the analysis results and output of process investigation what you think about the cost allocation? Operations Manager: Thanks for the details of analysis, the wrong cost allocation is another problem of our laboratory Q31: Do we have the sales bonus or compensate program? Operations Manager: Yes, we have the policy naming that “Sales Incentive Plan”, it is depend on the outcome of revenue compared with target Q32: Is there any other program or KPI target to motivate the salesman? Operations Manager: We have target for the quantity of customer visit per week Q33: Is there any tools to support for the forecasting process? Operations Manager: No we don’t have any tools to support for this process The forecasting always rely on the customer information that they share to us and by the extrapolation from revenue trend Q34: What is your training program for the roles and responsibility that you need to take in the laboratory? Sales Executive: I have not received any specific training program for my work and duties My supervisor also not training for me anything What I received are onboarding orientation, online courses about the code of ethics, cyber securities Q35: What is your comments about the potential causes? Operations Manager: the main cause would be insufficient salesman resources due to another cause we can resolved once have sufficient resources Coding Category Finding Validate Problem Deep Interview Not aware about the cost center Confirmatio n In deep interview Problem confirm Cause identificatio n In deep interview Motivation in place Cause identificatio n In deep interview Motivation in place Cause identificatio n In deep interview No forecast tools Cause identificatio n In deep interview Insufficient training program Cause validate In deep interview Cause confirmed Page 47 of 72 Question and Answer Q36: So, your mean the insufficient salesman resources cause would be solving first? Operation Manager: Yes, the forecasting way/ or tools is need to be long term solving and depend on the strategy, I unable to make effort to change or improvement in short term as there is many department involved The other causes able to resolve once we have enough resource to build up/ set up and rectify/ modify with currently system to make it more efficiency with proper monitoring process as well as long term improvement The priority task is how to solve the insufficient salesman resources, as I can see our sales/ customer services team is stressful with their daily workload and affect to the performance Q37: What is your company approval process on new hire request? Operation Manager: The new hire request normally depended on the budget approval from beginning of the year and on the business needs The local operation raise the request for new hire or backfill then regional operation review and green light for further next step, after that regional finance will verify against with budget The regional human resource will further review again then will be advised to global operation for approval Global operation will further justify and get approval from global human resource, after that we can process for the hiring This process normally taken from 2-3 months due to justification and business review go through many level Specially, at this moment due to nature of market affecting by pandemic disease Q38: What is the hiring process after you got approval for new headcount or backfill replacement? Operation Manager: After new headcount or backfill replacement further approved, local operation have to inform to talent acquisition team and go to the ERP system to create online request The talent acquisition team then will posting the jobs to internal intranet and other channel such as headhunt website (vietnamworks, careerbuilder), social media (Linkedin) to collect application from candidates The referral from internal and/ or from business also encourage to so The shortlist Coding Cause validate Category In deep interview Finding Cause confirmed Looking for solution In deep interview Hiring request approval take so long Looking for solution In deep interview Hiring process Page 48 of 72 Question and Answer candidates will giving to local operation for scanning The 1st interview will be carried out by talent acquisition team and the behavior, performance survey also conducted The 2nd interview will conducted by local operation (hiring manager) and confirm whether qualified and fit with business need or not Talent acquisition will prepare the proposal package depends on budgets, market intelligence, internal referring, and expectation of selected candidate then make the offer to them Once candidate accept with the offer then the commencement date will depends on commitment of candidate Q39: Anything else that you would like to share or looking for solution? Operation Manager: We have some orders that not fulfillment booking in Vietnam due to the whole process not carried out in Vietnam I need you combined into the solution to solve for the problem of our laboratory as well Q40: What is your comments about the criteria table? Operation Manager: the business continuity, alignment and time of solution need to assessment and validate depended on the real time of new hire on board and probation performance evaluation Q41: Referring to comparison table, just double confirm with you which one you are preferred? Operation Manager: I prefer to select the solution for solving the cause as the cost is lower, risk also lower as at least we can bring back revenue from the customer not recognized in Vietnam The solution is higher cost and higher risk as well due the uncertain of probation period Final open panel meeting Coding Category Finding Looking for solution In deep interview Fulfillment orders problem Looking for solution In deep interview Alternative Solution confirm Confirmatio n In deep interview Solution selected Consensus Open discussion Activities for action plan Page 49 of 72 REFERENCES LLC U About UL United State: UL; 2021 [Available from: https://www.ul.com/about LLC U UL Mission United State2021 [Available from: https://www.ul.com/about/mission Teece DJ Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation Long Range Planning 2010;43(2- 3):172-94 Moncrief WC, Marshall GW, Lassk FG A Contemporary Taxonomy of Sales Positions Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 2003;26(1):55-65 Zallocco R, Pullins EB, Mallin ML A re‐examination of B2B sales performance Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 2009;24(8):598-610 JACKSON SE, JOSHI A Diversity in social context: a multi-attribute, multilevel analysis of team diversity and sales performance Journal of Organizational Behavior 2004;25(6):675-702 Mayer WJ, Wang H-c, Egginton JF, Flint HS The Impact of Revenue Diversification on Expected Revenue and Volatility for Nonprofit Organizations Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 2012;43(2):374-92 Gentile C, Spiller N, Noci G How to Sustain the Customer Experience: An Overview of Experience Components that Co-create Value with the Customer European Management Journal 2007;25(5):395-410 Helms MM, Mayo DT Assessing poor quality service: perceptions of customer service representatives Managing Service Quality: An International Journal 2008;18(6):610-22 10 White L, Yanamandram V A model of customer retention of dissatisfied business services customers Managing Service Quality: An International Journal 2007;17(3):298-316 11 Marshall GW, Moncrief WC, Lassk FG The Current State of Sales Force Activities Industrial Marketing Management Industrial Marketing Management 1999;28(7):87-98 12 Bishop D Why existing customers are so valuable Strategic Direction 2009;25(2):3-5 13 Tseng MM, Qinhai M, Su CJ Mapping customers’ service experience for operations improvement Business Process Management Journal 1999;5(1):50-64 14 Lemon KN, Verhoef PC Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey Journal of Maketing 2016;80(6):69-96 15 Sorofman J 56 Top Gallant Road Stamford, CT 06902 USA: Gartner, Inc 2014 Available from: https://blogs.gartner.com/jake-sorofman/gartner-surveys-confirm-customer-experience-new-battlefield/ 16 Atkinson AA, Kaplan RS, Matsumura EM, Young SM Cost Allocation and Activity-Based Costing Systems Management Accounting: Information for Decision-Making and Strategy Execution, Student Value Edition ed: Pearson; 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2019 p 16-24 34 2020 Vietnam Salary Guide [press release] Adeccor2020 35 Dvir D, Raz T, Shenhar AJ An empirical analysis of the relationship between project planning and project success International Journal of Project Management 2003;21(2):89-95 36 Lee KPW Planning for success: setting SMART goals for study British Journal of Midwifery 2010;18(11):744-6 Page 52 of 72 ... effectiveness is one of the causes that make poor sales activities a problem of UL VS Vietnam laboratory Referring to the above analysis with real situation of UL VS Vietnam laboratory, literature review,... and activities not change perspective So, the lack of human resources is one of the causes of poor sales activities in the UL VS Vietnam laboratory Page 19 of 72 4.1.2 Lack of Sales Motivation... Vietnam) (South Vietnam) (Cambodia) Figure 18: Sales Team Organization Chart of ULVS Vietnam Laboratory Source: Data Collected The sales manager left the laboratory in February 2020, the sales
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