0

THE IDEATIONAL METAFUNCTION: METAPHORICAL MODES OF EXPRESSION

75 5 0
  • THE IDEATIONAL METAFUNCTION: METAPHORICAL MODES OF EXPRESSION

Tài liệu hạn chế xem trước, để xem đầy đủ mời bạn chọn Tải xuống

Tài liệu liên quan

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 23/06/2022, 21:23

Slide 1 Supervisor Pro Dr Hoàng Văn Vân 1 Nguyễn Thị Huyên 2 Phạm Thị Mai Oanh 3 Đào Thị Minh Tân 4 Nguyễn Thị Quế Hương 5 Nguyễn Thu Hiền 6 Lê Thu Trang 1 Rhetorical transference 2 Grammatical metaphor 3 Ideational metaphor 3 1 Metaphors of transitivity 3 2 The representation of metaphorical forms 3 3 Spoken and written language 3 4 Ideational metaphors and nominalization 4 Interpersonal metaphors 4 1 Metaphors of modality 4 2 A further account of modality 4 3 Metaphors of mood Outline Rhetor. Supervisor : Pro Dr Hoàng Văn Vân Nguyễn Thị Huyên Phạm Thị Mai Oanh Đào Thị Minh Tân Nguyễn Thị Quế Hương Nguyễn Thu Hiền Lê Thu Trang Outline Rhetorical transference Grammatical metaphor Ideational metaphor 3.1 Metaphors of transitivity 3.2 The representation of metaphorical forms 3.3 Spoken and written language 3.4 Ideational metaphors and nominalization Interpersonal metaphors 4.1 Metaphors of modality 4.2 A further account of modality 4.3 Metaphors of mood Rhetorical transference (figures of speech) Metaphor Metonymy Involves a “non – literal” use of words Synecdoche Metaphor A word is used for something resembling that which it usually refers to (M.A K Halliday, 1994, p.340) Eg: A flood of protests poured in following the announcement A flood  literally: a moving mass of water,  Metaphorically: a large number of people Metaphorical movement from a literal to a new, figurative meaning Metonymy A word is used for something related to that which it usually refers to (M.A K Halliday, 1994, p.340) e.g It won’t happen while I still breathe = It won’t happen while I still live (breath relates to life because people can’t live without breathing) He is always chasing skirts = He is always chasing girls (skirts relates to girls who often wear them) Synecdoche A word used for some larger whole of which that which it refers to is a part (M.A K Halliday, 1994, p.341) A synecdoche involves the substitution of a part for the whole, or the whole for a part, or, it may refer to the logic of sets, where a member represents the whole set or vice versa e.g They all live under one roof (= They all live in a house) Interpretation by reference to kinds of relational process Metaphor A flood of protests poured in following the announcement A large quantity is a flood Intensive Metonymy It won’t happen while I still breathe Living is by breathing Circumstantial Synecdoche They all live under one roof A house has a roof Possessive Relational process Outline Rhetorical transference Grammatical metaphor Ideational metaphor 3.1 Metaphors of transitivity 3.2 The representation of metaphorical forms 3.3 Spoken and written language 3.4 Ideational metaphors and nominalization Interpersonal metaphors 4.1 Metaphors of modality 4.2 A further account of modality 4.3 Metaphors of mood Grammatical metaphor Grammatical metaphor is a substitution of one grammatical class, or one grammatical structure,by another ( M.A K Halliday & J R Martin, 1993, p 79)  Congruent form Eg: a Mary saw a wonderful sight  Metaphorical form b Mary came upon a wonderful sight  Metaphorical form c A wonderful sight met Mary’s eyes  b and c are interpreted as metaphorical variants of a Grammatical metaphor A flood of protests poured in following the announcement Two perspectives on metaphor (lexical metaphor) Traditional view “from below” Metaphorical Literal meaning meaning A moving lexeme with“Aa moving certain “A mass of feeling literal meaning can have mass of water” rhetoric” metaphorical or meanings Flood Starting point: lexeme (grammatical metaphor) New view “from above” Starting Point: meaning A meaning can be “Many people protested” expressed by different “A largegrammatical number “A forms flood of of people protested” Congruent form protests” Metaphorical form Nature of Metaphors of Mood The incongruent transference in the process of the realization of these functions (question, statement, offer, command) Congruent relationship between mood and speech function Speech Function Mood Interrogative Declarative Imperative Default Default Default Question Statement Command Metaphor of mood - One speech function can be realized by various moods - One mood can realize various speech functions Incongruent relationship between mood and speech function Mood Interrogative Speech Function Question Statement Command Incongruent relationship between mood and speech function Mood Speech Function Question Declarative Statement Command Incongruent relationship between mood and speech function Mood Speech Function Question Statement Imperative Command Incongruent relationship between mood and speech function Mood Interrogative Declarative Imperative Speech Function Question Incongruent relationship between mood and speech function Mood Speech Function Interrogative Declarative Imperative Statement Incongruent relationship between mood and speech function Mood Speech Function Interrogative Declarative Imperative Command Typical and metaphorical realizations of speech functions in mood types speech statement question command function mood declarative I have never let you down! I wonder where you have been You should tell me the truth interrogative Have I ever let you down? Where have you been? Could you tell me the truth? Admit that I have never let you down! Tell me where you have been! Tell me the truth! imperative Metaphors of mood Rhetorical modes in English: offering, promising, threatening, requesting, warning, refusing,… They are systematically interrelated Each one represents a particular complex of semantic feature All these rhetorical categories can be recognized have names as “things” and “processes” Eg: to threaten (v) process a threat (n) – act of threatening thing Exercises I Decide which sentence is metaphorical You cannot wash these trousers in the machine These trousers are not machine washable Water evaporates from a puddle Evaporation occurs more quickly in hot weather Great changes have taken place in my hometown in recent years Recent years have seen great changes in my hometown Exercises I Decide which sentence is metaphorical You cannot wash these trousers in the machine These trousers are not machine washable √ Water evaporates from a puddle Evaporation occurs more quickly in hot weather √ Great changes have taken place in my hometown in recent years Recent years have seen great changes in my hometow √ Exercises II Combine each pair of sentences below by nominalizing the first verb: Population grows fast around industrial centres The industrial centres provide better employment opportunities The population is due to better employment opportunities growth around industrial centre 2.Rita recognised the thief This led her into trouble Rita's 3.The Minister has accepted bribes This has shocked the nation recognition of the thief led her into trouble  The minister's acceptance of bribes has shocked the nation 74 Exersises III Identify the categories of modality in the following sentences: That must be John Probability- positive- high-implicit subjective That possibly isn’t John Probability- negative direct- low- implicit objective You are allowed to that Obligation- positive- low- implicit objective You can’t that Obligation- negative transferred- high- implicit subjective ... proposition is “it is so” 4.1 METAPHORS OF MODALITY  There is a wide range of variants for the expression of modality in the clause, and some of these take the form of a clause complex  E.g I think... congruent form E.g The fifth day saw them at the summit Metaphorical Congruent The fifth day saw them at the summit Senser Mental process phenomenon Place They arrived at the summit on the fifth day... expressive 3.2 The representation of metaphorical forms In principle, metaphorical expressions can be represented in either ways: - Taking them at their face value - Interpreting them in their congruent
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: THE IDEATIONAL METAFUNCTION: METAPHORICAL MODES OF EXPRESSION,