The oviposition and movement behaviour of bt resistant and bt susceptible helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera noctuidae) on bt cotton and non bt cotton plants

134 49 0
  • The oviposition and movement behaviour of bt resistant and bt susceptible helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera noctuidae) on bt cotton and non bt cotton plants

Tài liệu hạn chế xem trước, để xem đầy đủ mời bạn chọn Tải xuống

Tài liệu liên quan

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 25/11/2021, 18:32

The oviposition and movement behaviour of Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton plants Luong, Thi Anh Tuyet Bsc MPh A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at The University of Queensland in 2016 The School of Biological Sciences i Abstract Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has caused poor yields to a range of agricultural crops, particularly to cotton Pesticides have been used to control this pest with serious undesirable side effects, including the rapid development of high levels of resistance Since 1996, genetically modified cotton (Bt cotton) has been planted to control H armigera in Australia However, it is reported that surviving larvae of all sizes can be found in fields from time to time in all growing regions Research has shown that the survival of these larvae on Bt cotton is not necessarily due to physiological resistance, and behavioural resistance has been inferred Extensive work on various aspects of behaviour of H armigera in Australian has been conducted; however, to date those experiments were carried out using a Bt-susceptible H armigera strain Experiments in this thesis were undertaken with both physiologically Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible lines of H armigera One might expect larvae that are susceptible to Bt to show differences in behaviour in comparison to Bt-resistant larvae Oviposition choice experiements consistently showed that both Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible moths did not choose plants or plant parts that were less toxic in terms of Bt toxin on which to lay eggs There was one exception in that Bt-susceptible moths were more likely to lay eggs on squares of Bt cotton plants than those of non-Bt cotton As expected the mortality of Bt-susceptible H armigera larvae was significantly higher on structures of Bt cotton plants than on those structures of conventional cotton, and survival was greater on flowers than on other structures of Bt cotton Bt-susceptible neonates of H armigera, which were significantly heavier, could starve longer and recover better than Bt-resistant neonates Although H armigera neonates did not shift their behaviour towards Bt toxin on artificial diet before their first feeding event, Bt-susceptible neonates showed a tendency to remain on non-Bt diet and move off Bt diet These behaviours may have allowed them to survive in a Bt environment, and led to a higher percentage of survival and pupation in situations where a choice was offered The behaviour of Bt-susceptible larvae, which differed from Bt-resistant larvae, could help them avoid Bt toxin by moving off Bt substrates (drop-off behaviour) or staying on Bt substrates but eating their conspecific eggs and so survive the first instar stage (cannibalism behaviour) There was a significant difference in the numbers of Bt-susceptible larvae dropped off the two lines of cotton, more Bt-susceptible larvae dropped off Bt cotton than non-Bt cotton plants over time Significantly more Bt-susceptible larvae remained on squares and flowers, and this may offer an opportunity for them to survive on Bt-cotton plants The survival of Bt-susceptible H armigera larvae significantly improves on Bt cotton plant when they cannibalize eggs before feeding on the ii plant Cannibalism may play a significant part in the survival of Bt-susceptible H armigera larvae on Bt cotton plants Egg cannibalism could explain the relatively small, but surprising number of Bt-susceptible larvae surviving in Bt cotton fields In conclusion, subtle differences in the behaviour of Bt-susceptible female moths and first instar H armigera larvae may allow the larvae to survive on Bt cotton plants Some of Bt-susceptible larvae laid on squares or flowers that contain less Bt toxin and are generally more nutrient rich have higher chances to survive In addition, egg cannibalism contributes to the higher survival of Bt-susceptible larvae on other structures of Bt cotton plants Larvae can move off plant parts with high Bt levels and may encounter less toxic plant parts Bt-susceptible larvae can survive without food for 48 h, suggesting they have time to re-establish on less Bt toxic plant parts after moving away from higher toxic areas iii Declaration by author This thesis is composed of my original work, and contains no material previously published or written by another person except where due reference has been made in the text I have clearly stated the contribution by others to jointly-authored works that I have included in my thesis I have clearly stated the contribution of others to my thesis as a whole, including statistical assistance, survey design, data analysis, significant technical procedures, professional editorial advice, and any other original research work used or reported in my thesis The content of my thesis is the result of work I have carried out since the commencement of my research higher degree candidature and does not include a substantial part of work that has been submitted to qualify for the award of any other degree or diploma in any university or other tertiary institution I have clearly stated which parts of my thesis, if any, have been submitted to qualify for another award I acknowledge that an electronic copy of my thesis must be lodged with the University Library and, subject to the policy and procedures of The University of Queensland, the thesis be made available for research and study in accordance with the Copyright Act 1968 unless a period of embargo has been approved by the Dean of the Graduate School I acknowledge that copyright of all material contained in my thesis resides with the copyright holder(s) of that material Where appropriate I have obtained copyright permission from the copyright holder to reproduce material in this thesis iv Publications during candidature T.T.A Luong, M.P Zalucki, B Cribb, L.E Perkins and S.J Downes Oviposition site selection by adults and the survival of susceptible and resistant first instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on genetically modified and conventional cotton Bulletin of Entomological Research (Accepted, 2016) Publications included in this thesis Chapter T.T.A Luong, M.P Zalucki, B Cribb, L.E Perkins and S.J Downes Oviposition site selection by adults and the survival of susceptible and resistant first instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on genetically modified and conventional cotton Bulletin of Entomological Research (Accepted, 2016) A modified and re-formatted version of this has been incorporated into Chapter Contributor Statement of contribution Tuyet T A Luong (Candidate) Designed experiments (80%) Wrote the paper (70%) Myron P Zalucki (Principal supervisor) Designed experiments (20%) Wrote and edited paper (15%) Lynda E Perkins (Co-supervisor) Wrote and edited paper (5%) Sharon J Downes (Co-supervisor) Wrote and edited paper (5%) Bronwen Cribb (Co-supervisor) Wrote and edited paper (5%) v Contributions by others to the thesis Professor Myron P Zalucki, Lynda E Perkins, Sharon J Downes and Bronwen Cribb made significant contributions to the conception and design of the project, and provided advice and guidance regarding analyses throughout the research Statement of parts of the thesis submitted to qualify for the award of another degree None vi Acknowledgements It has been a long, tough and challenging journey and I am so grateful that I have finally finished my PhD However, this journey wouldn’t have been possible without the help, support and encouragement of so many people around me to whom I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude and appreciation I am grateful and would like to express my sincere thanks to my principal supervisors, Professor Myron P Zalucki for his patience and supervision of the research I greatly appreciate and value the help he provided me in developing logical thinking and teaching me on how to propose good questions and finding ways to get the answers I would like to thank my co-supervisors Dr Bronwen Cribb for her general support and helpful advice during my PhD I am eternally gratefully for Dr Lynda E Perkins for her useful advice on statistics and writing Thank you also to Dr Sharon J Downes, who, with her own practical knowledge, has given me some excellent suggestions on the design of some of my experiments, and gave me a chance to have wonderful experience on the field in Narrabri, NSW I am grateful to Vietnamese Government Scholarship (MOET) in conjunction with The University of Queensland for funding my research during my PhD studying I also acknowledge CSIRO, and The Cotton Research and Development Corporation for supplying cotton seeds and Helicoverpa armigera source for my experiments My field-based experience was wonderful due to the generous support of a handful of people from CSIRO Agriculture, Australian Cotton Research Institute, Narrabri, Australia who gave their knowledge, time and friendship to support me In particular I would like to thank Tracey Parker, who in the initial stages of my PhD gave me valuable experience in H armigera, and continuously sending cotton seeds and H armigera eggs for my experiments Thank you to my friends, both inside and outside of the university, who have made my time during this research a fun one In particular to Corinna L Lange and Jason Callander for their support and often giving me their critical comments on certain chapters of this thesis Finally I would like to thank my family for their love and support throughout my PhD My parents, Luong Minh Son and Nguyen Thi Trinh, gave me a childhood that inspired a love of nature and instilled a drive to further my education Thank you also to my brother, Luong Minh Tung, who encouraged me to begin my PhD, and to finish it I deeply appreciate the support of my parents-inlaw, Tran Van Muoi and Nguyen Thi Hong Phuong during my PhD Lastly, I would like to thank my husband, Tran Xuan Hiep, for his love, support and encouragement over my PhD Luckily for me Hiep has an excellent understanding of computers and has assisted me with computer skills He has also given up his down time to assist with editing most of the chapters vii Keywords Helicoverpa armigera, Bt-resistant, Bt-susceptible, Bt cotton, Bt-resistant behaviour, oviposition behaviour, time to starvation, recovery ability, Bt-detection ability, drop-off behaviour, egg cannibalism Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classifications (ANZSRC) ANZSRC code: 060801, Animal behaviour, 70% ANZSRC code: 070308, Crop and Pasture Protection, 20% ANZSRC code: 060499, Genetics not elsewhere classified, 10% Fields of Research (FoR) Classification FoR code: 0608, Zoology, 70% FoR code: 0703, Crop and Pasture Production, 20% FoR code: 0699, Other Biological Sciences, 10% viii Table of Contents Abstract ii Acknowledgements vii Chapter Literature Review 1.1 General introduction 1.2 Host-plant selection behaviour 1.3 Oviposition preference .9 1.4 The movement behaviour of first instar H armigera 12 1.5 Bacillus thuringiensis toxins 14 1.6 Bt crops and Bt cotton 14 1.7 The expression of Bt genes on Bt cotton .16 1.8 Behavioural resistance 17 1.9 Cannibalism in natural population .18 1.10 Structure of the thesis 21 Chapter 24 Oviposition site selection and survival of Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt cotton 2.1 Introduction 26 2.2 Materials and methods 27 2.2.1 Insects 27 2.2.2 Plants 28 2.2.3 Oviposition preference .30 2.2.4 Survival of newly hatched larvae .31 2.2.5 Data analysis 31 2.3 Results 33 2.3.1 Oviposition preference .33 2.3.2 Survival 34 2.4 Discussion 36 Chapter 39 Feeding and survival of Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible larvae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) when exposed to a diet with Bt-toxin 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Materials and Methods 43 3.2.1 Insects 43 3.2.2 How long can larvae survive starvation? 43 3.2.3 Can H armigera larvae recover after a period of starvation? 44 3.2.4 Can H armigera larvae detect Bt toxin on artificial diet? .44 3.2.5 Bt detection assay: detailed observations 45 3.2.6 Data Analysis .46 3.3 Results 47 3.3.1 How long can H armigera larvae survive starvation? 47 ix 3.3.2 Can H armigera larvae recover after a period of starvation? 48 3.3.3 Can H armigera larvae detect Bt toxin on artificial diet? .49 3.3.4 Bt detection assay: detailed observations 50 3.4 Discussion 55 Chapter 58 The drop-off behaviour of Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on Bt-cotton and non-Bt cotton plants 4.1 Introduction 60 4.2 Material and Methods 61 4.2.1 Plants 61 4.2.2 Insects 61 4.2.3 Drop-off behaviour of Bt-resistant and -susceptible H armigera neonates on artificial diet with and without Bt toxin 62 4.2.4 Drop-off behaviour of Bt-resistant and -susceptible H armigera neonates on leaves of Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton 63 4.2.5 Drop-off behaviours of Bt-resistant and -susceptible neonates of H armigera on different structures of Bt and non-Bt cotton plants 64 4.3 Results 65 4.3.1 Drop-off behaviour of Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible H armigera larvae on artificial diet with and without Bt toxin 65 4.3.2 Drop-off behaviour of Bt-resistant and -susceptible H armigera larvae on leaves of Bt and non-Bt cotton plants .67 4.3.3 Drop-off behaviour of Bt-resistant and -susceptible H armigera neonates on different structures of Bt and non-Bt cotton plant .68 4.4 Discussion 72 Chapter 76 Egg cannibalism in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae: overcoming the plant establishment hurdle Abstract 77 5.1 Introduction 78 5.2 Materials and Methods 80 5.2.1 Egg cannibalism by Bt-susceptible H armigera neonates on different eggs in a no choice experiment 80 5.2.2 Comparison of egg cannibalism by Bt-resistant and -susceptible H amigera neonates in a no choice experiment 81 5.2.3 Egg cannibalism occurring on leaf discs 81 5.2.4 Does the first meal matter? 81 5.2.5 Analysis 83 5.3 Results 84 5.3.1 Egg cannibalism by Bt-susceptible H armigera neonates on different eggs in a no choice experiment 84 5.3.3 Egg cannibalism occurring on leaf discs 85 5.3.4 Does the first meal matter? 86 5.4 Discussion 91 x Fox, R L (1975) Cannibalism in natural populations Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 6, 87-106 doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.06.110175.000511 Fraley, R (1996) Biotechnology - new options for sustainable agriculture Agrow Supplement, Autumn, 7-11 Fraser, A M., Mechaber, W L., & Hildebrand, J G (2003) Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta to host plant headspace volatiles Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29(8), 1813-1833 doi: 10.1023/A:1024898127549 Futuyma, D J., Cort, R P., & van Noordwijk, I (1984) Adaptation to Host Plants in the Fall Cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria) and Its Bearing on the Evolution of Host Affiliation in Phytophagous Insects The American Naturalist, 123(3), 287-296 doi: 10.1086/284204 Gagné, I., Coderre, D., & Mauffette, Y (2002) Egg cannibalism by Coleomegilla maculata lengi neonates: preference even in the presence of essential prey Journal of Ecological Entomology, 27(3), 285-291 doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2311.2002.00412.x Gassmann, A J., Petzold-Maxwell, J L., Keweshan, R S., & Dunbar, M W (2011) Fieldevolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm PloS one, 6(7), e22629 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022629 Gelfand, L J., & McDonald, J F (1983) Relationship between ADH activity and behavioral response to environmental alcohol in Drosophila Behavior genetics, 10(3), 281-293 Georghiou, G P., & Saito, T (1983) Pest resistance to pesticides New York: Plenum Press Gordon, T H (1961) Nutritional factors in insect resistance to chemicals Annual Review of Entomology, 6(1), 27-54 doi: 10.1146/annurev.en.06.010161.000331 Gore, J., Leonard, B R., & Adamczyk, J J (2001) Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Survival on ‘Bollgard’ and ‘Bollgard II’ Cotton Flower Bud and Flower Components Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(6), 1445-1451 doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-94.6.1445 Gore, J., Leonard, B R., Church, G E., & Cook, D R (2002) Behavior of Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae on Genetically Engineered Cotton Journal of Economic Entomology, 95(4), 763-769 doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-95.4.763 Gould, F (1984) Role of behavior in the evolution of insect adaptation to insecticides and resistant host plants Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 30(4), 34-41 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/besa/30.4.34 Gould, F., Kennedy, G G., & Johnson, M T (1991) Effects of natural enemies on the rate of herbivore adaptation to resistant host plants Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58(1), 1-14 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1991.tb01445.x Goyal, S P., & Rathore, V S (1988) Patterns of insect-plant relationship determining susceptibility of different hosts to Heliothis armigera (Hübner) Indian Journal of Entomology, 50, 193-201 Green, P W C., Stevenson, P C., Simmonds, M S J., & Sharma, H C (2002) Can larvae of the pod-borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), select between wild and cultivated 104 pigeonpea Cajanus sp (Fabaceae)? Bulletin of Entomology Research, 92(1), 45-51 doi: 10.1079/BER2001143 Greenplate, J.T (1999) Quantification of Bacillus thuringiensis Insect Control Protein Cry1Ac Over Time in Bollgard Cotton Fruit and Terminals Journal of Economic Entomology 92(6), 13771377 Greenplate, J T., Head, G P., Penn, S R., & Kabuye, V T (1998) Factors potentially influencing the survival of Helicoverpa zea on Bollgard® cotton Paper presented at the Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conference, National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN 2, 1030-1033 Halcomb, J L., Benedict, J H., Cook, B., Ring, D R., & Correa, J C (2000) Feeding behavior of bollworm and tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in mixed stands of nontransgenic and transgenic cotton expressing an insecticidal protein Journal of Economic Entomology, 93, 1300-1307 Hamamura, T (1998) Recent occurrence and injury of Helicoverpa armigera - From a questionnaire investigation Plant Protection, 52, 407-413 Hannay, C L., & Fitz-James, P (1955) The protein crystals of Bacillus thuringensis Berliner Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 1(8), 694-710 doi: 10.1139/m55-083 Hari, N S., Jindal, J., Malhi, N S., & Khosa, J K (2008) Effect of adult nutrition and insect density on the performance of spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus in laboratory cultures Journal of Pest Science, 81(1), 23-27 doi: 10.1007/s10340-007-0180-y Harris, M O., Mafileo, F., & Dhana, S (1997) Behavioral responses of light brown apple moth neonate larvae on diets containing Bacillus thuringiensis formulations or endotoxins Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 84(3), 207 - 219 Hassan, S A (1983) Results of laboratory testing of a series of pesticides on egg parasites of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Nachrichten Dtsch Pflkanzenschutzdienst (Braunschw.), 35, 21-25 Heidel, A J., & Baldwin, I T (2004) Microarray analysis of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acidsignalling in responses of Nicotiana attenuata to attack by insects from multiple feeding guilds Plant, Cell & Environment, 27(11), 1362 - 1373 Hoy, C W., Adams, A J., Hall, F R., & Nettleton, S Y (1991) Relationship between behavioral and physiological responses of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae of permethrin deposits within two Ohio populations Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(4), 11351139 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/84.4.1135 Iqbal, M., & Aziz, S A (1976) Cannibalism in Spathosterum parasiniferum (Walker) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) Indian Journal of Zoology, 4, 43-45 Jackson, R E., Bradley, J., J R , & Van Duyn, J W (2004) Performance of feral and Cry1Acselected Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains on transgenic cottons expressing one or two Bacillus thuringiensis spp kurstaki proteins under greenhouse conditions Journal of Entomological Science, 39, 46-55 105 Jaenike, J (1978) On optimal oviposition behavior in phytophagous insects Theoretical Population Biology, 14(3), 350-356 Jallow, M F A., Matsumura, M., & Suzuki, Y (2001) Oviposition preferance and reproductive performance of Japanese Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Applied Entomology and Zoology, 36(4), 419-426 doi: http://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2001.419 Jallow, M.F.A & Zalucki, M.P (1995) A Technique for Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Oviposition Preference in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Journal of Australian Entomology Society 34(4), 281-288 Jallow, M F A., & Zalucki, M P (1996) Within-and between-population variation in host-plant preference and specificity in Australian Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Australian Journal of Zoology, 44(5), 503-519 Jallow, M F A., & Zalucki, M P (1998) Effects of egg load on the host-selection behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Australian Journal of Zoology, 46(3), 291-299 Jallow, M F A., & Zalucki, M P (2003) Relationship between oviposition preference and offspring performance in Australian Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Australian Journal of Entomology, 42(4), 343-348 Jallow, M F A., Zalucki, M P., & Fitt, G P (1999) Role of chemical cues from cotton in mediating host selection and oviposition behaviour in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Australian Journal of Entomology, 38(4), 359-366 Johnson, M L., Armitage, S., Scholz, B C G., Merritt, D J., Cribb, B., & Zalucki, M P (2007) Predator Presence Moves Helicoverpa armigera Larvae to Distraction Journal of Insect Behavior, 20(1), 1-18 doi: 10.1007/s10905-006-9048-x Johnson, C B., Kazantzis, A., Skoula, M., Mitteregger, U., & Johannes, N (2004) Seasonal, populational and ontogenic variation in the volatile oil content and composition of individuals of Origanum vulgare subsp Hirtum, assessed by GC headspace analysis and by SPME sampling of individual oil glands Phytochemical Analysis, 15(5), 286–292 doi: 10.1002/pca.780 Johnson, M L., & Zalucki, M P (2005) Foraging behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera first instar larvae on crop plants of different developmental stages Journal of Applied Entomology, 129(5), 239-245 doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2005.00958.239–245 Johnson, M L., & Zalucki, M P (2007) Feeding and foraging behaviour of a generalist caterpillar: are third instars just bigger versions of firsts? Bulletin of Entomology Research, 97(1), 81-88 Jongsma, M A., Gould, F., Legros, M., Yang, L., van Loon, J J A., & Dicke, M (2010) Insect oviposition behavior affects the evolution of adaptation to Bt crops: consequences for refuge policies Evolutionary Ecology, 24(5), 1017-1030 Joyner, K., & Gould, F (1985) Developmental Consequences of Cannibalism in Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 78(1), 24-29 106 Jyoti, J L., Young, S Y., Johnson, D T., & McNew, R W (1996) Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Location, Mortality, and Leaf Area Consumption on Bacillus thuringiensis Treated Cotton Environmental Entomology, 25(6), 1438-1438 doi: 10.1093/ee/25.6.1438 Kaddou, I K (1960) The feeding behaviour of Hippodamia quinquesignata (Kirby) larvae University of California Publications in Entomology, 16, 181-230 Kakimoto, T., Fujisaki, K., & Miyatake, T (2003) Egg Laying Preference, Larval Dispersion, and Cannibalism in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96(6), 793-798 doi: 10.1603/00138746(2003)096[0793:ELPLDA]2.0.CO;210.1603/00138746%282003%29096%5B0793%3AELPLDA%5D2.0.CO%3B2 Kantiki, L M., & Ampofo, J K O (1989) Larval establishment and feeding behaviour of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on maize and sorghum plants International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 10(5), 577 - 582 doi: 10.1017/S174275840002169X Karban, R., & Agrawal, A A (2002) Herbivore offense Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33(1), 641-664 doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150443 Kato, M., & Shimizu, I (1978) Loss of phototaxis in silkworm larvae after smelling mulberry leaves and recovery after electroconvulsive shock Nature, 272(5650), 248-249 doi: 10.1038/272248a0 Kirkpatrick, T W (1957) Insect Life in the Tropics London: Longmans 311 pp Knight, K., Head, G P., & Rogers, J (2013) Season-long expression of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins in Bollgard II cotton in Australia Crop Protection, 44, 50-58 doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2012.10.014 Kotkar, H M., Sarate, P J., Tamhane, V A., Gupta, V S., & Giri, A P (2009) Responses of midgut amylases of Helicoverpa armigera to feeding on various host plants Journal of Insect Physiology, 55(8), 663-670 doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2009.05.004 Kranthi, K R., Kranthi, S., Ali, S., & Banerjee, S K (2000) Resistance to Cry1Ac δ-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in a laboratory selected strain of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Current Science, 78, 1001-1004 Kranthi, K R., Naidu, S., Dhawad, C S., Tatwawadi, A., Mate, K., Patil, E., et al (2005) Temporal and intra-plant variability of Cry1Ac expression in Bt-cotton and its influence on the survival of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Current Science, 89(2), 291-298 Kumar, R.K., & Stanley, S (2010) Comparative feeding behavior and ovipositional aspects of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera on transgenic and non-transgenic cotton Resistant Pest Management Newsletter 20(1), 26-28 Kurtz, R W (2005) Data generation and utilization for evaluating Helicoverpa zea resistance management in Bt field corn and cotton through computer modeling (Doctor of Philosophy), North carolina State, The United State (3195152) 107 Kyi, A., Zalucki, M P., & Titmarsh, I J (1991) An experimental study of early survival Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton Bulletin of Entomology Research, 81(3), 263-271 Lawson, E C., Weiss, J D., Thomas, P E T., & Kaniewski, W K (2001) NewLeaf Plus® Russet Burbank potatoes: replicase-mediated resistance to potato leafroll virus Molecular Breeding, 7(1), 1-12 Levine, E., Spencer, J L., Isard, S A., Onstad, D W., & Gray, M E (2002) Adaptation of the Western Corn Rootworm to Crop Rotation: Evolution of a New Strain in Response to a Management Practice American Entomologist, 48(2), 94-108 doi: 10.1093/ae/48.2.94 Liang, G., Tan, W., & Guo, Y (2000) Study on screening and inheritance mode of resistance to Bt transgenic cotton in cotton bollworm Acta Entomologica Sinica, 43(1), 57-62 Liu, F., Xu, Z., Zhu, Y C., Huang, F., Wang, Y., Li, H., et al (2010) Evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac-expressing Bt cotton in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China Pest Management Science 66 (2), 155-161 Liu, Y.B., Tabashnik, B.E., Dennehy, T.J., Carrière, Y., Sims, M.A & Meyer, S.K (2002) Oviposition on and Mining in Bolls of Bt and Non-Bt Cotton by Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Journal of Economic Entomology 95(1), 143-148 doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-95.1.143 Liu, Z., Scheirs, J., & Heckel, D G (2010) Host Plant Flowering Increases Both Adult Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance of a Generalist Herbivore Journal of Entomological Society of America, 39(2), 552-560 Lockwood, J A., Sparks, T C., & Story, R N (1984) Evolution of Insect Resistance to Insecticides: A Reevaluation of the Roles of Physiology and Behavior Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 30(4), 41-51 doi: 10.1093/besa/30.4.41 Lodaya, J & Borad, C K (2014) Evaluation of Oviposition Preference for Different Host Crops by Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in Bt Cotton Dominated Patch Trends in Biosciences 7(24), 4442-4445 Loon van, J J A., Broekgaarden, C., Dicke, M., & Poelman, E H (2008) Early season herbivore differentially affects plant defence responses to subsequently colonizing herbivores and their abundance in the field Molecular Ecology, 17(14), 3352-3365 doi: 10.1111/j.1365294X.2008.03838.x Lu, B (2010) Thresholds and mechanisms of survival for Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa spp living on Bollgard II® cotton (Doctor of Philosophy), University of New England Lu, B., Downes, S., Wilson, L., Gregg, P., Knight, K., Kauter, G., et al (2011) Preferences of field bollworm larvae for cotton plant structures: impact of Bt and history of survival on Bt crops Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 140(1), 17-27 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01135.x Lucas, P W., Turner, I M., Dominy, N J., & Yamashita, N (2000) Mechanical Defences to Herbivory Annals of Botany, 86(5), 913-920 doi: 10.1006/anbo.2000.1261 108 Luong, T.T.A., Zalucki, M.P., Cribb, B., Perkins, L.E., and Downes S.J Oviposition site selection by adults and the survival of Bt-susceptible and Bt-resistant first instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on genetically modified and conventional cotton Bulletin of Entomological Research n/a, n/a, 2016 Mahon, R J., Olsen, K M., Garsia, K A & Young, S R (2007) Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in a Strain of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia Journal of Economic Entomology 100(3), 894-894 Martin, M A., & Hyde, J (2001) Economic Considerations for the Adoption of Transgenic Crops: The Case of Bt Corn Journal of Nematology, 33(4), 173-177 Majeed, Q., & Aziz, S A (1990) Cannibalism in Gastrimargus transversus Thunb (Orthoptera: Acrididae) under different conditions of density, feeding and starvation at constant temperature and relative humidity Indian Journal of Entomology, 52(1), 46-49 Mascarenhas, V J., & Luttrell, R G (1997) Combined Effect of Sublethal Exposure to Cotton Expressing the Endotoxin Protein of Bacillus thuringiensis and Natural Enemies on Survival of Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae Environmental Entomology, 26(4), 939-939 Matthews, M (1999) Heliothine moths of Australia: a guide to pest bollworms and related noctuid groups (Vol 7): CSIRO Publishing McCallum, E.J., Cunningham, J.P., Lucker, J., Zalucki, M.P., De Voss, J.J & Botella, J.R (2011) Increased plant volatile production affects oviposition, but not larval development, in the moth Helicoverpa armigera Journal of Experimental Biology 214(21), 3672-3677 doi: 10.1242/jeb.059923 Men, X., Ge, F., Yardim, E N., & Parajulee, M N (2005) Behavioral Response of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cotton with and Without Expression of the CrylAc ?Endotoxin Protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Journal of Insect Behavior, 18(1), 33-50 doi: 10.1007/s10905-005-9345-9 Mewis, I., Tokuhisa, J G., Schultz, J C., Appel, H M., Ulrichs, C., & Gershenzon, J (2006) Gene expression and glucosinolate accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to generalist and specialist herbivores of different feeding guilds and the role of defense signaling pathways Phytochemistry, 67(22), 2450 - 2462 Moore, R G., & Hanks, L M (2004) Aerial dispersal and host plant selection by neonate Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) Ecological Entomology, 29(3), 327–335 Morris, W F., & Karieva, P M (1991) How insect herbivores find suitable host plants: the interplay between random and nonrandom movement Insect Plant Interactions, (ed E Bernays) 175-208 Moz, P., López, C., Moralejo, M., Pérez-Hedo, M., & Eizaguirre, M (2014) Response of last instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae to Bt toxin ingestion: changes in the development and in the CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12 gene expression PLoS one 9(6), e99229 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099229 109 Musser, R O., Hum-Musser, S M., Eichenseer, H., Peiffer, M., Ervin, G., Murphy, J B., et al (2002) Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences Nature, 416(6881), 599-600 doi: 10.1038/416599a Navasero, R C., & Ramaswamy, S B (1991) Morphology of leaf surface trichomes and its influence on egglaying by Heliothis virescens Crop Science, 31(2), 324-353 doi: 10.2135/cropsci1991.0011183X003100020025x Nylin, S., & Janz, N (1993) Oviposition preference and larval performance in Polygonia c-album (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): The choice between bad and worse Ecological Entomology, 18(4), 394-398 Olsen, K M., Daly, J C., Finnegan, E J., & Mahon, R J (2005a) Changes in Cry1Ac Bt transgenic cotton in response to two environmental factors: temperature and insect damage Journal of Economic Entomology, 98(4), 1382-1390 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-98.4.1382 Olsen, K M., Daly, J C., Holt, H E., & Finnegan, E J (2005b) Season-long variation in expression of Cry1Ac gene and efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in transgenic cotton against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Journal of Economic Entomology, 98(3), 1007 1017 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-98.3.1007 Pang, S., You, W., Duan, L., Song, X., Li, X., & Wang, C (2012) Resistance selection and mechanisms of oriental tobacco budworm (Helicoverpa assulta Guenee) to indoxacarb Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 103(3), 219-223 doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2012.05.011 Papaj, D R (1986) Conditioning of leaf-shape discrimination by chemical cues in the butterfly, Battus philenor Animal Behaviour, 34(5), 1281-1288 doi: 10.1016/S0003-3472(86)80199-3 Papaj, D R., & Prokopy, R J (1989) Ecological and evolutionary aspects of learning in phytophagous insects Annual Review of Entomology, 34(1), 315-350 doi: 10.1146/annurev.en.34.010189.001531 Papaj, D R., & Rausher, M D (1987) Genetic differences and phenotypic plasticity as causes of variation in oviposition preference in Battus philenor Oecologia, 74(1), 24-30 Parker, C D., & Luttrell, R G (1999) Interplant movement of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in pure and mixed plantings of cotton with and without expression of the Cry1Ac δ-endotoxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(4), 837-845 Perkins, L E., Cribb, B W., Brewer, P B., Hanan, J., Grant, M., de Torres, M., et al (2013) Generalist insects behave in a jasmonate dependent manner on their host plants, leaving induced areas quickly and staying longer on distant parts Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 280(1756) doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2646 Perkins, L E., Cribb, B W., Hanan, J., Glaze, E., Beveridge, C., & Zalucki, M P (2008) Where to from here? The mechanisms enabling the movement of first instar caterpillars on whole plants using Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 2(4), 197-207 doi: 10.1007/s11829-008-9047-2 Perkins, L E., Cribb, B W., Hanan, J., & Zalucki, M P (2010) The movement and distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) larvae on pea plants is affected by egg placement 110 and flowering Bulletin of Entomology Research, 100(5), 591-598 doi: 10.1017/S0007485309990654 Perović, D J., Johnson, M L., Scholz, B C G., & Zalucki, M P (2008) The mortality of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) neonate larvae in relation to drop-off and soil surface temperature: the dangers of bungy jumping Australian Journal of Entomology, 47(4), 289-296 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2008.00660.x Polis, G A (1981) The Evolution and Dynamics of Intraspecific Predation Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 12(1), 225-251 doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.12.110181.001301 Pray, C E., Huang, J., Hu, R., & Rozelle, S (2002) Five years of Bt cotton in China – the benefits continue The Plant Journal, 31(4), 423-430 doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01401.x Prestwich, G D (1984) Pest Resistance to Pesticides Based on the Proceedings of a US-Japan Cooperative Science Program Seminar Held December 3-7, 1979, in Palm Springs, California.George P Georghiou Tetsuo Saito The Quarterly Review of Biology, 59(1), 87-87 doi: 10.1086/413733 Qaim, M., & Zilberman, D (2003) Yield Effects of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries Science, 299(5608), 900-902 doi: 10.1126/science.108060 Rajapakse, C N K., & Walter, G H (2007) Polyphagy and primary host plants: oviposition preference versus larval performance in the lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera ArthropodPlant Interactions, 1(1), 17-26 doi:10.1007/s11829-007-9003-6 Ramachandran, R (1988) Experiments on the responses of the larval stages of the geometrid moth Ectropis excursaria to light and gravity Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 46(2), 133-140 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1988.tb01103.x Ramachandran, R., & Khan, Z R (1991) Modulation of phototactic behaviour of first-instar larvae of rice leafroller by plant factors Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58(2), 149-157 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1991.tb01462.x Rausher, M D (1979) Larval Habitat Suitability and Oviposition Preference in Three Related Butterflies Ecology, 60(3), 503-511 doi: 10.2307/1936070 Razze, J M., & Mason, C E (2012) Dispersal Behavior of Neonate European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt Corn Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(4), 1214-1223 doi: 10.1603/ec11288 Renwick, J A A., & Chew, F S (1994) Oviposition Behavior in Lepidoptera Annual Review of Entomology, 39(1), 377-400 doi: 10.1146/annurev.en.39.010194.002113 Reymond, P., Bodenhausen, N., Van Poecke, M P R., Krishnamurthy, Dicke, V M., & Farmer, E E (2004) A conserved transcript pattern in response to a specialist and a generalist herbivore The Plant Cell, 16(11), 3132-3147 Richardson, M L., Mitchell, R F., Reagel, P F., & Hanks, L M (2010) Causes and consequences of cannibalism in noncarnivorous insects Annual Review of Entomology, 55, 39-53 doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085314 111 Rochester, W.A., Zalucki, M.P., Ward, A., Miles, M & Murray, D.A.H (2002) Testing insect movement theory-empirical analysis of pest data routinely collected from agricultural crops Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 35(2), 139 - 149 Roush, R T (1998) Two–toxin strategies for management of insecticidal transgenic crops: can pyramiding succeed where pesticide mixtures have not? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 353(1376), 1777 - 1786 doi: 10.1098/rstb.1998.0330 Sadek, M M (2010) Complementary Behaviors of Maternal and Offspring Spodoptera littoralis: Oviposition Site Selection and Larval Movement Together Maximize Performance Journal of Insect Behavior, 24(1), 67-82 doi: 10.1007/s10905-010-9238-4 Salamitou, S., Agaisse, H., Bravo, A., & Lereclus, D (1996) Genetic analysis of cryIIIA gene expression in Bacillus thuringiensis Microbiology, 142(8), 2049–2055 doi: 10.1099/13500872142-8-2049 Sarfraz, M., Dosdall, L M., & Keddie, B A (2005) Evidence for behavioural resistance by the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) Journal of Applied Entomology, 129(6), 340-341 doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2005.00969.340–341 Schwartz, J M., Tabashnik, B E., & Johnson, M W (1991) Behavioral and physiological responses of susceptible and resistant diamondback moth larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 61(2), 179-187 doi: 10.1111/j.15707458.1991.tb02410.x Sequeira, R (2001) Inter-seasonal population dynamics and cultural management of Helicoverpa spp in a central Queensland cropping system Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 41(2), 249- 259 Sequeira, R V., & Playford, C L (2001) Abundance of Helicoverpa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pupae under cotton and other crops in central Queensland: Implications for resistance management Australian Journal of Entomology, 40(3), 264-269 doi: 10.1046/j.1440-6055.2001.00234.x Shanower, T G., & Romeis, J (1999) Insect pests of pigeonpea and their management Annual Review of Entomology, 44(1), 77-96 doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.44.1.77 Shanower, T G., Yoshida, M., & Peter, A J (1997) Survival, growth, fecundity and behavior of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on pigeonpea and two wild Cajanus species Journal of Economic Entomology, 90, 837 - 841 Sharma, H.C (2005) Heliothis/Helicoverpa management: emerging trends and strategies for future research p 453-463 in Sharma, H.C (Ed.) Heliothis/ Helicoverpa management: emerging trends and strategies for future research Plymouth, U.K; Enfield, N.H: Science Publishers, Inc Sharma, H C., & Pampapathy, G (2004) Effect of natural plant products, brassinolide, and host plant resistance in combination with insecticides on pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) damage in pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 32, 40-44 Shelomi, M., Perkins, L E., Cribb, B W., & Zalucki, M P (2010) Effects of leaf surfaces on first-instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) behaviour Australian Journal of Entomology, 49(4), 289-295 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2010.00766.x 112 Siebert, M W., Patterson, T G., Gilles, G J., Nolting, S P., Braxton, L B., Leonard, B R., et al (2009) Quantification of Cry1Ac and Cry1F Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins in Selected Transgenic Cotton Plant Tissue Types Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(3), 13011308 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0357 Sigsgaard, L., Greenstone, M H., & Duffield, S J (2002) Egg cannibalism in Helicoverpa armigera on sorghum and pigeonpea Biocontrol, 47(2), 151-165 doi: 10.1023/A:1014577114915 Simpson, S J., Sword, G A., Lorch, P D., & Couzin, I D (2006) Cannibal Crickets on a Forced March for Protein and Salt Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(11), 4152-4156 doi: 10.1073/pnas.0508915103 Singer, M C., Ng, D., & Thomas, C D (1983) Heritability of oviposition preference and its relationship to offspring performance with a single insect population Evolution, 42(5), 977-985 Singer, W (1993) Synchronization of cortical activity and its putative role in information processing and learning Annual Review of Physiology, 55(1), 349 - 374 doi: 10.1146/annurev.ph.55.030193.002025 Sivasupramaniam, S., Moar, W J., Ruschke, L G., Osborn, J A., Jiang, C., Sebaugh, J L., et al (2008) Toxicity and Characterization of Cotton Expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 Proteins for Control of Lepidopteran Pests Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(2), 546-554 doi: 10.1603/0022-0493(2008)101[546:TACOCE]2.0.CO;2 Slansky, F J., & Scriber, J M (1985) Food consumption and utilization In G A Kerkut & L I Gilbert (Eds.), Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology (Vol 4, pp 87163) New York: Pergamon Press Sotherton, N W., Wratten, S D., & Vickerman, G P (1984) The Role of Egg Predation in the Population Dynamics of Gastrophysa polygoni (Coleoptera) in Cereal Fields Oikos, 43(3), 301308 Sparks, T C., Lockwood, J A., Byford, R L., Graves, J B., & Leonard, B R (1989) The role of behaviour in insecticide resistance Pesticide Science, 26(4), 383-399 doi: 10.1002/ps.2780260406 Srinivas, P R (1988) Food utilization by Heliothis armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 58, 785–786 Stamp, E N., & Bowers, M D (1994) Effects of cages, plant age and the mechanical clipping on plantain chemistry Oecologia, 99(1/2), 66-71 doi: 10.1007/BF00317084 Stanley, S (1978) Competitive interaction between the larvae of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) and Heliothis punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Ph.D.), Australian National University, Canberra Stamp, N E., & Bowers, M D (2000) Do Enemies of Herbivores Influence Plant Growth and Chemistry? Evidence from a Seminatural Experiment Journal of Chemical Ecology, 26(10), 23672386 doi: 10.1023/A:1005531028490 113 Stanton, M L (1979) The Role of Chemotactile Stimuli in the Oviposition Preferences of Colias Butterflies Oecologia, 39(1) Stanton, M L (1982) Searching in a Patchy Environment: Foodplant Selection by Colis P Eriphyle Butterflies Ecology, 63(3), 839-853 doi: 10.2307/1936803 Stanton, M L (1984) Short-term learning and the searching accuracy of egg- laying butterflies Animal Behaviour, 32(1), 33-40 Stapel, J O., Waters, D J., Ruberson, J R., & Lewis, W J (1998) Development and Behavior of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae in Choice Tests with Food Substrates Containing Toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis Biological Control, 11(1), 29-37 doi: 10.1006/bcon.1997.0576 Stephens, D W., & Krebs, J R (1986) Foraging Theory (Vol 1) Princeton: Princeton University Press Stevens, L (1992) Cannibalism in beetles In M K Elgar & B J Crespi (Eds.), Cannibalism: Ecology and Evolution among Diverse Taxa (pp 156-175) New York, USA: Oxford University Press Stewart, S D., Adamczyka, J J., Knightenb, K S., & Davis, F M (2001) Impact of Bt Cottons Expressing One or Two Insecticidal Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner on Growth and Survival of Noctuid (Lepidoptera) Larvae Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(3), 752-760 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-94.3.752 Tabashnik, B E., Brévault, T., & Carrière, Y (2013) Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres Nature Biotechnology, 31(6), 510-521 doi: 10.1038/nbt.2597 Tabashnik, B E., & Carrière, Y (2010) Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Cotton: Bollworm in the U.S and Pink Bollworm in India Southwestern Entomologist, 35(3), 417-424 doi: 10.3958/059.035.0326 Tabashnik, B.E., Dennehy, T.J & Carrière, Y (2005) Delayed Resistance to Transgenic Cotton in Pink Bollworm Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(43), 15389-15393 doi: 10.1073/pnas.0507857102 Tabashnik, B E., Van Rensburg, J B J., & Carrière, Y (2009) Field-Evolved Insect Resistance to Bt Crops: Definition, Theory, and Data Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(6), 2011-2025 doi: 10.1603/029.102.0601 Tavormina, S J (1982) Sympatric Genetic Divergence in the Leaf-Mining Insect Liriomyza brassicae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Evolution, 36(3), 523-534 Tatar, M., & Rosenheim, J A (1992) Egg Load as a Major Source of Variability in Insect Foraging and Oviposition Behavior Oikos, 65(1), 134-142 Taylor, C E., & Condra, C (1983) Resource partitioning among genotypes of Drosophila pseudoobscura Evolution, 37(1), 135-149 Teakle, R.E & Jensen, J.M (1985) Heliothis punctigera p 312-322 in R Singh & R.F Moore (Eds.), Handbook of insect rearing (Vol 2) Amsterdam: Elsevier 114 Terry, I., Bradley, J R., & Duyn, J W (1989) Establishment of early instar Heliothis zea on soybeans Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 51(3), 233-240 doi: 10.1111/j.15707458.1989.tb01234.x Thompson, J N (1988) Evolutionary ecology of the relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring in phytophagous insects Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 47(1), 3-14 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1988.tb02275.x Thompson, J N (1988) Variation in Preference and Specificity in Monophagous and Oligophagous Swallowtail Butterflies Evolution, 42(1), 118-128 Thomson, N J (1987) Host plant resistance in cotton Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 53, 262-270 Titmarsh, I J (1992) Mortality of Immature Lepidoptera: A Case Study with Heliothis Species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) In Agricultural Crops on the Darling Downs (PhD.), University of Queensland Torres, J.B & Ruberson, J.R (2006) Spatial and temporal dynamics of oviposition behavior of bollworm and three of its predators in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 120(1), 11-22 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2006.00422.x Travers-Martin, N., & Müller, C (2008) Matching plant defence syndromes with performance and preference of a specialist herbivore Functional Ecology, 22(6), 1033-1043 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01487.x Traw, M B., & Dawson, T E (2002) Differential induction of trichomes by three herbivores of black mustard Oecologia, 131(4), 526-532 doi: 10.1007/s00442-002-0924-6 Traynier, R M M (1986) Visual learning in assays of sinigrin solution as an oviposition releaser for the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 40(1), 25-33 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1986.tb0215 Tripathi, S R., & Singh, R (1989) Effect of different pulses on development, growth and reproduction of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 10(2), 145-148 doi: doi:10.1017/S1742758400010298 Twine, P H (1971) Cannibalistic behaviour of Heliothis armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Science 28, 153–157 Udayagiri, S., & Mason, C E (1995) Host plant constituents as oviposition stimulants for a generalist herbivore: European corn borer Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 76(1), 59-65 doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1995.tb01946.x Van Poecke, R M P., Roosjen, M., Pumarino, L., & Dicke, M (2003) Attraction of the specialist parasitoid Cotesia rubecula to Arabidopsis thaliana infested by host or non-host herbivore species Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 107(3), 229-236 doi: 10.1046/j.15707458.2003.00060.x Via, S (1986) Genetic covariance between oviposition preference and larval performance in an insect herbivore Evolution, 40(4), 778-785 115 Visser, J H (1986) Host odor perception in phytophagous insects Annual Review of Entomology, 31(1), 121-144 doi: 10.1146/annurev.en.31.010186.001005 Visser, J H (1988) Host-plant finding by insects: Orientation, sensory input and search patterns Insect Physiology, 34(3), 258-268 Voelckel, C., & Baldwin, T I (2004) Generalist and specialist lepidopteran larvae elicitdifferent transcriptional responses in Nicotiana attenuata, which correlate with larval FAC profiles Ecology Letters, 7(9) Vogel, H., Kroymann, J., & Mitchell-Olds, T (2007) Different transcript patterns in response to specialist and generalist herbivores in the wild Arabidopsis relative Boechera divaricarpa PloS ONE, 2(10) doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001081 Ward, S A (1987) Optimal Habitat Selection in Time-Limited Dispersers American Naturalist, 129(4), 568-579 Wasserman, S S., Futuyma, D J., & Douglas, J (1981) Evolution of Host Plant Utilization in Laboratory Populations of the Southern Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Evolution, 35(4), 605-617 doi: 10.2307/2408234 Watanabe, M., & Yamaguchi, H Egg cannibalism and egg distribution of two Pieris butterflies, Pieris rapae and P melete (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) on a host plant, Rorippa indica (Cruciferae) Japanese Journal of Ecology, 43, 181-188 Wearing, C H., & Hokkanen, H M T (1994) Pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Case studies of ecological crop assessment for Bt gene incorporation and strategies of management Biocontrol Science and Technology, 4(4), 573-590 doi: 10.1080/09583159409355371 West, S.A & Cunningham, J.P (2002) A general model for host plant selection in phytophagous insects Journal of Theoretical Biology 214(3), 499-513 doi:10.1006/jtbi.2001.2475 Whitburn, G., & Downes, S J (2009) Surviving Helicoverpa larvae in Bollgard II: Survey results The Australian Cottongrower Magazine, 30(3), 12-16 Wiklund, C (1975) The evolutionary relationship beween adult oviposition preferences and larval host plant range in Papilio machao Oecologia, 18(3), 185-197 Wiklund, C (1981) Generalist versus specialist oviposition behavior in Papilio machaon (Lepidoptera) and functional aspects on the hierarchy of oviposition preferences Oikos, 36(2), 163170 Williams, S., Wilson, L., & Vogel, S (2011) Pests and Benificials in Australian Cotton Landscapes Toowoomba: The Development and Delivery Team (Cotton Catchment Communities CRC), Cotton Grower Services and the IHD Group Wilson, L., Downes, S., Khan, M., Whitehouse, M., Baker, G., Grundy, P., & Maas, S (2013) IPM in the transgenic era: a review of the challenges from emerging pests in Australian cotton systems Crop & Pasture Science, 64(8), 737-749 Winz, R A., & Baldwin, I T (2001) Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata IV Insect116 induced ethylene reduces jasmonate-induced nicotine accumulation by regulating putrescine Nmethyltransferase transcripts Plant Physiology, 125(4), 2189-2202 Wise, D H (2006) Cannibalism, food limitation, intraspecific competition, and the regulation of spider populations Annual Review of Entomology, 51, 441-465 doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.150947 Wu, K., Feng, H., & Guo, Y (2004) Evaluation of maize as a refuge for management of resistance to Bt cotton by Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in the Yellow River cotton-farming region of China Crop Protection, 23, 523-530 doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2003.10.009 Wu, K.-M., Lu, Y.-H., Feng, H.-Q., Jiang, Y.-Y., & Zhao, J.-Z (2008) Suppression of Cotton Bollworm in Multiple Crops in China in Areas with Bt Toxin–Containing Cotton Science, 321(5896), 1676-1678 doi: 10.1126/science.1160550 Yang, G., Espelie, K E., Wiseman, B R., & Isenhour, D J (1993) Effect of Corn Foliar Cuticular Lipids on the Movement of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Neonate Larvae The Florida Entomologist, 76(2), 302-316 Yang, Y., Johnson, M L., & Zalucki, M P (2008) Possible effect of genetically modified cotton on foraging habits of early instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae Australian Journal of Entomology, 47(2), 137-141 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2008.00640.x Yendol, W G., Hamlen, R A., & Rosario, S (1975) Feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae on Bacillus tburingiensis-treated foliage Journal of Economic Entomology, 68(1), 25-27 doi: 10.1093/jee/68.1.25 Yoshimatsu, S (1995) Outbreaks of Helicoverpa armigera (Hb.) in western Japan in 1994 and its host plant Plant Protection, 49, 495-499 Zago-Braga, R C., & Zucoloto, F S (2004) Cannibalism studies on eggs and newly hatched caterpillars in a wild population of Ascia monuste (Godart) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 48(3), 415-420 doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262004000300019 Zago, H B., Siqueira, H A A., Pereira, E J G., Picanço, M C., & Barros, R (2014) Resistance and behavioural response of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) populations to Bacillus thuringiensis formulations Pest management Science, 70(3), 488 - 495 doi: 10.1002/ps.3600 Zalucki, M P., Adamson, D., & Furlong, M J (2009) The future of IPM: whither or wither? Australian Journal of Entomology, 48(2), 85-96 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2009.00690.x Zalucki, M P., Clarke, A R., & Malcolm, S B (2002) Ecology and Behavior of first instar larval Lepidoptera Annual Review of Entomology, 47(1), 361-393 doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145220 Zalucki, M P., Cunningham, J P., Downes, S., Ward, P., Lange, C., Meissle, M., et al (2012) No evidence for change in oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) after widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal cotton Bulletin of Entomology Research, 102(4), 1-9 doi: 10.1017/S0007485311000848 117 Zalucki, M P., Daglish, G., Firempong, S., & Twine, P (1986) The Biology and Ecology of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) and Heliothis punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Australia - What Do We Know? Australian Journal of Zoology, 34(6), 779-814 Zalucki, M P., & Furlong, M J (2005) Forecasting Helicoverpa populations in Australia: A comparison of regression based models and a bio-climatic based modelling approach Insect Science, 12(1), 45-56 doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2005.00007.x Zalucki, M P., Murray, D A H., Gregg, P C., Fitt, G P., Twine, P H., & Jones, C (1994) Ecology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and Heliothis punctigera (Wallengren) in the Inland of Australia - Larval Sampling and Host-Plant Relationships During Winter and Spring Australian Journal of Zoology, 42(3), 329-346 Zarate, I S., Kempema, A L., & Walling, L L (2007) Silverleaf Whitefly Induces Salicylic Acid Defenses and Suppresses Effectual Jasmonic Acid Defenses Plant Physiology, 143(2), 866875 doi: 10.1104/pp.106.090035 Zhang, H., Yin, W., Zhao, J., Jin, L., Yang, Y., Wu, S., et al (2011) Early Warning of Cotton Bollworm Resistance Associated with Intensive Planting of Bt Cotton in China PloS ONE, 6(8), e22874 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022874.g00 Zhang, J.-H., Wang, C.-Z., Qin, J.-D., & Guo, S.-D (2004) Feeding behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera larvae on insect-resistant transgenic cotton and non-transgenic cotton Journal of Applied Entomology, 128(3), 218– 225 doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2004.00841.x Zhao, D., Zalucki, M P., Guo, R., Fang, Z., Shen, W., Zhang, L., & Liu, B (2016) Oviposition and feeding avoidance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) against transgenic Bt cotton Journal of Applied Entomology, n/a-n/a doi: 10.1111/jen.12304 Zhao, J.-Z., Cao, J., Li, Y., Collins, H L., Roush, R T., Earle, E D., et al (2003) Transgenic plants expressing two Bacillus thuringiensis toxins delay insect resistance evolution Nature Biotechnology, 21(12), 1493-1497 doi: 10.1038/nbt907 Zong, N., & Wang, C.-Z (2007) Larval feeding induced defensive responses in tobacco: comparison of two sibling species of Helicoverpa with different diet breadths Planta, 226(1), 215 224 doi: 10.1007/s00425-006-0459-x 118 ... neonates on leaves of Bt cotton and non -Bt cotton 63 4.2.5 Drop-off behaviours of Bt- resistant and -susceptible neonates of H armigera on different structures of Bt and non -Bt cotton. .. 2: Oviposition site selection and the survival of Bt- resistant and Bt- susceptible larvae of Helicoverpa armigera on Bt and non -Bt cotton Here we determine the oviposition preference of H armigera. .. development of my research Section (chapter 2) deals with the oviposition behaviour of female moths on Bt cotton and non -Bt cotton The oviposition preferences of moths among and within cotton plants
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: The oviposition and movement behaviour of bt resistant and bt susceptible helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera noctuidae) on bt cotton and non bt cotton plants , The oviposition and movement behaviour of bt resistant and bt susceptible helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera noctuidae) on bt cotton and non bt cotton plants