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Luận văn thạc sĩ english – vietnamese translation of odontology terms in odontology materials used for vietnamese dentists

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  • Luận văn thạc sĩ english – vietnamese translation of odontology terms in odontology materials used for vietnamese dentists

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UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THU HẰNG ENGLISH – VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF ODONTOLOGY TERMS IN ODONTOLOGY MATERIALS USED FOR VIETNAMESE DENTISTS (Nghiên cứu dịch thuật Anh – Việt thuật ngữ Nha khoa tài liệu Nha khoa sử dụng cho Nha sĩ Việt Nam) MA THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201.01 Ha Noi - 2020 UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THU HẰNG ENGLISH – VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF ODONTOLOGY TERMS IN ODONTOLOGY MATERIALS USED FOR VIETNAMESE DENTISTS (Nghiên cứu dịch thuật Anh – Việt thuật ngữ Nha khoa tài liệu Nha khoa sử dụng cho Nha sĩ Việt Nam) MA THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201.01 Supervisor: Assoc.Prof Dr Lê Hùng Tiến Ha Noi - 2020 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my very great gratitude to my esteemed Supervisor, Assoc.Prof.Dr Le Hung Tien, who has unfailingly given me valuable insights into my thesis, oriented me towards the right direction and encourage me to no end throughout the process My deep gratefulness is for my husband, as well as my family, who have always been beside me most of the time of the Thesis and given me so much care and help I would also highly appreciate my colleagues, my husband’s dentist team and my friends for their close and effective cooperation, without which my doing the thesis would have been a much more difficult experience i ABSTRACT This thesis aimed to investigate the translation procedures of the dental terms in the dictionary “Thuật ngữ Răng Hàm Mặt” by the Faculty of Odonto-Stomatology, Ho Chi Minh Pharmaceutical – Medical University, 1993; and the book “Dental Terminology” by Charline M Dofka, published by Delmar, Cengage Learning, 2012, combined with the field notes taken by the researcher The notes included the commonly-used translation procedures for the translator – the researcher - between doctors and patients or clients, who are the participants in this study in a dental clinic The thesis uses the theoretical framework of translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1995) to classify the translation procedures of those terms and compare with the actual practice of translation The findings of the research reveal that, in some circumstances, many Vietnamese dental terms not make easy sense to the doctors and patients or clients because they are mostly academic or professional terms The paraphrased terms the book “Dental terminology” and their synonyms are helpful in making them more easily-understood The paraphrasing and synonymy procedures by Peter Newmark are also the most effective ones apart from the others which are: literal translation, transference, naturalization, descriptive equivalence, cultural equivalence, shift or transposition and omission The study suggests practical applications of translation procedures in real-life dental translating contexts in Vietnam ii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS SL Source language TL Target language ST Source text TT Target text DT Dental terminology / Dental terms (Dental = Odontological / Odontology) iii TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i ABSTRACT ii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv TABLE OF CONTENT v CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Scope of the study 1.3 Aims of the study 1.4 Objectives 1.5 Research questions 1.6 Significance of the study 1.7 Methods of the study 1.8 Organization of the thesis CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2.1 An overview on translation 2.1.1 Translation procedures 2.1.2 Technical translation 2.1.2.1 Definition of technical translation 2.1.2.2 Varieties of technical styles 2.2 An overview on terminology 10 2.2.1 Definition of terminology 10 2.2.2 Dental terminology 10 2.2.2.1 Formation of dental words 10 2.2.2.2 Areas of dental terminology 11 2.2.2.3 Types of dental terms 12 2.3 Summary of the chapter 16 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 18 3.1 Research questions 18 iv 3.2 Methodology 18 3.3 The researcher 19 3.4 Study participants 19 3.5 Mixed methods procedures 19 3.6 Data analysis 20 3.7 Summary of the chapter 21 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 22 4.1 Translation procedures for technical terms 22 4.1.1 Literal translation 23 4.1.2 Transference or naturalization procedures 24 4.1.3 Translation by cultural equivalence procedure 27 4.1.4 Translation by descriptive equivalence procedure 27 4.1.5 Translation by synonymy 29 4.1.6 Translation by paraphrasing technical terms into commonly-used words 29 4.1.7 Shift or transposition procedures 37 4.1.8 Omission procedure 38 4.1.9 Combination of two or more translation procedures 39 4.1.10 Summary 40 4.2 Translation procedures for descriptive terms 40 4.2.1 Literal translation 41 4.2.2 Shift or transposition procedure 41 4.2.3 Omission procedure 42 4.2.4 Summary 42 4.3 Translation procedures applied in translating dental terminology from English to Vietnamese 43 Procedure 1: Literal translation 43 Procedure 2: Transference or naturalization procedures 43 Procedure 3: Translation by descriptive equivalence procedure 44 Procedure 4: Translation by using shift or transposition procedures 44 v Procedure 5: Translation by using procedure of omission 44 Procedure 6: Translation by using synonymy or paraphrasing procedures 44 4.4 Summary of the chapter 44 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS 45 5.1 Summary of key findings 45 5.2 Limitations of the study 46 5.3 Implications of the study 47 REFERENCES 50 APPENDIXES I vi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Rationale First of all, it is not difficult to realise that the Odontology is growing in momentum in most of the big cities of Vietnam Many dentistry hospitals, dental clinics have been opened everywhere with a very fast speed Furthermore, one new field has recently appeared and has been more and more paid attention to, that is “Dental Tourism” – it means tourism combines to dentistry, or tourists come to Vietnam and use Vietnam’s dental services It can be said that Dental Tourism will be one of the future key industry of Vietnam, which will contribute a significant part to the development of national tourism Secondly, English for Odontology is like a bridge between the specialists who are dentists, dental doctors, dental technicians, dental nurses and their customers or patients The specialists are interested in Odontology English to serve their job requirements, such as to read and comprehend foreign documents, listen to and understand the content in international workshops, further studies oversea The scholars or researchers pay attention to Odontology English because of their own linguistic purposes The interpreters or translators take interest in Odontology English to help dentists or doctors in their jobs Ordinary people also need Odontology English to have basic dental vocabulary to communicate with dentists to protect their own oral health It can be said that, translation of Odontology terms is a very difficult task because most of the Odontology terms are acedemic and professional ones, which contains their jargon prefixes and suffixes The translator must make them clearer by paraphrasing them into more popularly-used words or phrases Thus, the author of this thesis has made a decision of studying English–Vietnamese Odontology translation procedures with the hope to provide the readers useful translation procedures what can be applied in their jobs and requirements Scope of the study Not many Odontology materials or documents are found in Vietnam’s bookstores This research focuses on studying English Odontology terms and their Vietnamese equivalents, mainly from the dictionary “Thuật ngữ Răng Hàm Mặt” by the Faculty of Odonto-Stomatology, Ho Chi Minh Pharmaceutical – Medical University, 1993 and the book “Dental Terminology” by Charline M Dofka, published by Delmar, Cengage Learning, 2012 The research would analyse features of typical English Odontology terms, based on some translation procedures, then find out the most commonly applied translation procedures Due to the popularity of the terms “dental” or “dentistry”, I will use them instead of the less popular ones: “odontological” or “odontology” Aims of the study This study is carried out with the aims of making the writer’s job easier when she works as a translator in Hoan Kiem dental clinic, Hai Phong city Simultaneously, the study is the reference source for the people who are concerned about the dentistry industry Objectives Based on the aims of the research, some specific objectives would be drawn out Those are: • To find out the useful translation procedures applied in translation process • To make some implications and applications for the dental term translation process Research questions On this ground, the study seeks the answer to these two questions: Research question 1: What are the translation procedures used in the communication between dentists and patients / clients? Research question 2: What translation procedures are effective? Significance of the study Originating from the problems in the translation job of the researcher, in which the listeners sometimes find it difficult to understand the dental terms, I have studied the changes in the translation methods by applying the translation procedures of Newmark (1995) into my job The results show that patients and doctor communicate more effectively, the listeners not have to ask for the information again and again, the translator does not have to use the online dictionaries during the dialogues Methods of the study A mixed method which is the mixture of both quantitative and qualitative methods is applied in the thesis The participants are the doctors, patients or clients and the translator – also the researcher – working in Hoan Kiem dental clinic, Hai Phong city Organization of the thesis The paper is divided into chapters as follows: APPENDIX 2: Eponyms English eponyms Vietnamese meanings Kennedy’s classification : phân loại Kennedy (phân loại răng) Angle’s classification : phân loại Angle (phân loại khớp cắn) Gonion : điểm góc hàm Gơn-hơng Bell’s palsy : liệt Bell Frankfort plane : mặt phẳng nằm ngang Frankfort Hutchinson triad : tam chứng Hutchinson Ivy loop wiring : buộc vòng Ivy / nút buộc Ivy Buccal sheft : thềm (của xương hàm dưới) phía má Rubber dam clamp : cặp đê cao su (để điều trị tủy) Maryland bridge : Cầu Maryland California bridge : Cầu California Frankfort mandibular incisor angle : góc mặt phẳng Frankfort Richmond crown : mão Richmond Steel’s facet : mặt giả lùa II APPENDIX 3: Descriptive equivalence procedure for single terms English terms Vietnamese descriptive equivalents Cartridge Ca-trít (ngăn cách để hàn) Interocclusal Khoảng hở sinh lý (giữa hai hàm) Crown (1) thân (răng thật); (2) mão, chụp, mão thay (răng giả) Rest Sự nghỉ (của hai hàm) Khi hàm khơng làm (khơng nhai, ko nói, ko vận động) hàm gọi tư nghỉ Dislocation Trật khớp (hàm) Trong trường hợp bị chấn thương tự làm chấn thương ngáp chẳng hạn, hai hàm có khả bị trật khớp Alveoclasia Tiêu hủy ổ Thực chất tiêu xương ổ Khi thể khả bù canxi để phát triển xương ổ răng, xương ổ tiêu dần đi, dẫn đến tình trạng tiêu xương ổ Trường hợp thường xảy với sữa Chân tự tiêu hủy có khơn mọc trồi lên từ Anaraxia Tật khơng chạm Cịn gọi khớp cắn hở Ankylocheilia Tật dính mơi Cịn gọi phanh mơi bám thấp Ankyloglossia Tật dính lưỡi Cịn gọi phanh lưỡi bám thấp Cone Cơn, nón, chóp Thực chất ống tủy nhân tạo Cretinism Chứng độn Còn gọi đệm hàm Endolith Sỏi tủy Còn gọi canxi ống tủy Convenience relation jaw Tương quan thich nghi hai hàm Hai hàm người bình thường ln có vận động (nhai, nuốt, nói, nghiến) tự nhiên, nhịp nhàng thuận tiện Kết điều trị nha khoa nên dẫn đến tiện lợi thuận lợi hai hàm điều trị thành cơng Bite wing film Phim cắn cánh Còn gọi phim X-quang III Idiopathic erosion Posterior Tiêu thân hình nêm Cịn gọi mòn cổ palatal Đê sau Để làm hàm tháo lắp seal IV APPENDIX 4: Synonyms English terms Synonyms Vietnamese meanings Calculus Tartar cao Buccal Cheeky / cheek thuộc má Cast Mould / mold / impression khuôn đúc Edentate Edentulous Fossa Cavity hố, lỗ Germ Bud mầm (răng) Overbite Overlap cắn phủ V APPENDIX 5: Paraphrasing independent root words English terms Translation by paraphrasing Vietnamese meanings Mandibular Lower jaw : hàm Pulp Bone marrow : tủy xương Maxillary Upper jaw : hàm Dentate With teeth : có Edentate Lose teeth : Eyelet Attachment : mắc cài (trong chỉnh nha) Fissure A narrow opening : khe Flange False gum / artificial gum : lợi / nướu giả Canine Eye tooth : nanh Cacosmia Trouble with badly smelled breath : chứng hôi miệng Cervix Tooth neck : cổ Clearance Space between the two jaws : khoảng hở hai hàm Cavity Tooth hole : lỗ / lỗ trám VI APPENDIX 6: Paraphrasing roots as combining forms Root word Combo form Paraphrased into Meanings alveolar alveo- alveolus ổ apical apic- / apico- apex of a root chóp axis ax- / axo- axis / midline trục buccal bucc- / bucco- cheek thuộc má cheilo cheil- / cheilo- lip thuộc môi coronal coron- / coro crown mão / chụp dens dent- / dento- tooth thuộc distal dist- / disto- farthest from the center xa trung tâm enamel ename- / enamo- enamel tissue mô men amel- / amelofluoride fluor- / fluo- fluoride (chemical) chất flo frenum frene- frenum dây chằng / giằng front front- / fronto- forehead trước gingiva gingiv- / gingivo- gingiva / gum thuộc lợi/nướu glossa gloss- / glossa- gnatho gnath- / gnatho- jaw, cheek thuộc hàm, má incisor incis- / inciso- incisor tooth thuộc cửa labia labi- / labio- lip area vùng quanh môi lingua lingu- / linguo- tongue thuộc lưỡi mandible mandibu- / mandiba- lower jaw thuộc hàm glosso- / tongue VII thuộc lưỡi maxilla maxilla- / maxillo- upper jaw thuộc hàm mesial mesi- / mesio- middle, midplane giữa, gần mucosa muc- / muco- tissue lining an orifice niêm mạc occlude occlus- / occluso- occluding; jaw close khớp cắn odont odont- / odonto- tooth thuộc orthos orth- / ortho- straight, proper order trật tự hợp lý stoma stoma- mouth thuộc miệng temporal tempor- / temporo- temporal bone xương thái dương VIII APPENDIX 7: Paraphrasing prefixed-added terms * Prefixes denoting quantity or number: Prefixes a- /an- Translation by paraphrasing Without Prefixes’ meanings : không / vô Eg: abacterial (vô khuẩn) uni- : / đơn One Eg: unilateral (một bên) bi- : hai / đôi Two / double Eg: bifid (hai nhánh); bifurcation (chẻ đôi) tri- Three : nhân ba / ba nhánh Eg: trigeminal (cấu trúc ba phần) hemi- / semi- Half : nửa / bán phần Eg: hemisection (nửa phần); semicoma (hôn mê bán phần) poly- Many : nhiều Eg: polymerization (sự trùng hợp hóa học) mono- : / đơn One Eg: monomer (đơn phân) quad- / quat- Four : bốn, phần bốn Eg: quadrant (cung ¼ hàm) * Prefixes denoting size or degree: hyper- : / vượt Over / excess Eg: hypersalivation (sự tiết nước bọt mức) hypo- : Under / below IX Eg: hypocalcification (giảm vôi hóa – vơi hóa mức cho phép) macro- / mega- Large : to / lớn Eg: macrodontism = megadontism (tật to) micro- Small / minute : nhỏ Eg: microdontia (tật nhỏ) pan- All around : xung quanh / vịng quanh Eg: X-ray panorama (chụp tồn sọ) ultra- Extreme / beyond : siêu / vi Eg: ultrasonic (siêu âm) * Prefixes denoting location or direction: ab- Away from : bỏ / vứt Eg: ablation (cắt bỏ, lấy bỏ) ante- : trước In front of Eg: anteocclusion (cắn khớp trước) de- Down from : giảm Eg: decalcification (sự giảm canxi / canxi); dehydration (sự nước) ecto- Outside : ngồi / lệch Eg: ectopia (sự lệch vị trí / sai chỗ) endo- Within : / nội Eg: endodontia (nội nha) infra- : Below Eg: infraclusion (khớp cắn mức) X inter- In midst of : / tiếp giáp Eg: interproximal (ở giữa, kẽ) perio- Around : quanh, xung quanh Eg: periodontium (mô nha chu) post- After / later : sau Eg: posterior (phía sau) pre- : trước Before Eg: premaxilla (tiền hàm) retro- Behind / back : phía sau Eg: retroalveolar (tật lùi ổ răng) sub- : mức/nhẹ hơn/ít Under / lesser Eg: sublingual (dưới lưỡi); subluxation (sai khớp nhẹ) supra- Above / over : (mức) Eg: supraversion (lệch mức); supragrathia (hàm cao mức) trans- Through : thông qua/xuyên qua Eg: translation (sự tịnh tiến, chuyển vị); transplant (vật chuyển ghép) * Prefixes denoting condition: anti- Opposite to : kháng Eg: anticarious (chống sâu răng) a- / an- Without : không / vô Eg: aberrant (sai lạc, không vị trí) contra- Against : kháng / phản XI Eg: contra-indication (phản định, chống định) dis- Take away : xa Eg: distoclusion (khớp cắn lệch xa): dislocation (sự trật khớp) mal- Bad : sai / lệch Eg: malrelationship (sai tương quan); malalignment (sai hàng) pachy- Thick : dày Eg: pachyderma (dày da) sclero- Hard : cứng Eg: sclerosis (chứng xơ hóa, hóa cứng); scleroderma (bệnh cứng bì) un- Not / non : không / vô / Eg: unbalance (mất thăng bằng) XII APPENDIX 8: Paraphrasing suffixes-added terms * Suffixes indicating condition Suffixes Translation by paraphrasing Suffixes’ meanings -itis inflammation : viêm Eg: periodontitis (viêm nha chu); stomatitis (viêm miệng) -ium germ : mầm, vi trùng Eg: bacterium (vi khuẩn) -olus sac : túi, bao Eg: alveolus (ổ răng) -oma tumor : khối u Eg: lipoma (u mỡ); osteoma (u xương); odontoma (u răng) -pathy disease : bệnh Eg: myopathy (bệnh phá hủy cơ) * Suffixes denoting agent or person concerned Suffixes English terms Vietnamese meanings -ee Trainee Người huấn luyện -ent Patient Bệnh nhân (người bệnh) -eon Surgeon Bác sĩ phẫu thuật -er Practitioner Người làm nghề y -ician Physician Bác sĩ nội khoa (không phẫu thuật) -ist Dentist Nha sĩ Orthodontist Bác sĩ chỉnh nha Doctor Bác sĩ, Tiến sĩ -or XIII APPENDIX 9: Paraphrasing other suffix-added terms English terms Vietnamese meaning Paraphrased terms Odontalgia Sự đau Pain in tooth / teeth Vaccinate Tiêm vac-cin To inject with vaccine Germicide Chất sát trùng The substance that kills germs / bacteria Osteocyte Tế bào xương Bone cells Apicoectomy Thủ thuật cắt chóp Cut the peak of … Prognosis Tiên lượng, chẩn đoán Diagnosis Biology Môn sinh học A subject that studies creatures Odontoma U Tooth tumor Biopsy Sinh thiết A kind of experiment to diagnose a tumor trouble Gingivalplasty Phẫu thuật chỉnh sửa lợi Surgery to repair gingiva / gum Osteotrophy Sự phát triển xương Bone development XIV APPENDIX 10: Shift or transposition English terms Vietnamese meanings Baked porcelain : sứ nướng nha khoa Beveled instrument : dụng cụ vát hai mặt Intruded gum : lợi bị thụt Inverted cone bur : mũi khoan chóp ngược Gliding movement : vận động trượt hàm Working cast : mẫu sử dụng Polishing brush : bàn chải bóng Buckling growth : mọc chen chúc Apical cyst : u nang chóp Eruptive cyst : u nang mọc Distal surface : mặt xa Mental foramen : lỗ cằm Duplication denture : hàm chép Bruxism habit : thói quen nghiến Habit reminder : khí cụ sửa thói quen Ridge relation : tương quan sống hàm Pulp necrosis : hoại tử tủy Rest bite : tư nghỉ sinh lý XV APPENDIX 11 : Omission procedure English terms Vietnamese meanings Architecture of mandible : cấu trúc xương hàm Inferior border of mandible : bờ xương hàm Posture of mandible : tư xương hàm Luxation of temporo mandibular : sai khớp thái dương hàm Mounting on the articulator : lên giá khớp Periodontal pocket with abscess : túi mủ nha chu Loss of contact point : điểm tiếp giáp Plane of teeth : mặt phẳng Retropulsion of the mandible : đẩy lùi hàm Scapel for gingivectomy : dao cắt nướu / lợi Skeleton of partial denture : sườn hàm giả Internal face of denture : mặt hàm giả Setting of plaster : đông đặc thạch cao Spatulation of plaster : đánh thạch cao (bằng tay) Vestibule of the mouth : ngách miệng Vestibule of oral cavity : ngách hốc miệng Scapel for gingivectomy : dao cắt nướu Anesthesia by acupuncture : châm tê XVI ...UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN THU HẰNG ENGLISH – VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF ODONTOLOGY TERMS IN ODONTOLOGY MATERIALS USED FOR VIETNAMESE DENTISTS. .. by inserting a combining vowel (“o”) unless the suffix begins with a vowel In that case, the combining form or vowel is dropped.” For instance, the surgical removal of gum tissue is the meaning... Writing notes or additional information in translation at bottom of page, at end of chapter or book is a useful way to support and clarify the meaning of target language terms Normally, in the translation
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