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Luận văn thạc sĩ applying anki to enhance vocabulary acquisition of first year students at a university in hanoi

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  • Luận văn thạc sĩ applying anki to enhance vocabulary acquisition of first year students at a university in hanoi

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN PHƯƠNG TRINH APPLYING ANKI TO ENHANCE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION OF FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS AT A UNIVERSITY IN HANOI (Sử dụng Anki nhằm nâng cao việc học từ vựng đối tượng sinh viên năm trường đại học Hà Nội) M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Hanoi - 2020 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN PHƯƠNG TRINH APPLYING ANKI TO ENHANCE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION OF FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS AT A UNIVERSITY IN HANOI (Sử dụng Anki nhằm nâng cao việc học từ vựng đối tượng sinh viên năm trường đại học Hà Nội) M.A MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Supervisor: Duong Anh Chien, PhD Hanoi - 2020 DECLARATION I certify that the work presented in this research report has been performed and interpreted solely by myself I confirm that this paper is submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the M.A Degree and has not been submitted elsewhere in any other form for the fulfillment of any other degree or qualification Hanoi, 2020 Nguyen Phuong Trinh i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Upon writing these lines, I have realized this thesis is nearing completion I look back and I see how long, sometimes tiring and yet worthy this journey has been Although I am the researcher who wrote this, I believe I am not the only one who contributed the success to it Therefore, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the people who helped me in this chapter First, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor, Duong Anh Chien, Ph.D It is his assistance and dedicated involvement in every step throughout the process that led to the accomplishment of this paper I would like to thank you very much for your immense support and valuable advice I would also like to send a special thanks to my students who were so generous with their time in participating in this research In addition, I am grateful for all the lecturers from the faculty of post-graduate studies at University of Languages and International Studies for providing me with comprehensive knowledge and supporting me in my master‟s course Last but not least, my sincere thanks to my friends, Bui Bich Ngoc, Luong Hue Phuong, Do Thi Ngoc Ha, and most importantly, my mother There were a lot of doubts and scares along the way, but I am glad that I had my family and friends accompany me on this rough road This thesis stands as a testament to their unconditional love and encouragement January 12, 2020 Hanoi, Vietnam Nguyen Phuong Trinh ii ABSTRACT This study investigates the impacts of Anki, a web-based flashcard program, on learners‟ vocabulary learning and their perceptions towards the program based on three criteria: usefulness, usability and enjoyment (Davis, 1989; Ranalli, 2009) Participants of the study were first-year students from two intact classes whose levels of language proficiency were at elementary level Both groups underwent a pre-test and then were required to learn the KET Vocabulary List developed by Cambridge TESOL, which is corresponding to their level at A2 according to CEFR over a period of three weeks The control group (n = 18) utilized paper flashcards while the experimental group (n = 18) used Anki flashcards A post-test ensued so that comparisons between two methods of learning vocabulary could be made The results indicated that making use of traditional flashcards and Anki did lead to the improvement in vocabulary learning; however, those who used Anki showed better performance than those who did not Therefore, it can be concluded that Anki is an effective learning tool for language learners to expand their vocabulary In order to gain insights into their perceptions about Anki, the researcher asked the participants to take part in a survey, six of whom later joined an interview to elaborate on their thoughts about Anki Analysis of the responses revealed that the learners found it useful and rather enjoyable, but the user-friendliness criterion was not viewed as an advantage of this program iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS II ABSTRACT III LIST OF TABLES VI LIST OF FIGURES VII CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study .1 1.2 Aims of the study and research questions 1.3 Scope of the study .2 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Methods of the study 1.6 Structure of the thesis .3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Target vocabulary for ESL students 2.2 The role of repetition in language learning 2.3 Spaced repetition 2.4 Computer-based flashcards programs in language learning 2.5 The use of Anki as a learning tool .11 2.5.1 The description of Anki 11 2.5.2 The use of Anki in vocabulary learning 12 2.6 Previous studies on the effectiveness of Anki in learning vocabulary 12 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 17 3.1 Participants 17 3.2 Research design 18 3.3 Data collection instruments 18 3.4 Data collection process 22 iv 3.5 Data analysis 24 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 26 4.1 Research question .26 4.2 Research question .28 4.2.1 Usefulness 29 4.2.2 Usability 31 4.2.3 Enjoyment 33 4.3 Discussions 36 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 39 5.1 Concluding remarks .39 5.2 Limitations of the study .39 5.3 Pedagogical implications .40 5.4 Recommendations for further study 40 REFERENCES 42 APPENDICES I Appendix Pre- and post- vocabulary tests I Appendix Pre-experiment questionnaire VII Appendix Survey on using Anki for vocabulary learning VIII Appendix Interview questions X v LIST OF TABLES Table Subcategories in the survey 21 Table Paired samples statistics of pre- and post-test of participants 26 Table Pre- and post-test comparison of the experimental group 27 Table Pre- and post-test comparison of the control group 27 Table Independence Sample Tests 28 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Pre-experiment survey responses 18 Figure Technology acceptance model (Davis et al., 1989) 21 Figure Screenshot of the Anki Flashcard interface .23 Figure Perceptions about usefulness .29 Figure Perceptions about usability 31 Figure Perceptions about enjoyment .34 vii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This initial part states the rationale of the study, the scope, the significance, the aims, the methods, and the structure of the study Above all, it is in this part that the research questions are identified to work as clear guidelines for the whole research 1.1 Rationale of the study As technology is proliferating worldwide over the past century, web-based learning tools are becoming increasingly commonplace in vocabulary language teaching and learning Godwin-Jones (2011) indicated that over the past decade, learners have been offered a wide array of opportunities to study L2 vocabulary due to state-of-the-art electronic gadgets instead of being solely confined to the pen-andpencil learning method in the past One of the influences that technology has left on L2 vocabulary learning has been the emergence of digital flashcards There is a consensus among researchers that making use of electronic flashcards is beneficial in that it can help facilitate the learned information retrieval and better retention (Altiner, 2011; Dodigovic, 2013; Mclean, Hogg & Rush, 2013; Spiri, 2014) In addition, digital flashcards supply users with various multimedia components such as audio and animation, which can increase learners‟ motivation and interest (Allum, 2004) Compared to traditional flashcards, web-based study cards programs gain additional advantages of carrying as many cards as desired and accommodating users with sharing sets of flashcards (Foster, 2009) Plenty of flashcard software has received a great deal of attention in L2 research such as Quizlet or Memorise Among those programs, Anki, a flashcardscreating-and-learning software that allows users to study vocabulary using spaced repetition, has recently been on the rise Anki was stated to help learners foster their vocabulary growth and successfully recall the learned information (Altiner, 2011; Zare and Barjasteh, 2017; Seibert Hanson and Brown, 2019) Nevertheless, Bower REFERENCES Ali, Z., Mukundan, J., Bki, R & Ayub, A (2012) Second language learners‟ attitudes towards the methods of learning vocabulary English Language Teaching, 5(4), 24-36 Allum, P (2004) Evaluation of CALL: Initial vocabulary learning ReCALL, 16(2), 488-501 Altiner, C (2011) Integrating a computer-based flashcard program into academic vocabulary learning Unpublished doctoral dissertation Iowa State University Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database UMI No 1498719 Alzeer, S N M (2015) Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Web-based Flashcard System King Saud University, English Language and Literature Department (Master's Thesis), Retrieved from Arab World English Journal Database (ID Number: 184, May, 2017) Azabdaftari, B., & Mozaheb, M A (2012) Comparing vocabulary learning of EFL learners by using two different strategies: mobile learning vs flashcards The EUROCALL Review, 48-59 Baddeley, A (1990) Human Memory London: Lawrence Erlbaum Asssociates Bailey, R C., & Davey, J (2011) Internet-based Spaced Repetition Learning In and Out of the Classroom: Implementation and Student Perception CELE Journal, 20, 39-50 Başoğlu, E B & Akdemir, O (2010) A comparison of undergraduate students' English vocabulary learning: Using mobile phones and flash cards The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(3) 1-7 Bower, J., & Rutson-Griffiths, A (2014) Effects of studying a TOEIC word list with spaced-repetition flashcard software Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-11 42 Charmaz, K (1990) „Discovering‟ chronic illness: Using grounded theory Social Science and Medicine, 30, 1161–1172 Creswell, J., & Plano Clark, V (2011) Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Daloglu, A., Baturay, M., & Yildirim, S (2008) Designing a constructivist vocabulary learning material Handbook of Research on E-learning Methodologies for Language Acquisition, 186-203 David, F D., Bagozzi, R P., & Warshaw, P R (1989) User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003 Davis, F D (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340 De Groot, A M B (2006) Effects of Stimulus Characteristics and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting Language Learning, 56(3), 463-506 Dempster, F N (1987) Effects of variable encoding and spaced presentation on vocabulary learning Journal of Educational Psychology, 59, 202-206 Dodigovic, M (2013) Vocabulary learning: An electronic word card study TESOL Arabia Perspectives, 20(1), 13-21 Ebbinghaus, H (2011) Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology: Martino Fine Books Elgort, I., & Nation, P (2010) Vocabulary learning in a second language: Familiar answers to new questions In S W Paul Seedhouse, Chris Jenks (Ed.), Conceptualizing Learning in Applied Linguistics (pp 89-104) New York: Palgrave Macmillan Foster, H (2009) Building learner-generated vocabulary logs with Quizlet The Language Teacher, 33(12), 23-25 43 Godwin-Jones, R (2010) Emerging technologies from memory palaces to spacing algorithms: Approahes to second language vocabulary learning Language, Learning & Technology, 14(2), Godwin-Jones, R (2011) Emerging technologies: Mobile Apps for Language Learning Language Learning & Technology, 15, 2-11 Horst, M., Cobb, T., & Meara, P (1998) Beyond a Clockwork Orange: acquiring second language vocabulary through reading Reading in a Foreign Language, 11, 207-223 Ko, M H., & Gorenson, J (2014) Technology-assisted vocabulary learning and student learning outcomes: A case study Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 17(1), 11-33 Mason, M (2010) Sample size and saturation in PhD studies using qualitative interviews Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3) Mclean, S., Hogg, N & Rush, T (2013) Vocabulary learning through an online computerized flashcard site Jalt CALL journal, 9(1), 79–98 Milton, J (2010) The development of vocabulary breadth across the CEFR levels In M B Martin, Inge; Vedder, Ineke (Ed.), Communicative proficiency and linguistic development: intersections between SLA and language testing research (pp 211-232): Second Language Acquisition and Testing in Europe Monograph Series Milton, J., & Alexiou, T (2009) Vocabulary Size and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages In B M H Richards, Daller; Malvern, David D.; Meara, Paul; Milton, John; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine (Ed.), Vocabulary studies in first and second language acquisition London: Palgrave Macmillan Morse, J M (2000) Determining sample size Qualitative Health Research, 10, 3– 44 Nakata, T (2008) English vocabulary learning with word lists, word cards and computers: Implications from cognitive psychology research for optimal spaced learning ReCALL, 20(1), 3-20 Nakata, T (2011) Computer-assisted second language vocabulary learning in a paired-associate paradigm: a critical investigation of flashcard software Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(1), 17-38 Nation, P (1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary: Massachusetts: Newbury House Nation, P (2001) Learning Vocabulary in Another Language Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Pyc, M.A., & Rawson, K.A (2007) Examining the efficiency of schedules of distributed retrieval practice Memory & Cognition, 35(8), 1917-1927 Ranalli, J (2009) Prospects for Developing L2 Students' Effective Use of Vocabulary Learning-Strategies via Web-based Training CALICO Journal, 27, Richards, J C., & Schimidt, R (2002) Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics (3rd Ed.) London: Peasron Education Roediger, H L., & Butler, A C (2011) The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 20-27 Sahin, I & Shelley, M (2008) Considering students‟ perceptions: The distance education student satisfaction model Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 216-223 Schmitt, N (2010) Researching vocabulary: A vocabulary research manual Basingstoke, U.K.: Palgrave Macmillian Seibert Hanson, A E., and Brown, C M (2019) Enhancing L2 proficiency through a mobile assisted spaced-repetition tool: an effective but bitter pill? Computer Assisted Language 10.1080/09588221.2018.1552975 45 Learning 33(1) 133-155 doi: Spiri, J (2014) Online study of frequency list vocabulary with the WordChamp website Reflections on English Language Teaching, 7(1), 21–36 Tamaki, K (2007) Incorporating Nintendo DS into the curriculum leads to marked improvement in English vocabulary: Yawata City Board of Education, Kyoto Mainichi Newspaper, 28 Webb, S (2007) The effects of repetition on vocabulary knowledge Applied Linguistics, 28, 46-65 Zare, M., & Barjasteh, H (2017) Incorporating intelligent flashcards for fostering EFL learners' vocabulary knowledge: The case of Anki Software Technics Technologies Education Management, 12(3), 184-191 46 APPENDICES Appendix Pre- and post- vocabulary tests Name: VOCABULARY TEST NO.1 I Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks the correct words from the box Gloves curtain carpet stationery sausages Windsurfing leather yoghurt occupation envelope Fridge windbreaker bathtub drawer fork _ _ I 10 _ 13 _ 11 _ 14 _ II _ 12 15 II Write the meaning of the following words Word Meaning rest except cousin put on (weight) mattress variety engineer include tidy up 10 quarter III Name: VOCABULARY TEST NO.2 I Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks with the correct words from the box trainers ambulance main course air bracelet conditioner butcher receipt cap exhibition sweater instruments mustache shop blanket scarf assistant _ _ _ _ IV _ _ _ 10 _ 11 _ 12 13 _ 14 _ 15 V II Write the meaning of the following words Words Meaning immediately colleague change (money) afterwards earn several casual mechanic try on 10 unfortunately VI Appendix Pre-experiment questionnaire Name: ……………………………………… Gender:  Male  Female  Other Age: ……………… How long have you been studying English at school? ……………………… How you learn new words in English? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Have you ever used Anki to learn English vocabulary?  Yes  No Have you ever used any digital flashcards tools to learn English vocabulary?  Yes  No If yes, what are they? ………………………………………… VII Appendix Survey on using Anki for vocabulary learning I would like to ask you to help me by answering the following survey questions concerning the use of Anki in vocabulary learning This survey is conducted in order to fulfill the requirements of a Master‟s Degree in English Language Teaching Methodology at the University of Languages and International Studies This survey is made to gain a better understanding about your perceptions about Anki for vocabulary learning after using it This is not a test so there are no “right” or “wrong” answers I am interested in your personal opinion and would like to request that you answer sincerely The questionnaire will take no longer than 15 minutes to complete Your responses are completely confidential Personal information a) Full name: ……………………………… ……… b) Gender:  Male  Female  Other c) Phone number: ………………………………… d) Email: …………………………………………… Questions a) On what digital device(s) did you use to learn vocabulary on Anki?  Computer  Mobile phone  Tablet  Other: …………………… b) For the items 1-12, please check the box that most closely matches your response to the statement Please check only one box after each statement and answer all Strongly Disagree Not disagree sure Images were useful for me to remember new words I learned many new words by looking at the definition VIII Agree Strongly agree It was easy to use Anki I used “again”, “hard”, “good”, “easy” options of Anki to arrange my vocabulary study I have not experienced any technical difficulty with Anki Using Anki is enjoyable It is motivating to use Anki to learn new words I like the fill-in-the-blank exercise for vocabulary learning My vocabulary has improved since I started using Anki 10 I think Anki can help me improve my vocabulary in general 11 I would use Anki again in the future 12 This kind of tools should be included in language courses Thank you for kindly participating in this questionnaire! Adopted from Ranalli, J (2009) Prospects for Developing L2 Students' Effective Use of Vocabulary Learning-Strategies via Web-based Training CALICO Journal, 27, IX Appendix Interview questions The following questions will be asked during the interview:  Do you think Anki helped you increase your vocabulary? If yes, how? If no, what are the reasons?  Did you enjoy using Anki? What did you enjoy the most? What did you enjoy the least?  Did you like how the words were presented in Anki?  Did you find Anki useful for your vocabulary learning? Which aspects of Anki did you find most useful? Which aspects did you find least useful?  How you think Anki could be used differently so that it can help you learn words better?  Do you think it was easy to use Anki? Did you have any technical difficulties while using Anki?  Do you think your vocabulary was improved with Anki? If yes, how? If no, what are the reasons?  Would you like to use it in the future? Why/why not? X ...VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES NGUYỄN PHƯƠNG TRINH APPLYING ANKI TO ENHANCE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION OF FIRST- YEAR. .. gain additional advantages of carrying as many cards as desired and accommodating users with sharing sets of flashcards (Foster, 2009) Plenty of flashcard software has received a great deal of. .. Initial vocabulary learning ReCALL, 16(2), 488-501 Altiner, C (2011) Integrating a computer-based flashcard program into academic vocabulary learning Unpublished doctoral dissertation Iowa State University
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