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Luận văn thạc sĩ application of google classroom in promoting independent learning of non english major students in english class in a police institution

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES **************** NGUYỄN DUY QUYNH APPLICATION OF GOOGLE CLASSROOM IN PROMOTING INDEPENDENT LEARNING OF NON-ENGLISH MAJOR STUDENTS IN ENGLISH CLASS IN A POLICE INSTITUTION (Ứng dụng công cụ Google Classroom việc nâng cao khả học tập độc lập sinh viên không chuyên học tiếng Anh đơn vị giáo dục Cảnh sát) M.A THESIS (Applied Program) Field : English Teaching Methodology Code : 8140231.01 Hanoi - 2020 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES **************** NGUYỄN DUY QUYNH APPLICATION OF GOOGLE CLASSROOM IN PROMOTING INDEPENDENT LEARNING OF NON-ENGLISH MAJOR STUDENTS IN ENGLISH CLASS IN A POLICE INSTITUTION (Ứng dụng công cụ Google Classroom việc nâng cao khả học tập độc lập sinh viên không chuyên học tiếng Anh đơn vị giáo dục Cảnh sát) M.A THESIS (Applied Program) Field : English Teaching Methodology Code : 8140231.01 Supervisor : Assoc Prof Lê Văn Canh Hanoi - 2020 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the thesis entitled “Application of Google Classroom in promoting independent learning of non-English major students in English class in a police institution” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references Whole or any part of the thesis has not been submitted before in order to qualify for any other academic degree Hanoi, 2020 Nguyễn Duy Quynh i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The completion of this research paper could not have been possible without the participation and assistance of people to whom I would like to express my sincere gratitude My deep gratitude goes first to Associate Professor Lê Văn Canh, my supervisor, for his continuous support, patience and precious guidance which helped me in all the time of research and writing of this study I would also like to extend my appreciation to all the research participants, students of class N01.D44, for their eager cooperation and valuable ideas in the questionnaires and interviews without which the study could not be completed In addition, my thanks are also delivered to my colleagues at the Department of Foreign Languages of the People’s Police Academy for their kind support and constant source of inspiration This last word of acknowledgement I have saved for my beloved parents and my dear wife who have been with me throughout stressful times, pushing me farther than I thought I could go ii ABSTRACT This study was expected to investigate the application of Google Classroom to promote the independent learning of non-English major students studying in a police institution More explicitly, the author attempted to carry out his intervention throughout one cyclical process of action research and targeted at examining 1) impacts of the application of Google Classroom on the students’ independent learning in their English class and 2) the students’ opinions towards the application of Google Classroom in their English learning The data were collected from pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires delivered to the participants, and interviews with some of the students The time span of the intervention was 14 weeks in total and all findings indicated in the study were interpreted as the result of one-cycle implementation of the action research project It was concluded that the application of Google Classroom was beneficial to the majority of the students and their independent learning was positively influenced The primary evidence was found in improvement of the students in terms of English task completion and their increasingly positive feeling and motivation From the findings of the research, it is suggested that adapting a new approach in English language teaching should be considered in the context of the police institution iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vii LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale of the study 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Scope of the study 1.4 Methods of the study 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Organization of the thesis CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 An overview of independent learning 2.1.1 Definition of independent learning 2.1.2 Influential factors in developing independent learning 10 2.1.3 Characteristics of independent learners in higher education 13 2.2 Tassinari's Dynamic Autonomy Model (DAM) for independent learning 14 2.2.1 An introduction of DAM model 14 2.2.2 Components of DAM model 15 2.3 An overview of Google Classroom 17 2.3.1 What is Google Classroom? 17 2.3.2 Advantages of GC in English language teaching 19 2.3.3 Relationship of GC and independent learning 21 iv 2.4 Davis's Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for evaluation of GC effectiveness 22 2.4.1 An introduction of TAM model 22 2.4.2 Application of TAM model adopted for measuring efficacy of GC 23 2.5 Previous studies 24 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26 3.1 Context of the research 26 3.1.1 Context of the police institution 26 3.1.2 Current English teaching and learning for non-English major students at the Academy 27 3.2 Design of the research 28 3.2.1 Rationale for the use of action research 28 3.2.2 Procedure of the action research 29 3.3 Participants of the research 36 3.4 Instruments of the research 36 3.4.1 Description of the questionnaires 36 3.4.2 Semi-structured interview 38 3.5 Procedures of data collection 38 3.6 Procedures of data analysis 39 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 40 4.1 Pre-intervention 40 4.1.1 The feasibility of the application of GC 40 4.1.2 The action-oriented dimension before the intervention 40 4.1.3 The social and affective dimension before the intervention 45 4.2 Intervention and Post-intervention 46 4.2.1 Research question 1: How did the application of Google Classroom affect the students’ independent learning in their English class? 46 4.2.2 Research question 2: What were the students’ opinions towards the application of Google Classroom in their English learning? 51 v 4.3 Summary of the findings 54 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 56 5.1 Conclusion 56 5.2 Pedagogical implications from the findings 56 5.3 Limitations of the study 57 REFERENCES 59 APPENDICES I APPENDIX I APPENDIX II APPENDIX VI APPENDIX XI APPENDIX .XII APPENDIX XIV APPENDIX XVI APPENDIX XIX APPENDIX XXIV APPENDIX 10 XXVIII APPENDIX 11 XXIX APPENDIX 12 XXXI APPENDIX 13 XXXIII vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AR: Action Research DAM: Dynamic Autonomy Model EFL: English as a Foreign Language GC: Google Classroom ICT: Information and Communication Technology TAM: Technology Acceptance Model vii LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1: Mean scores of the items in Planning component 41 Table 2: Mean scores of the items in Choosing materials and techniques component 42 Table 3: Mean scores of the items in Completing tasks component 43 Table 4: Mean scores of the items in Evaluating component 44 Table 5: Mean scores of the items in Cooperating component 45 Table 6: Mean scores of the items in Dealing with feeling and motivation component 46 Table 7: Mean scores of the items in Planning component after application of GC 47 Table 8: Mean scores of the items in Choosing materials and techniques component after application of GC 47 Table 9: Mean scores of the items in Completing tasks component after the application of GC 48 Table 10: Mean scores of the items in Evaluating component after application of GC 49 Table 11: Mean scores of the items in Cooperating component after the application of GC 50 Table 12: Mean scores of the items in Dealing with feeling and motivation component after the application of GC 51 Table 13: Mean scores of the 13 items on the students' perception of GC application in English learning .52 Figure 1: Student factors involving in independent learning 11 Figure 2: Hierarchy of enabling environment 12 Figure 3: The Dynamic Autonomy Model 16 Figure 4: Examples of classes on Google Classroom 18 Figure 5: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) 23 Figure 6: Cyclical AR model based on Kemmis and McTaggart 29 Figure 7: Students’ difficulty in choosing materials, resources and techniques, strategies for learning English .42 Figure 8: The competence of evaluating materials, resources and techniques, strategies for learning English .44 Figure 9: Following the English learning plan, post-intervention .47 Figure 10: The participants’ perspective on eagerness before and after GC intervention 51 viii S: Uh, I think, yes Uh, because although I am a hard working student, I always have a plan for everything and I try to finish all of them, but the time due of GC and the teacher’s mark bases on the time we hand in our exercises, so sometimes I feel it like a motivation for us to all the homework and to send them as fast as possible GC is also useful to me when I can search for new learning materials on my own and attach in my assignments T: Do you have any suggestion(s) to improve independent English learning via GC? S: I have a suggestion that the teacher can conduct more online activities like, online presentations, or online examinations because we haven’t had a chance to try it before T: Yeah, you mean we need to keep balance via online assessment in English? S: Yes, not only online study in English, we can also have online examinations or online presentations In addition, I think the teacher should consider the ratio of assignments in GC and exercises in class I want to recommend that more exercises in GC along with less exercises in class can help us feel less stressful I think that GC is an option to try, but you can reduce the amount of homework in paper, and push them all in GC Interview Transcript Respondent B - Interviewer (T): Do you often practice English after inclass participation, I mean after class? - Respondent (S): Okay, so to me, I think it is not really quite often but everyday I read English news and also watch a lot of American TV shows, so I just that for entertainment but I think I also practice English at the same time T: Before learning English at the PPA, have you learned English in other centers or schools? S: Ah, actually, in the past, I was a student at Ha Tinh high school for the gifted, and my major is English, and also in the past, I was a member of, you know, English XX A4_1 GC has positive influence on student’s independent learning A4_2 GC is suitable when the student can choose materials for himself A5_1 more online activities can be done; formative assessment should be conducted A5_2 a balance of content and assessment must be considered when conducting the blended course with GC Code Open Coding B1_1 the student prefers practicing English as an entertaining activity; authentic English sources attract the student a lot B1_2 student is welleducated in English with high competence national team so before attending PPA, I had studied English a lot T: Question two: What affects your independent English learning practice? S: So, can you explain a little bit the question? T: Uh, what affects your independent learning? S: So, I think, actually, about independent learning, is a broad definition It depends much on my characters, so I am such an, you know, an ambitious student, so I try my best to study all the time, so I think, independent learning depends so much on your characters, also your ambition and determination T: So, it depends on you, as the first thing S: Yes T: How about the other factors, I think about administrators, teachers, and also the schedule? S: So, I think these factors are also primary, you know, important role About the teacher, he or she will encourage me to, you know, to learn English more Also, I think about the methods You have to find a method that is suitable for you, and you feel excited when you are learning T: And learning also depends on learning methods? S: Yes A lot T: Okay, now let’s talk about GC Do you feel eager in learning English with GC? S: Actually, I feel quite eager about learning in GC But I think it is more helpful if I study at another university Because, you know, in PPA, we not have a lot of wifi It’s quite weak And also, many students like me not a computer here So I think to study and use the GC is quite inconvenient to me And I feel it’s not quite suitable with me in this situation, in this studying environment T: Next, question four: Does the application of GC have positive influence to your independent learning? S: Uh huh, so, as I have told you before, I think that it would be more helpful in another situation, but when I studied with you, I had some problems The first problem is that wifi is weak, computer is not available here And second, I think GC should have a deadline notification Because sometimes you sent the homework for us on the GC and sometimes, I received notification about that, but XXI B2_1 self-awareness of the student in controlling learning is the first factor to consider (ambition, feeling) B2_2 many external factors also affect independent learning (teacher, methods) B3_1 the application of GC can be much helpful if technical requirements are fully adapted (network, computers) B4_1 GC has positive impacts on the student in some extent; techical problems of GC should be handled for better experience in using GC (notification) B4_2 I cannot remember that you sent me I just, yeah, I think GC should have deadline notification T: The last question: Do you have any further suggestion to improve independent English learning? S: Actually, when I have the question, I think I have three suggestions for GC There are first, I think about the teacher He or she when using GC they need to, you know, take advantage of this, by not only in the sense of homework, but also in the sense of many interesting like the TV shows or music or something just related to English and it will make students more interested and funnier to study The second thing is that, like I said before, it should have deadline notification, or the teacher should notify us about that, so that we would not forget the homework And the last but not least, I think the most important thing is that teacher should not force students to use it all the time Maybe, if your students not have computers or not have wifi, I think you can allow them to write it down on paper It’s also OK And we can also remember it So, I think they are three suggestions for the use of GC Interview Transcript B5_1 GC should be used not only as an alternative to homework, but also as extra interesting English references (TV shows, music) B5_2 in the specific context of the institution, GC should be used as an optional or formative assessment of English ability of students, not a compulsory requirement to study Code Respondent C - Interviewer (T): Do you often practice English after class? - Respondent (S): Yes I sometimes practice learning English after in-class time At the free time, I often listen to English music, sing English music and play guitar with English music Besides, after dinner, I often watch videos of BBC, CNN on Youtube T: So, you often spend time in library for English? S: Uh, no T: Question number two: What affects your independent English learning practice? I mean, you have any difficulty in improving English independence? S: Uh, I think, my passion for English is the key to my independent English learning Because, only passion and interest in learning and being interested will make my learning be more effective XXII Open Coding C1_1 the student sometimes practices English after class by interactive activities C1_2 library seems not to be an interesting place for studying English C2_1 passion and selfmotivation can make independent learning more effective T: How about the other factors, I mean, uh, schedule, teachers, and friends Do you think they affect you in learning English? S: Yes, they are My friends affect my ability to learn English when I discuss with them About schedule and textbook of English, I think I cannot make any change because it is fixed T: Do you feel eager or feel happy in learning the English course with GC? S: I feel very eager in learning the English course with GC Because GC is an interesting teaching software, although it is not a new software I think the part discussion is good, because I can talk and chat to my classmates, so I can understand more of the English hard, I mean, the topics I am not quite clear about T: And now we talk about the positive influence Does the application of GC have positive influence to you, to your independent learning? S: Yes The application of GC has positive influence on my independent learning Because using GC we have more time to learning English, so I can improve my English through it Also, I can keep a plan of my own learning, at least I have free choice in completing discussions and assignments in suitable time, and even when I am in my room T: The last question: Do you have any recommendations to enhance your independent English learning with GC? S: I think the teacher should use the GC more time to give homework for your students And the teacher should use photographs and videos to include interest for English learning process T: And you think, no matter just a little or much, you think your English level is improved when you learn English on GC? S: Yes, I feel my knowledge in English increase after GC I was afraid of English when speaking in front of class But when I record my voice in GC, I checked it again and tried to speak clearly I know that I am weak at speaking, and also writing Uh, I think I am better when I selfstudy with GC XXIII C2_2 C2_3 interaction with others affects English learning no individual decision in schedule and textbook can be made C3_1 GC makes the student feel eager, interesting C3_2 the student can cooperate with others to study independently C4_1 GC has positive impacts on student’s English learning C4_2 the student can manage time and place for completing tasks C5_1 GC should be used more after class, with more media C5_2 GC can improve English knowledge of the student the student can evaluate his strength and weakness when studying in GC C5_3 APPENDIX Lesson plan Unit 14: Crime Scene Investigation Period Length: 50 minutes Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to: - identify primary works of crime scene investigators in the United Kingdom and challenges of collecting physical evidence at a crime scene - practice reading skill (scanning, skimming) CONTENTS I LEAD-IN II DEVELOPMENT STUDENTS’ ACTIVITIES - Get the class to settle down and check student - Report attendance attendance - Notify previous assignments in GC - Listen carefully - Ask students to give comment on the video - Give comment attached as a material in GC - Listen carefully - Introduce the new lesson 10.1.1 Criminal Investigation TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES Task * Mind-map - T writes the word CRIME on the board, ask students to work in group of 3-4 to create a mind-map about types of crime - T may give examples: pick-pocketing - T goes around observe students’ mind-map and then calls students to give their ideas * Brainstorming & group discussion - T asks students to work in group of 3, pick up types of crime to discuss making their own definition for the three crimes - T calls 2-3 students to stand up and present their definitions, other members listen, take note and give feedback - Introduce the task: listen to the definitions and number them in the right order - Ask students to the task - Ask for students’ answer and explanation (T may ask them to repeat what they heard) *Hand-out take-noting XXIV - Do the task - Listen to teacher - Do the task - Answer - T delivers handout of definitions of types of crime T ask students to work individually, using their memory to fill in the blanks to complete the note - T may re-play the audio for checking * Game: quick eyes - T divides class into big groups T plays the videos about criminal activities (once only) Each representative of the group takes turn to run fast to the stage and rewrite one type of crime on their paper - The winner will be the one complete in the shortest time and have more correct answers * Group discussion - T asks students to work in group of 3, to answer the question: “What you think the most serious crime is?” - T encourages students to list their ideas and draw on their handout - Listen to teacher - Do the task - Answer - Work in group - The representative comes to the stage and give answers - Discuss in group - Complete handouts and make presentations (More in GC: Students discuss more about the question in the Discussion section in GC) III CLOSING Task *2a: Pair work: matching headlines - Introduce the task: read the newspaper stories about crimes Do matching exercise in pair: one student read the newspaper stories and share the information with his partner who will listen and match the title with the suitable stories The pair finishing the task in the shortest time and has the most correct answers will be the winner *2b: Individual work: T/F exercise - Ask students to work individually, read the stories carefully to the task Ball-game - T throws the ball to ask students to stand up, give answer and give explaination - Ask students to recall their memory and summarize the content of the lesson - Assign homework to the students (Discussion part in GC) XXV - Do pair work - Work individually - Do the activity - Summarize lesson - Note down the homework Period Length: 50 minutes Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to: - practice reading skill (reading for details) - discuss about important notice of crime scene investigation with classmates CONTENTS I LEAD-IN II DEVELOPMENT TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES STUDENTS’ ACTIVITIES - Review the previous lesson - Listen carefully * Miming game - T prepares pieces of paper about types of - Take part in the game crimes Ask students to work in big groups, to revise lesson each representative of the groups come to the board, pick a piece of paper and act to illustrate the type of crime The members will guess the word, each group has one trial only Time allowance for each group is minutes - The group having the most correct answers will be the winner 10.1.2 Police Surveillance Task - Introduce the task: T quickly does a short interview to check student’s background knowledge about surveillance Mini game: quick eyes - T asks students to work in group of and give each group a set of photos (12 photos) T asks students to quickly find the photos which are bout police surveillance The winner group will be the one comple tha tast in the shortest time and give correct explaination - Ask students to pair work discussing about the questions: + What is surveillance? + Why conduct suverillanece? - Let students read the text individually about police surveillance to check ideas - Ask students to check ideas with friends - T asks students to matching exercise individually then give answers 1-D 2-A 3-C 4-E 5-B XXVI - Answer the question - Work in group - Look at the photos - Give answers and explaination - Discuss in pairs - Present ideas - Work individually reading the text - Discuss the answers - Work individually and answer - T plays a short video about police in the UK then give questions for discussion: + What equiments they use? + In what circumstance can we that kind of techniques? - T asks students to come up to have short presentations - Watch the video - Listen to teacher’s questions - Discuss in group and make presentations (More in GC: Students find one more video about police surveillance in another country and write a narrative in the Assignment section in GC) III CLOSING Listening Task - Introduce the task: listen a criminal police officer talking about police surveillance and answer questions to find information Then listen again to fill in the blanks - Ask students to the task - Ask students to give answer 1- Email, fax, Internet and telephone communication – People and places – A hidden camera and recording equipment – ABC method – An active role *Role-play activity - T prepares cards about the situations and types of police surveillance T asks students to work in group of 3-4 T invites groups to come up to the stage and role-play the types of surveillance Other members watch and try to guess the correct type being illustrated - T asks students to refer to the working context of Vietnamese policeman and discuss in group of 3-4 about the types and techniques that are frequently applied in the real working situations - T observes, listen and support students if needed Then, T encourages the groups to present their ideas - Summarize content of the lesson - Assign homework to the students (Assignment in GC) XXVII - Do the task - Answer the questions - Work in group and discuss to plan, then complete the role-play - Work in group - Present ideas - Listen and take note - Note down the homework APPENDIX 10 Examples of macro-descriptors and micro-descriptors in the DAM model (Source: https://www.sprachenzentrum.fuberlin.de/en/slz/lernberatung/autonomiemodell/ materialien/index.html) XXVIII APPENDIX 11 The course English for Police in Google Classroom application Topic contents and classwork An example of Discussion activity An example of Assignment activity An example of Discussion activity XXIX An example of Assignment activity An example of Grading management XXX APPENDIX 12 Detailed activity timeline of Google Classroom in the 14-week action research Timeline W1 W2, Topic and Content Activities in Google Classroom Independent learning components Preparation Notes - Initial online survey - Pre-questionnaire Pilot study Creating class, adding students Posting instructions, course materials Guiding discussion and assignment Cybercrime Discussion: Dangers of cybercrime - Introduction of GC - Understanding of what and how to Assignment 1: Writing a paragraph about cyberbullying in Vietnam - Structuring knowledge - Planning and completing tasks - Deciding materials and methods - No deadline - Instructions with sample answer - Individual work - Structuring knowledge - Planning and completing tasks - Deciding materials and methods - No deadline - Instructions with sample answer - Individual work Assignment 2: Speaking: Retelling the story by using given photos (students may have different story plots) W4, Environmental Discussion: Voluntary acts of some foreigners in a story crime Assignment 1: Listing at least environmental problems in Vietnam and finding articles in Internet for the problem Assignment 2: Vocabulary and grammar quiz: Giving advice on reducing environmental crime W6, Economic police Discussion: The most attractive content of a web page relating to financial crime XXXI - Structuring knowledge - Deadline notified - Planning and completing tasks - Instructions without Assignment 1: Pair work: Finding articles relating to economic crime in Vietnam and discussing with each other about main idea Assignment 2: Pair work: Word and sentence formation relating to the topic W8, Crime scene investigation Discussion: Vocabulary of crime scene investigation Assignment: Group presentation: Reading a part of a CSI book and presenting its main content Self-evaluating with rubric W10, 11 Terrorism Discussion: Vocabulary of terrorism Assignment 1: Reading-aloud: Recording voice over a reading passage Self-evaluating the quality of the record based on rubric criteria Assignment 2: Writing a reflection of what prevents student from speaking English confidently about the topic W12, 13 Fire fighting and prevention Discussion: Vocabulary of fire classes: commenting on discussion of at least peers Assignment: Writing about the effect of water in fire extinguishing Self-evaluating with rubric W14 Reflection Summarizing the class submissions - Deciding materials and methods - Reflecting on materials - Cooperating (learning with peers) sample answer - Pair work - Reflection - Structuring knowledge - Planning and completing tasks - Deciding materials and methods - Cooperating (learning in group) - Evaluating the learning outcome - Structuring knowledge - Planning and completing tasks - Evaluating the learning outcome - Reflecting on what prevents student from completing a task - Deadline notified - Instructions without sample answer - Group work - Self-evaluation - Structuring knowledge - Planning and completing tasks - Cooperating (learning from peers) - Evaluating the learning outcome - Deadline notified - Instructions without sample answer - Peer review - Self-evaluation - Deadline notified - Instructions without sample answer - Self-evaluation - Reflection - Post-questionnaire - Interview XXXII APPENDIX 13 Observation rubric for evaluation of independent learning in Google Classroom XXXIII (Adapted from: https://www.rcampus.com/rubricshowc.cfm?code=D6W756&sp=yes&) XXXIV ... their independent learning skills 1.2 Aims of the study The study ? ?Application of Google Classroom in promoting independent learning of non- English major students in English class in a police institution? ??... that the thesis entitled ? ?Application of Google Classroom in promoting independent learning of non- English major students in English class in a police institution? ?? is the result of my own research... independent learning of nonEnglish major students in English class in a police institution? ?? targeted at determining perceptions of the participants about the application of GC towards their English learning
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