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Luận văn Thạc sĩ Teaching English as a foreign language to students at a blind school in Hanoi

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  • Luận văn Thạc sĩ Teaching English as a foreign language to students at a blind school in Hanoi

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES - - HOÀNG THỊ TRANG TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO STUDENTS AT A BLIND SCHOOL IN HANOI (Nghiên cứu việc dạy Tiếng Anh ngoại ngữ cho học sinh khiếm thị trường chuyên biệt Hà Nội) M.A Minor Thesis Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 HANOI – 2020 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES - - HOÀNG THỊ TRANG TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO STUDENTS AT A BLIND SCHOOL IN HANOI (Nghiên cứu việc dạy Tiếng Anh ngoại ngữ cho học sinh khiếm thị trường chuyên biệt Hà Nội) M.A Minor Thesis Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 8140231.01 Supervisor: Prof Dr Nguyễn Hòa HANOI – 2020 DECLARATION I certify that the thesis entitled “Teaching English as a Foreign Language to students at a Blind school in Hanoi” is the results of my own research for the Degree of Master of Arts at The University of Languages and International Studies – VNU, Hanoi, and the substance of this research has not been submitted for a degree to any other university or institution wholly or partly Signature Hoang Thi Trang Hanoi, 2020 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis could not have been completed without the help and support from a number of people First and foremost, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Nguyen Hoa who has given me much invaluable advice and encouragement since the beginning and has always been my frequent secure of many valuable insights I am also grateful to his for reading my manuscript and helping me make the necessary changes In addition, I would like to send my sincere thanks to all of the lecturers of the Department of Post Graduate Studies, Vietnam National University for their useful lectures and materials which are great of value to my thesis A special word of thanks goes to all the teachers and students at School X for their participation in completing the project I also want to send my appreciativeness to my family, my friends and other people who have encouraged, assisted and supported me during the process of this project Finally, due to the limited time to complete this work, it is unavoidable to have the mistakes; therefore I am solely responsible for them and would like to have comments from others who concern to my study Hanoi, September 2020 Hoang Thi Trang ii ABSTRACT In an attempt to investigate the reality of English teaching and learning in a secondary school for the disabled (the Blind and Visually Impaired) in Hanoi (hereinafter called School X), the main purposes of the research were to find out: (1) the reality in teaching and learning English to blind and visually impaired students; (2) the difficulties in teaching and learning English via the teachers and students‟ self- reported difficulties they faced with; (3) the reasons why the teachers and students have these difficulties in teaching and learning English; (4) the ways to help teachers and students reduce difficulties they have in teaching and learning English To conduct the research, I used the descriptive qualitative method The subjects of the study were eight randomly selected blind and low- vision students and four English teachers at School X The data was collected from class observation and interview The results of the research shows that: (1) The process in teaching and learning English to visual impaired students in inclusion class at School X are still teacher- centered, so the students are learning depend on the teacher‟s instruction; the English materials for visually impaired students are same with normal students; (2) The problems faced by teachers and visual impaired students in teaching and learning English in inclusion class; (3) The solving of the problems faced in teaching and learning English by teachers and visual impaired students It is hoped that this thesis will improve the teaching and learning English process more successful at School X in particular and all the secondary schools for blind and low vision students in general Key words: visually impaired students, language learning, language teaching, challenges iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LISTS OF TABLES Table 1: Students‟ reasons for learning English (N=8) 28 Table 2: Students‟ opinions about the importance of learning English (N=8) 28 Table 3: Students‟ opinions about the importance of learning English in comparison with other subjects (N=8) 29 Table 4: Students‟ opinions about their passion learning English (N=8) 29 Table 5: Students‟ learning competence (N=8) 29 Table 6: Students‟ opinions about the importance of good marks (N=8) 30 Table 7: Students‟ attitude to English lessons (N=8) 30 Table 8: Students‟ feeling in English lessons (N=8) 30 Table 9: Factors affecting students in learning English (N=8) 31 Table 10: Students‟ opinion when they are learning English in class (N=8) 32 Table 11: Students‟ opinion when having difficulties in learning English (N=8) 32 Table 12: Students‟ opinion about the most difficult aspect (s) in learning English (N=8) 33 Table 13: Students‟ opinions about English learning activities (N= 8) 34 Table 14: Students‟ materials for learning English better (N=8) 34 Table 15: Students‟ evaluation on their textbooks (N=8) 35 Table 16: Students‟ difficulties in learning English (N=8) .35 Table 17: Students‟ solutions to improve their English (N=8) 36 Table 18: Students‟ suggested solutions to improve their English (N= 8) .36 Table 19: Information about teachers participating in the survey (N= 4) .37 Table 20: Teachers‟ years of teaching English and teachers‟ years of teaching English to blind and low vision (N=4) 37 Table 21: Teachers‟ training background (N=4) .37 Table 22: Teachers‟ opinions about the importance of teaching and learning English (N=4) 38 Table 23: Teachers‟ opinion about the importance of learning English in comparison with other subjects (N=4) 38 Table 24: Teachers‟ and students‟ opinions about student‟s passion learning English (N=4) 39 Table 25: Teachers‟ judgment about students‟ learning competence (N=4) 39 Table 26: Teachers‟ attitudes toward English teaching aim (N=4) 39 Table 27: Aspects that teachers‟ focus on in their teaching English (N=4) 40 v Table 28: Teachers‟ opinions about the most suitable method for their teaching English (N=4) 40 Table 29: Techniques are often used by teachers in teaching English (N=4) 41 Table 30: Ways of using the textbook of the respondents (N= 4) 42 Table 31: Frequency of using other materials besides the textbooks in teaching English (N= 4) 42 Table 32: Frequency of using the mother tongue in teaching English of the participants (N=4) .43 Table 33: Some cases of using the mother tongue in teaching English of the participants (N=4) .43 Table 34: Teaching strategies often used in teaching English (N=4) .44 Table 35: Factors affecting the teachers‟ language teaching (N=4) 45 Table 36: Teachers‟ solutions to improve English language teaching (N=4) 45 Table 37: Teachers‟ suggested solutions to improve their English teaching (N=4) 46 vi CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the rationale of the study, the aims of the study, the research questions and methods used to achieve the aims The scope and significance of the study are also presented Finally, the chapter introduces the structure of the thesis 1.1 Rationale of the study In the context of integration and globalization, English is now becoming one of the most effective means of communication in the world and Vietnam is also no exception Hence, foreign language teaching and learning, especially English, is more and more essential and the master of foreign language – English - appears as an urgent requirement at present As a result, there has been a positive trend of teaching and learning English in Vietnam People, from children to adults, are being stimulated to study English for a better life, which takes no exception to the blind people However, it is assumed that blind and visually impaired foreign language learners experience more difficulties in their learning process than sighted learners The obstacles derive mainly from the absence or reduce input of visual information which may negatively influence the teaching/ learning process In addition, the opportunities for incidental/ implicit foreign language learning/ acquisition are limited in the case of low- vision or blindness As Aiazzi (2005) states in her project that “eighty percent of learning is through sight”, it could be implied that teaching English for the blind is confronted with quite a few problems For example, in a class with blind students, teachers cannot use many teaching techniques such as “writing on the board, gesturing, miming and showing objects to pupils” (Aiazzi, 2007: 1) Therefore, how to teach English to blind and visual impaired students has been a controversial issue Thus, investigating the reality of teaching English in blind schools should be carried out in order to identify the difficulties that teachers and students there encounter and the factors that affect their English teaching and learning process Moreover, concerning “teaching English to the blind people” helps me realize that this area has received little attention from the specialists There is not much research carried out on this problem especially in Vietnam, there is no study conducted to investigate the difficulties in teaching and learning English to the blind students, which is a considerable disadvantage to people with visual limitations Because of these all above mentioned reasons, I have decided to conduct a research titled: “Teaching English as a Foreign Language to students at a Blind school in Hanoi” This study helps us to have a deep understanding about teachers‟ and students‟ difficulties in teaching and learning English In general, it can be affected by a variety of factors coming from teachers‟ side, students‟ side and classroom condition Through this study, I expect to find out some appropriate solutions to overcome the difficulties for more successful teaching and learning English at School X 1.2 Aims of the study This research is designed to explore the difficulties in teaching and learning English as a foreign language to blind and low vision students at School X through teacher and students‟ self- reported difficulties they encountered in teaching and learning English With the hope to be some of help to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning English to blind and visually impaired students at School X, it is expected to achieve the following aims: (i) To explore the reality of teaching and learning English to blind and visually students at School X and investigate the difficulties in teaching and learning English via the teachers and students‟ self- reported difficulties they faced with (ii) To gain understanding of why the teachers and students have these difficulties in teaching and learning English process in order to suggest some solutions to help teachers and students reduce difficulties they have in teaching and learning English in context of a blind school in Hanoi 1.3 Research questions In order to achieve the mentioned aims above, the following research questions are raised for this study: What difficulties teachers and students at School X encounter in teaching and learning English as a foreign language? Why they have those difficulties? 1.4 Methods of the study This is a survey study, and the major method used for the study is qualitative Data were collected via interviews for both teachers and students and classroom observations The study was carried out by some steps as follows: First, the interviews for both the teachers and students were employed to find out their difficulties in teaching and learning English and also help the researcher gain deep insight into the teaching and learning problems and realize the reasons behinds 12 Brown, H D (2007) Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (3rd ed.) New York: Pearson Education Inc 13 Siegel, J (2003) Social context In C J Doughthy, & M H Long (Eds.) The handbook of second language acquisition Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd 14 O'Malley, J.M., & Chamot, A (1990) Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 15 Richards, Jack C (2001) The Role of Textbooks in a Language Program Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 16 Seliger, H W & Shohamy, E (1989) Second language research methods Oxford: OUP 17 Kashdan, S., & Barnes, R (1998) Teaching English as a New Language to Visually Impaired and Blind ESL Students: Problems and Possibilities Journal of Kaizen Program for New English Learners with Visual Limitations Retrieved September 12, 2009, from http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=44&TopicID=108&SubTopicID =32&DocumentID=1933 18 Seng, C., (2004) Teaching English to blind students Teaching English Retrieved September from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/teaching-english-blindstudents 19 Trask (1982) Teaching and Learning Language England: Cambridge University Press Visual standards report prepared for the International Council of Ophthalmology at the 29th International Congress of Ophthalmology (2002) Sydney: p.1 20 Wikipedia, Blindness Retrieved on Sunday, September 13th, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blindness 21 World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9), World Health Organization, Geneva, 1977 62 APPENDICES APPENDIX A STUDENT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS PHIẾU CÂU HỎI PHỎNG VẤN HỌC SINH KHIẾM THỊ Những câu hỏi sau dùng cho việc tìm hiểu khó khăn việc dạy học Tiếng Anh ngoại ngữ cho học sinh khiếm thị giải pháp để khắc phục khó khăn Các câu trả lời mà em cung cấp quan trọng với cơng trình nghiên cứu Dữ liệu điều tra sử dụng cho mục đích nghiên cứ, khơng mục đích khác Vì mong em trả lời theo suy nghĩ Cảm ơn hợp tác em! Phần 1: Thông tin cá nhân Tuổi: Lớp: Nam: Nữ: Nội trú: Ngoại trú: Mức độ khiếm thị: Mù Nhìn kém: Em bắt đầu học Tiếng Anh từ lớp mấy? Điểm trung bình mơn học kì bao nhiêu? Phần 2: Các câu hỏi vấn: Tại em học Tiếng Anh? Mục đích việc học Tiếng Anh em gì? Để vượt qua kì thi Bởi Tiếng Anh ngôn ngữ Quốc tế Để giao tiếp với người nước Em thích Tiếng Anh Vì mơn học bắt buộc Để có hội vào trường cấp tốt Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Em nghĩ tầm quan trọng việc học Tiếng Anh? Rất quan trọng Quan trọng Bình thường Không quan trọng Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… I So sánh với môn học khác ( Tốn, Văn, Vật lý, Hóa học,…), Tiếng Anh Quan trọng môn khác Quan trọng môn khác Không quan trọng môn khác Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Mức độ thích học Tiếng Anh em nào? Rất thích Thích Bình thường Khơng thích Khơng thích tí Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Em nghĩ lực học Tiếng Anh nào? Rất tốt Khá tốt Tốt Không tốt Khơng tốt tí Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Việc đạt điểm cao mơn Tiếng Anh có ý nghĩa thân em? Rất quan trọng Chỉ cần điểm trung bình Em không quan tâm đến điểm số Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Em nghĩ học Tiếng Anh lớp mình? Rất hay Hay Bình thường Chán II Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Em cảm thấy học Tiếng Anh lớp? Em cảm thấy thú vị Em cảm thấy tự tin Em cảm thấy chán Em cảm thấy lo lắng, hồi hộp, sợ bị gọi tên Em không muốn tham gia Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Những yếu tố khiến em cảm thấy chán nản, hồi hộp, hay không muốn tham gia học Tiếng Anh lớp? Sợ bị chê cười mắc lỗi Khơng thích học Tiếng Anh Cảm thấy không quan tâm, ý đến Bài tập chủ đề sách giáo khoa khó Cách giảng thầy cô nhàm chán Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10 Em thường làm học Tiếng Anh? Em nhiệt tình tham gia Hầu em im lặng lắng nghe bạn khác Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 11 Em thường làm gặp khó khăn Tiếng Anh? Em nhờ giúp đỡ cô giáo bạn mắt sáng Em im lặng khơng làm Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Em thấy phần khó Tiếng Anh? Nghe Nói Đọc III Viết Từ vựng Ngữ pháp Phát âm Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13 Cô giáo Tiếng Anh em có sử dụng dụng cụ trực quan (đài, máy tính, ) tiết dạy không? Thường xuyên Thỉnh thoảng Hiếm Không Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14 Các em có học Tiếng Anh phịng học riêng biệt khơng? Thường xuyên Thỉnh thoảng Hiếm Không Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 15 Trường em có tổ chức hoạt động ngoại khóa Tiếng Anh khơng? Thường xuyên Thỉnh thoảng Hiếm Không Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 16 Em có tham gia vào lớp học phụ đạo không? Thường xuyên Thỉnh thoảng Hiếm Không IV Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Em thường sử dụng tài liệu để phục vụ cho việc học Tiếng Anh? Sách giáo khoa chữ Sách tập chữ Sách tham khảo Báo, tạp chí Tiếng Anh Mạng, internet Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Em thấy sách giáo khoa môn Tiếng Anh em học nào? Các yêu cầu sách khó Các yêu cầu sách dễ Một vài phần sách tiếp cận Sách có nhiều phần khó Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 19 Những khó khăn mà em gặp phải học Tiếng Anh Em không thực giỏi môn Tiếng Anh Em thường căng thẳng sợ xấu hổ nói Tiếng Anh trước mặt giáo bạn Cô giáo đưa hướng dẫn không rõ ràng Phương pháp dạy học cô giáo buồn tẻ, không sáng tạo Các bạn bên cạnh không giúp đỡ Em không dành nhiều thời gian cho việc học Tiếng Anh Nhà trường thiếu trang thiết bị phục vụ cho việc dạy học (phòng học riêng, máy chiếu, loa, đài, sách,.) Em không cung cấp phương tiện chuyên biệt để học môn Tiếng Anh Thời gian học lớp không đủ Sách giáo khoa khó Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… V 20 Để cải thiện tình hình học tập mơn Tiếng Anh mình, em làm gì? Luyện tập nhà Tham gia lớp học phụ đạo Làm nhiều tập sách tham khảo/ bổ trợ Tham gia câu lạc Tiếng Anh Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Theo em, nhà trường giáo viên nên làm để giúp đỡ em việc học Tiếng Anh hiệu hơn? Giáo viên nên khuyến khích, động viên, giúp đỡ học sinh nhiệt tình học Giáo viên nên kiểm tra chúng em thường xuyên Giáo viên nên thiết kế hoạt động mà chúng em tham gia nhiều Giáo viên nên tạo môi trường thân thiện hỗ trợ lẫn Giáo viên nên sử dụng phương tiện dạy học cách phù hợp Nhà trường nên cung cấp hỗ trợ trang thiết bị dạy học cần thiết Chúng em phải học tập chăm Ý kiến bổ sung: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Cảm ơn em! Chúc em có sức khỏe thật tốt ngày có nhiều niềm vui! VI APPENDIX B INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR ENGLISH TEACHERS Thank you very much for accepting to participate in my research study about teaching and learning English as a foreign language to Blind Students For the purpose of data collection, could you please answer the following questions at your earliest convenience? Use as much space as necessary These questions are conducted with a view to find out the difficulties in teaching and learning English as a foreign language to blind students and suggest some possible solutions Your completion of this interview is highly appreciated The data collected are used in the research paper only, not for any other purposes Thank you very much for your cooperation! Part 1: Personal Information Your gender: Male Female Your age: Number of years of teaching experience: Part 2: Interview questions How long have you been teaching English? Less than years 3- years More than 6-9 years More than years Have you ever taught English to blind and low vision students? Yes No Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… How long have you been teaching blind and low vision students? Less than years 3- years More than 6-9 years More than years Have you ever taken in a training course in teaching English to blind and low vision students? Yes No Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… VII What is your idea about teaching and learning English to blind and low vision students at School X? Very essential Essential Not very essential Not essential at all Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… In comparison with other subjects (Math, literature, physic, …), English is… More important than other subjects As important as other subjects Less important than other subjects Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… How much your students like learning English? Very much Quite much Normal Not really Not at all What you think about your students’ English proficiency/ competence? Very good Quite good Good Not very good Not good at all Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… According to you, the aim of teaching English to blind and low vision students is enable them to: Understand English grammar and grammar exercises Communicate with English- speaking people Read simple text in English Acquire a certain amount of vocabulary Get better Study abroad Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… VIII 10 What you focus on most in your teaching at school? Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary Reading Speaking Listening Writing Conversational/ communicative skills Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 11 In your opinion, what is the most suitable approach for your teaching at present? Communicative Language Teaching The Direct Method Combination of GMT and CLT The Audio- Lingual Method The Grammar- Translation Method (GTM) Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 12 What kinds of classroom techniques you often use in your teaching at school? Using blackboard Using tape recorders Using simple teaching aids (pictures/ flashcards/ handouts, etc.) Using supplementary materials Organizing pairwork/ groupwork Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13 How you often use the textbook? Teach everything in the textbook Design new exercises Simplify the tasks in the textbook if necessary Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14 Do you use other materials besides the textbook in your teaching? Yes No IX If Yes, how often? (More than one choice is acceptable) in skills learning lessons (reading, speaking, listening, writing) in grammar lessons every lesson when some lessons in the textbook are not relevant to my students Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 15 Does your school have many facilities for your teaching? (tape recorders, overhead projectors, lab rooms, CDs, etc.) Yes Yes, but not many No Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 16 Do you often use your mother tongue in your teaching at school? Often Sometimes Rarely Never Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17 When you use your mother tongue in your teaching at school? (More than one choice is acceptable) In teaching language skills In teaching grammar In teaching vocabulary Only when giving instruction In most of the lessons Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18 What teaching strategies you often use in your teaching? (More than one choice is acceptable) Facilitating autonomous students‟ learning Creating an atmosphere in which students are not afraid to make mistakes and are encouraged to take risks Using games (Lucky numbers, crosswords, slap the board, etc.) Using technology (Computers, OHP, etc.) Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… X 19 How important are these factors to your English teaching? (Please tick in which suitable to your ideas.) Very Important Not very Not very important important important at all Students‟ aptitude and anxiety Students‟ attitude and motivation Students‟ learning strategies Teaching strategy Teaching method Teachers‟ knowledge Teachers‟ characteristics/ roles Textbooks/ materials Classroom structure/ climate School facilities Others 20 To improve the English lessons, teacher had to: Prepare the lesson more carefully (Change the tasks appropriately, use techniques/ materials, etc.) Suggest interesting topics/ activities/ tasks/ exercises Encourage students to take part in the tasks/ activities/lessons Spend more time for lower students Organize extra classes/ English clubs Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 21 To overcome the difficulties, the teachers should/ What have you done to help blind and low vision students? Give students clear instructions Divide class into small groups Adapt textbook and make some changes if necessary Make learning fun and comfortable Provide meaningful and concrete activities Use authentic materials Facilitate necessary equipment Others: ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Thank you very much! XI APPENDIX C INCLUSIVE CLASS OBSERVATION CHECKLIST Name of the school: …………………………………………………………… Name of the teacher: …………………………………………………………… Qualification: …………………………………………………………………… Grade: …………………………………………………………………………… Section: ………………………………………………………………………… Date of Observation: …………………………………………………………… Time: …………………………………………………………………………… Lesson observed: ………………………………………………………………… Number of students in class: …………………………………………………… Number of VISs in class: ………………………………………………………… Rating Scale: E= Evident NE= Not Evident NA= Not Applicable Lesson presentation, instruction, instructional materials strategies VISs are participating in lesson activities by both answering and asking questions Teacher‟s voice is heard in teaching/ learning process A variety of instructional materials appropriate to learner‟s diversity are used to engage and motivate learners The teacher provides feedback to students to guide their learning The teacher facilitates smooth transitions from activity to activity within and between lessons XII E NE NA Students with (low) visual impairments sit in front of the class The teacher follows up the involvement of the student with visual impairment in group discussion A variety of grouping patterns are used Circle any/ all that apply: Pair Small groups Whole class Independent Learning The teacher verbalizes the notes while writing on the chalkboard 10 The teacher encourages students with visual impairment to answer questions 11 The teacher pre- teaches vocabulary and key concepts which relate to the lesson through verbal explanations and concrete examples 12 The teacher uses multi- sensory approach while teaching 13 The teacher gives time for questions and answers to individual children during the session 14 The teacher assigns other students to support VISs to class activities 15 Facilities are accessible to children with visual impairment 16 There is sufficient space in class for independent movement XIII 17 The teacher makes clear the structure and objectives of the lesson 18 The teacher checks for understanding of instruction, e.g by asking a child to explain them in their own words 19 VISs use assistive technology in class General comments about the lesson: ………………………………………………… XIV ... factors affecting English teaching and learning process in a blind school in Hanoi Basing on Larsen-Freemans‟ views, difficulties in language teaching in general and difficulties in teaching English. .. difficulties in teaching and learning English at Blind School was carried out, and then to analyze the data collected as well as to suggest some pedagogical implications for learning English at School. .. Blind students and some approaches in teaching English as a foreign language; some difficulties related to teachers and students in teaching and learning English and a review of previous related
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