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Tổng ôn các chuyên đề ngữ pháp kì thi KET

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Adverbs - describing verbs Use: Adverbs can be used to describe verbs They describe HOW you something Examples: She walks quickly; He sings nicely Form: 1) You can make many adverbs by adding –ly to an adjective slow -> slowly; loud -> loudly If an adjective ends in ‘y’, change it to an ‘i’ heavy -> heavily; funny -> funnily Add ‘ally’ to adjectives ending in ‘ic’ Physical -> physically; energetic -> energetically 2) Some adverbs are irregular, and not end in ly These include: good -> well She dances well hard -> hard He works hard fast -> fast He runs fast late -> late He arrives late 3a) Usually, the adverb goes after the verb it describes She talks quietly NOT She quietly talks He runs fast NOT He fast runs 3b) If the verb has a direct object WITHOUT A PREPOSITION the adverb should go after the object You sang that song nicely NOT You sang nicely that song He did the job well NOT He did well the job 3c) If the verb is followed by a preposition and an object, you can put the adverb in different places He quickly walked to the shop He walked quickly to the shop He walked to the shop quickly 4) Adverbs are NOT used to describe the following verbs These verbs use adjectives Be I am quiet NOT I am quietly Seem It seems strange NOT It seems strangely Look That looks nice NOT That looks nicely Smell That smells good NOT That smells well Sound That sounds great NOT That sounds greatly Feel That feels funny NOT That feels funnily 5) Some words end in ‘ly’ but they are not adverbs Friendly is an example Friendly is an adjective We can say ‘She is friendly’ but not ‘She talks friendly’ There is no adverb for friendly, but we can say ‘She talks in a friendly way’ Elderly and lonely are also adjectives, not adverbs.Kindly and early are adjectives and adverbs be going to Use: Use be going to to talk about your personal plans for the future I’m going to see my sister at the weekend Are you going to marry Paul? Form: 1) The form of the positive and negative sentences and questions is shown below Positive I am / ‘m you are / ‘re he / she / it is / ‘s we are / ‘re they are / ‘re going to verb (infinitive form) going to verb (infinitive form) Negative I ‘m not you aren’t not OR ‘re he / she / it isn’t OR we aren’t ‘s not OR ‘re not they aren’t not OR ‘re Questions Am I going to Are you Is he / she / it Are we Are they verb (infinitive form) ? 2) The short reply to a ‘be going to’ question is ‘Yes, I am’, ‘Yes, she is’ etc You cannot contract these short sentences Yes, he’s => Yes, he is The short negative replies are: No, I’m not No, you’re not / No, you aren’t No, he’s not / No he isn’t No, she’s not / No she isn’t No, it’s not / no it isn’t No, we’re not / No, we aren’t No, they’re not / No, they aren’t Common mistakes: 1) Some students forget to add the verb ’be’ before ‘going to’ I going to see my friends tonight => I’m going to see my friends tonight 2) Some students forget to invert the subject and be in questions What time you are going to leave? => What time are you going to leave? Can / Could Use: 1) Use can / can’t to talk about your abilities now I can speak English I can’t speak German Use could / couldn’t to talk about abilities in the past I could speak French when I was a child, but I can't now I couldn’t speak English when I was a child, but I can now 2) Use can and could to make requests Could is more polite Can you cook this evening please? Could you pass me the salt? Use can to reply to requests Can I sit here? => Yes, you can Sorry, you can’t Can you cook this evening please? => Yes, I can Sorry, I can’t DON’T use could in replies Could you lend me some money? Yes, I could => Yes, sure! Sorry, I can’t Form: 1) Can and could are the same for all persons I can/could speak English you can/could speak English he / she / it can/could speak English we can/could speak English they can/could speak English 2) The negative form of can is cannot, or can’t The negative form of could is couldn’t 3) There is always a verb after can and could, and the verb is always in the infinitive form(without to) Sally can help you NOT Sally can helps you / Sally can to help you 4) Make questions by inverting can and the subject I can see you this afternoon => Can I see you this afternoon? You could help me => Could you help me? 5) Use can/can’t and could/couldn’t in short answers Can your brother swim? => Yes, he can No, he can’t Could you the test? => Yes, I could No, I couldn’t Common mistakes: 1) Some students make questions incorrectly You can speak English? => Can you speak English? I could sit here? => Could I sit here? Comparatives Use: Use the comparative form to talk about how two things are different I am taller than you This book is thicker than that one Form: 1) If an adjective has one syllable, add er to the end If it ends in e already, just add r tall => taller nice => nicer thick => thicker late => later 2) If an adjective ends in one vowel and one consonant, write the consonant again, then writeer But never write a w twice big => bigger new => newer (NOT newwer) thin => thinner slow => slower (NOT slowwer) slim => slimmer My brother is thinner than me 3) If an adjective has two syllables and ends in y, change the y to i and add er funny => funnier silly => sillier Which of these books is funnier? 5) Some adjectives have irregular superlative forms These are listed below good => better bad => worse far => further Add than after a comparative adjective to compare one thing with another However, this is not always necessary My house is smaller than yours My house is smaller than yours Definite and indefinite articles Use: 1) Use a before a singular noun I've got a brother and a sister Use an if the noun begins with a vowel I've got an aunt in Texas 2) Use plural nouns or uncountable nouns to talk about things in general Don't use an article here I like cats Dolphins are very intelligent Crime is increasing 3) Use the to talk about one particular thing, or a particular group of things Books are interesting The book on the table is interesting Children are noisy The children in this class are noisy 4) Use a to introduce a new thing or person Use the when you already know this person or thing There is a restaurant near my house The restaurant serves good food 5) Use the when there is only one of these things The moon is very big tonight My dad is the only doctor in our village Joe is the best student in the class 6) Use the when there are many things, but it is clear which one you mean Let's go to the pub! We need to go to the supermarket 7) Most 'general' nouns not use an article Life is not the same as it used to be NOT: The life… Health is important to everyone NOT: The health… We're worried about pollution NOT: The pollution… But some general nouns use the: the environment People are increasingly worried about the environment the weather What's the weather like today? the countryside I love walking in the countryside the sea / ocean I'd love to live near the sea the radio There's an interesting programme on the radio the theatre / cinema We went to the theatre last night the economy The economy is affecting everyone Common mistakes: 1) Some students use the when they talk about things in general I love the romantic films! => I love romantic films! 2) Some students use singular nouns without a or the I want book about the weather => I want a book about the weather 3) Some students use the when they talk about things in general I want the book about the weather => I want a book about the weather First Conditional Use: The first conditional structure is used to talk about something which will or may happen in the future as a result of something else Example: If it rains tomorrow, I’ll stay at home Form: Make the first conditional in this way If When I you he she present simple , I you he she will / won’t verb might / (infinitive might not form) Examples: If I see Tom, I will tell him the news When you visit, we might go to the park Or I will / won’t verb you might / might (infinitive he not form) she if when I you he she present simple Examples: She’ll be late if she doesn’t hurry up You might not pass your exams if you watch television all the time Common Mistakes: 1) Don’t use will or might directly after will or might If I will arrive first, I’ll make lunch => If I arrive first, I’ll make lunch 2) Always use an infinitive verb after will and might I might to go out tonight, if I’m not too tired => I might go out tonight if I’m not too tired Gerunds and Infinitives Use: 1) A gerund is a verb in its –ing form, used as a noun For example: eating, going, seeing Gerunds are used: a) As the subject of a sentence Smoking is bad for you b) After some verbs, such as: like, hate, enjoy, quit, suggest, dislike, deny I like cooking I enjoy fishing A good learner’s dictionary will tell you whether a verb is followed by a gerund or not c) After prepositions I’m interested in buying a computer I’m scared of walking alone in the dark 2) The infinitive form of the verb is the original verb It can be with or without ‘to’ For example: (to) eat, (to) go, (to) see The infinitive form is used: a) After some verbs, such as; agree, arrange, ask, promise, decide, afford I agreed to the work I arranged to see the doctor, They decided to get married A good learner’s dictionary will tell you whether a verb is followed by an infinitive or not b) To show the reason why you did something Tony went to the post office to pay a bill c) After adjectives I was surprised to see Erica I’m pleased to meet you a) Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or infinitive with NO CHANGE in meaning: For example: start, begin, hate, like, prefer, continue She started to cry = She started crying I hate watching horror films = I hate to watch horror films b) Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or a infinitive, but there is a change in meaning For example: try, remember, stop I tried to get into the house (Getting into the house is your goal or objective) I tried climbing through the window (Climbing through the window is one thing you tried in order to obtain your final objective.) I stopped cleaning the windows (I was cleaning the windows and then I stopped) I stopped to clean the windows (I was driving, and I stopped driving in order to clean the windows) I remembered to lock the door (I remembered, and after that I locked the door) I remember locking the door (I remember (now) that I locked the door (in the past)) Have to Use: Use have to to talk about something you must I have to start work at eight Use don’t have to to talk about something that is not necessary You don’t have to work tomorrow, it’s Saturday Form: The positive, negative and question forms are shown in the table Positive have to I, you, we, they he / she / it verb (infinitive form) (go, sleep, work) has to Negative I, you, we, they he / she / it don’t have to verb (infinitive form) (go, sleep, work) I, you, we, they have to verb (infinitive ? form) (go, sleep, work) doesn’t Question Do Does he / she / it Common mistakes 1) Some students think that don’t have to means must not, but this is not correct You don’t have to use your mobile phone in class → You mustn’t use your mobile phone in class 2) Some students use haven’t / hasn’t to make negative sentences and questions My sister hasn’t to work today → My sister doesn’t have to work today Have you to leave now? → Do you have to leave now? How questions Use: Use How to get information about numbers and quantities You can use it to find out about age, size, length, cost and much more Giaoandethitienganh.info Common mistakes: 1) Don’t use the present perfect to refer to a finished time I’ve hurt my arm yesterday => I’ve hurt my arm John’s been to New York last month York => John’s been to New Separable phrasal verbs Use: Separable phrasal verbs consist of two parts They always require an object They are often used, especially in informal spoken English The meaning of phrasal verbs is often completely different from the meaning of the verb alone Form: 1) The object of a phrasal verb can go either between the verb and the preposition or after the preposition I handed in my homework I handed my homework in 2) If the object of the sentence is a pronoun, it must go between the two parts of the phrasal verb I handed it in NOT I handed in it Examples: Some common separable phrasal verbs: pick someone/something up = collect Please can you pick me up from the station? drop someone/something off = take and leave/ deposit I dropped John off outside his school throw away = discard I threw all my old school papers away write down = note I wrote Sally’s phone number down on a piece of paper make up = invent Henry likes to make stories up about dinosaurs take back = return This shirt is too small I’m going to take it back to the shop let down = disappoint James studied hard because he didn’t want to let his parents down turn down = reject The company offered me a job, but I turned it down wash up = wash (dishes) Can you wash your plates up please? take off = remove (clothes) Please take off your shoes before you come inside put on = dress in (clothes) You’ll need to put a coat on It’s cold turn up / down = increase / decrease volume/ temperature Can you turn the music down please? It’s very loud try on = wear and test (clothes) Please can I try on these trousers? give up = stop doing something She smokes a lot, but she wants to give it up take up = start doing something (a new hobby) I’ve decided to take up running Should and Ought to Use: Use Should and Ought to give advice Examples: You should see a doctor You ought to find a new job Form: Should Should is a modal verb, like can and will, so it follows the same rules 1) Do not add ‘s’ to the third person singular He should buy a new car NOT He should buys a new car 2) To form a negative, add not / n’t after should You shouldn’t that! 3) To form questions, invert should and the subject What time should we arrive? 4) Should is always followed by a verb in the infinitive form I should to go =>I should go 5) You can also use should in the continuous form Use should + be + verbing Why are you watching TV? You should be working! Ought Ought is a semi-modal verb It is similar to should in some ways: 1) Do not add ‘s’ to the third person singular He oughts to buy a new car => He ought to buy a new car 2) To form a negative, add not / n’t after ought You ought not to that! However, ought is not often used in negative sentences 3) To form questions, invert ought and the subject What time ought we to arrive? However, ought is not often used in questions Ought is different to should because: 1) Ought is always followed by to + a verb in the infinitive form I ought go =>I ought to go some / any / much / many Some and any Use: Use some before plural nouns or uncountable nouns There are some children in the street There is some money in my pocket Use any, not some, in negative sentences and questions There aren’t any children in the street There isn’t any money in my pocket Are there any children in the street? Is there any money in your pocket? However, Some is possible in offers and requests Please can I have some chocolate? Would you like some tea? Much and Many Use: Giaoandethitienganh.info Use many in negative sentences and questions We don’t often use it in positive sentences, especially in informal situations We use a lot of / lots of Use many with plural nouns Are there many Chinese students in your class? I haven’t got many CDs There are many cars on the road today → There are a lot of cars on the road today However, we can use Many of Not Many before the subject of the sentence Many people think that trains are too expensive Not many people know that you can get free coffee here! We use much in negative sentences and questions with uncountable nouns We don’t often use it in positive sentences We say a lot of / lots of Have you got much money with you? I haven’t got much money with me I have much money → I have a lot of money Common mistakes 1) Some students use many with uncountable nouns I don’t have many money → I don’t have much money 2) Some students use some in negative sentences and questions I haven’t got some brothers or sisters → I haven’t got any brothers or sisters Do you have some brothers or sisters? → Do you have any brothers or sisters? Subject and object questions Use: Some questions ask about the object of a sentence Who did you see? => I saw Helen Helen is the object of the sentence Who saw you?=> Nobody saw me Nobody is the subject of the sentence Subject and Object questions have different structures Form: Subject Questions 1)To be Use to be before a subject + nouns, adjective or place to be Subject Is / Was he / she / it / Tom a teacher / a student? happy / cold / tired / ready? at the party / in the classroom? here / there? Are / Were we / you / they / your parents teachers / students? happy / cold / tired / ready? at the party / in the classroom? here / there? Is Tom a teacher? Is it cold? Was he at the party? Is she here? Are you students? Were you tired? Are they in the classroom? Were you parents there? 2)Use Question word + to be before nouns, pronouns, places and this / that Question word be Where Who What When is / was he / she / it / my bag? this / that? at the party / in the classroom? are / were we / you / they / my keys? these / those? at the party / in the classroom? Who is it? When was it? Where was my bag? Who was at the party? Where are my keys? What are those? 3)Use (Question word) + auxiliary verb before a subject + verb Question word Where Who What When Why auxiliary verb is / are was / were / does did can / could will / would should Subject doing going you he she it we they have / has had seeing eating go see eat go see eat done gone saw eaten Where are you going? Who did you see? What did you do? When will we go? Why have they gone? Object Questions 1)Object questions have no subject in the question Any present / past simple verbs should go in the past / present simple tense, not the infinitive form Only What and Who can be used in this kind of question Question word verb object Who likes / needs / wants is following / calling saw / called me / you / him / her / us / them? the film? What happened (to me / you / him / her / us / them?) is happening (to Who likes me? What happened to you? In the present tense, always use the third person singular form of the verb What happens next? NOT What happen next? Common mistakes: 1) Some students use an auxiliary verb in an subject question What did happen? => What happened? Who did meet you at the station?=> Who met you at the station? Superlatives Use: Use the superlative form to describe something that is greater than any other thing The Amazon is the longest river in the world Helen is the most intelligent student in the class Form: 1) Write the before all superlatives 2) If an adjective is short and has one syllable, add est to the end If it ends in e already, just add st tall => the tallest nice => the nicest thick => the thickest late => the latest 2) If an adjective ends in one vowel and one consonant, write the consonant again, then write est But never write a w twice big => the biggest new => the newest(NOT newwest) thin => the thinnest slow => the slowest(NOT slowwest) slim => the slimmest The biggest cat in the world is the lion 3) If an adjective has two syllables and ends in y, change the y to i and add est funny => the funniest silly => the silliest It’s the silliest film I’ve ever seen! Giaoandethitienganh.info 4) For other adjectives with two or more syllables, DON’T add est Write most before the adjective interesting => the most interesting surprising => the most surprising 5) below It’s the most interesting book I’ve ever read Some adjectives have irregular superlative forms These are listed good => the best bad => the worst far => the furthest 6) a) In is often (but not always) used after a superlative adjective to describe where this statement is true London is the biggest city in England Everest is the highest mountain in the world My brother is the tallest person in my family Uncountable Nouns Use: Some nouns are countable – you can count them These include: apples, books, cars, trees Some nouns are uncountable – you cannot count them These include: water, oil, rice, fruit, bread, information, money Uncountable nouns have different grammar rules from countable nouns countable singular nouns e.g apple countable plural nouns uncountable nouns e.g apples e.g fruit Singular countable nouns always need a determiner: a, this, that, my, the etc Plural countable nouns doUncountable nouns not need a determiner not need a determiner I like apples I like fruit Dogs are friendly But they can use But they can be used with Giaoandethitienganh.info Look at that cat! determiners: Can I have an apple? Where are my shoes? Is this your bag? Are those pens yours? You can count countable nouns Can I have five apples please? Use singular verbs and Use plural verbs and determiners determiners This apple is nice These apples are nice singular determiners: This fruit is nice You cannot count uncountable nouns Can I have five breads please? Use singular verbs and determiners This bread is nice Some determiners can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns some, a lot of, lots of, loads of, plenty of, any We’ve got some potatoes We need some bread We don’t have any potatoes We don’t have any bread Some determiners can only be used with countable nouns: Some determiners can only be used with uncountable nouns: several, various, a few, much, a bit of, a little many will / won’t Use: Will and won’t are used to talk about the future Will is positive and won’t is negative I will be late tomorrow John won’t be at the party next Saturday Use will and won’t to: a) Make predictions In the year 2050, people will live under the sea b) Make an offer or promise I’ll buy you a drink John will help you with that box c) Make a decision about the future at the same time as you speak Sorry, we don’t have any tea That’s OK, I’ll have coffee Form: 1) Will is the same for all persons I will go, you will go, he / she will go, we will go, they will go 2) Always write a verb in the infinitive form after will You will happy when you hear the news => You will be happy when you hear the news 3) You can contract will to ‘ll for pronouns I’ll buy it We’ll be late He’ll be take today They’ll be delighted But don’t contract will with names Mark’ll be late => Mark will be late 4) To write questions, write will before the subject Will you buy me a drink? Will Tom get the job? 5) The short answer for Will questions is: Yes, I/you/he/she/he/they/we will No, I/you/he/she/he/they/we won’t Do not contract will in short answers Will John be late? Yes, he’ll.=> Yes, he will Common mistakes: 1) Some students forget to write will before the subject in questions You will be late? => Will you be late? 2) Many students use will to talk about their plans But you should use going to or the present continuous I will meet my friends on Friday => I’m meeting my friends on Saturday I’m going to meet my friends on Saturday Would like/ like Use: 1) Would like means want, but it is more polite You can use it in sentences and questions I’d like a biscuit Would you like some tea? 2) You can also use it to talk about your dreams and ambitions I’d like to go to Japan I wouldn’t like to live here! You can also use I’d love and I’d hate to talk about dreams I’d hate to live in the countryside I’d love to work with Simon Form: 1) Would like is the same for all persons I would like some tea You would like some tea He / she / James would like some tea We would like some tea They / our clients would like some tea 2) To make questions, invert the subject and would Would you / James / your clients like some tea? 3) Use wouldn’t to make the negative form I wouldn’t like to work there 4) Would like can be followed by a noun or to + verb noun: Would you like a biscuit? verb: Would you like to go to Malaysia? 5) In positive sentences, you can contract would to ‘d I would like to go to the USA => I’d like to go to the USA But NOT in negative sentences: I’dn’t like to work in a factory => I wouldn’t like to work in a factory And NOT in short answers: Would you like to have a horse? Yes, I’d => Yes, I would 6) Be careful not to confuse would like and like Use like to talk about things you like all the time I like chocolate cake It’s my favourite food Use would like to talk about things you want now, or at some time in the future I’d like a cup of coffee please I’d like to work in a chocolate factory Zero Conditional Use: The first conditional structure is used to talk about something which is always true It always happens, on the condition that something else happens Example: If it rains a lot, our garden floods Form: Make the first conditional in this way If I When you Unless he she present simple , I you he she present simple Examples: drinks If you fly on a budget airline, you have to buy your own When we visit Geoff, he always cooks us a roast dinner Or I present simple you he she if when unless I you he she present simple Examples: airline You have to buy your own drinks if you fly on a budget Geoff always cooks us a roast dinner when we visit him You can also form the zero conditional with the imperative form If you have a membership card, enter through the door on the left Enter through the door on the left if you have a membership card You can also form the zero conditional using a modal verb If the alarm goes off, we should leave the building If it’s rainy and sunny at the same time, you can often see a rainbow Different tenses can be used in the If / When (‘condition’) clause However, only the present simple, a modal or imperative form can be used in the ‘result’ clause If we’ve finished all our work, we can leave early If people are getting enough exercise, they usually feel better emotionally as well as physically Adverbial phrases of frequency, time and place Use: An adverbial phrase is a group of words which always go together they describe where, when or how often something happens Adverbial phrases of frequency describe how often something happens every morning, every afternoon every day – daily every week – weekly every month – monthly every year – annually every Sunday – on Sundays – on Sunday afternoons once a day twice a day three / four / five times a day all the time Form: 1) Adverbs of frequency often go in present simple sentences I have toast for breakfast every day We visit our grandparents twice a month 2) Note that ‘on Saturday’ refers to one day ‘On Saturdays’ means ‘every Saturday’ Common mistakes 1) Some students write adverbs of frequency in the wrong place We every day go the park => We go to the park every day 2) Some students use the plural form with every John goes swimming every days => John goes swimming every day _ Use: Use adverbs and adverbial phrases of time to talk about when you something Adverbs of time include: today, tomorrow, tonight, yesterday, tomorrow, nowadays now, first of all, beforehand soon, afterwards, later, next, then Giaoandethitienganh.info Form: 1) Adverbs of frequency usually go at the beginning or the end of a sentence or clause Tomorrow, I’m going to the beach I’m going to the beach tomorrow First of all, we had a drink at a café We had a drink at a café first of all I’m going to the supermarket, and afterwards I’m going to the library I’m going to the supermarket, and I’m going to the library afterwards 2) It is more common to use then at the beginning of a sentence or clause Then we arrived at the castle I’m going to finish my work and then I’m going to have a drink It is more common to use soon and now at the end of a sentence We’re going on holiday soon I’m going home now Common mistakes 1) Don’t use an adverb of time between the subject and the object of a sentence I went yesterday to the zoo => I went to the zoo yesterday / Yesterday I went to the zoo I’m going now to the bank => I’m going to the bank now 2) You must use a noun after After and Before Otherwise, use afterwards orbeforehand I’ll be late to class tomorrow I’m going to the doctors before => I’ll be late to class tomorrow I’m going to the doctors beforehand I’m going to my English class and I’m going to the bar after => I’m going to my English class and I’m going to the bar afterwards _ Use: Use adverbs and adverbial phrases of place to talk about where something happens Adverbs of place include: outside, inside, indoors, upstairs, downstairs (over) here, (over) there abroad, overseas Form: 1) Adverbs of frequency usually go after a verb She lives abroad Let’s go indoors 2) Adverbs of frequency can also go after the object of the sentence Rachel works in the office upstairs Your bag is on the table over there Giaoandethitienganh.info ... interesting Children are noisy The children in this class are noisy 4) Use a to introduce a new thing or person Use the when you already know this person or thing There is a restaurant near my house... continue doing something Please be quiet and get on with your work put up with something = tolerate I can’t put up with that noise any longer! KET( A2) Grammar topics Giaoandethitienganh.info These... about things in general Don't use an article here I like cats Dolphins are very intelligent Crime is increasing 3) Use the to talk about one particular thing, or a particular group of things
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