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c) ORDERED INQUIRIED DIRECT COMMAND S + ASKED + O + (not) + To infinitive TOLD REQUESTED WH-QUESTION - S + Asked + O + Question Word + S + V - Could you tell me + Question Word + S + V - We’d like to know - I want to know YES / NO QUESTION - S + ASKED + O + IF / WHETHER + S + V - Do you know - Could you tell me + If / Whether + S + V - We’d like to know - S wants to know - last week / year / month … - the previous week / year / month … - next week / year / month … - the following week / year / month … - a year / month … ago - the previous year / month … / a year /… before - this / these - that / those - here - there - today / tonight - that day / that night - yesterday - the day before / the day earlier - the day before yesterday - two days before - tomorrow - the next day / the following day - the day after tomorrow - in two days’ time 26. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH NOTES: * Changes in tenses Direct Speech Indirect Speech - Simple Present - Simple Past - Present Continuous - Past Continuous - Simple Past - Past Perfect - Present Perfect - Past Perfect - Past Continuous - Past Perfect Continuous - Simple Future - Future in the Past (Would + Verb) - Future Perfect (will have + P.P) - Perfect Conditional (would have + P.P) - Present Conditional (would + verb) - Perfect Conditional (would have + P.P) S + V + O (someone) + V / To inf. S + HAVE / GET + O (something) + P.P 34. ACTIVE SENTENCE PASSIVE SENTENCE - Present simple : IS /ARE + P.P - Present Continuous: IS /ARE + BEING + P.P - Past Simple: WAS / WERE + P.P - Past Continuous: WAS /WERE + BEING + P.P - Present Perfect: HAS/HAVE BEEN + P.P - Future Simple: WILL + BE + P.P * CAN / COULD / MUST / SHOULD / COULD …… * BE GOING TO + BE + P.P * HAVE TO . SUBJECT + VERB + ADJECTIVE + NOUN CLAUSE . SUBJECT + VERB + NOUN CLAUSE . NOUN CLAUSE + VERB + COMPLEMENT CLAUSE + though, although, even though + CLAUSE CLAUSE + so that , in order that + CLAUSE CLAUSE + so + Adjective (Adverb) + that / Such + noun + that + CLAUSE CLAUSE + so + Adjective (Adverb) + that / Such + noun + that + CLAUSE CLAUSE + as … as, -er … than, more … than + Clause CLAUSE + as though, as if, as + Clause] CLAUSE + where, wherever + CLAUSE CLAUSE + when, until, while, before, after, as soon as, just as, since, whenever + CLAUSE 1. Subject + Verb 2. Subject + Verb + Compliment 3. Subject + Verb + Object 4. Auxiliary + Subject + Verb? 5. Question words + Auxiliary + Subject + Verb? 6. Auxiliary + Subject + Verb + Question word + Subject + Verb? 38. PRESENT PAST SUBJUNCTIVE SENTENCE PAST WISH + PAST PERFECT In Situation FUTURE WOULD + V 37. IF …… NOT UNLESS PAST 36. PRESENT Situation PRESENT Unreal Condition SENTENCE in Situation PAST Unreal Condition NOTES: * PRESENT UNREAL CONDITION ( CONDITIONAL SENTENCE Type2) IF + PAST SUBJUNCTIVE, …………. WOULD / SHOULD + VERB * PAST UNREAL CONDITIONAL ( CONDITIONAL SENTENCE Type3) IF + PAST PERFECT, …… WOULD / SHOULD / COULD + HAVE + P.P . S + V + O (someone) + V / To inf. S + HAVE / GET + O (something) + P.P . ACTIVE SENTENCE PASSIVE SENTENCE - Present simple : IS /ARE + P.P - Present Continuous: IS /ARE + BEING + P.P - Past Simple: WAS / WERE + P.P - Past Continuous: WAS /WERE + BEING + P.P - Present Perfect: HAS/HAVE BEEN + P.P - Future Simple: WILL + BE + P.P 31. Though Although + CLAUSE Despite + NOUN PHRASE / GERUND Even though In spite of . 33. COMPOUND SENTENCE EITHER …… OR …… NEITHER …… NOR …… . BECAUSE + CLAUSE BECAUSE OF + NOUN PHRASE / GERUND DUE TO + NOUN PHRASE / GERUND . S + V + Time It Takes + (someone) + time + To infinitive . S + Verb + NO + Noun S + HARDLY + Verb + ANY + Noun S + ADVERB + VERB ADVERB + VERB + S ORDERED INQUIRIED DIRECT COMMAND S + ASKED + O + (not) + To infinitive TOLD REQUESTED b) WH-QUESTION - S + Asked + O + Question Word + S + V - Do you know - Could you tell me + Question Word + S + V - We’d like to know - I want to know ) YES / NO QUESTION - S + ASKED + O + IF / WHETHER + S + V - Do you know - Could you tell me + If / Whether + S + V - We’d like to know - S wants to know . Simple Past with OFTEN, ALWAYS, ONCE USED TO + Verb S + Verb Negative + Unti. Let’s + Verb Why don’t we + Verb It was not until … + That + Clause . S + Remember + To do something S + Don’t Forget + To do . Imperative Verb S + Should (not) + Verb . S + Be + Ing-Adjective - S + Be + Ed-Adjective S + Verb - S + Be + Ed-Adjective . S + V + O S + Be + Ed-Adjective S + V + O S + Be + Ing-Adjective . S + Like something S + Be Fond of + Something . S + Be + not necessary / pointless S + Don’t + Need to S + Don’t + Have to There is no need to S + Needn’t Adj + enough + (for) + To infinitive So + Adj + that Such + (A / An + Adj + N ) + That Such + (A / An + Adj + Noun ) + That Too + Adj + For… + To infinitive So + Adj + That Adj + enough + for …. + To infinitive So + Adj + That + Clause Such + A (An) + Singular Noun + That + Clause Adv + Uncountable Noun S + V + Too + Adv + To infinitive S + V + So + Adv + That + Clause S + V + So + Adv + That + Clause S + V + Adv + Enough + To infinitive 5 . S + Be + Adj What + a + Adj + Noun ! How + Adj + S + Be ! S + Verb + Adv How + Adv + S + Verb ! S + Be + (A / An) + Noun
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