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COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 1/Geographically speaking The British Isles North west coast of Europe Group of islands the islands of Great Britain, Ireland &over 6000 smaller islands 4 nations Great Britain “Gre[.] COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 1/Geographically speaking The British Isles - North-west coast of Europe - Group of islands - the islands of Great Britain, Ireland &over 6000 smaller islands - nations Great Britain - “Great Britain” is the name of just the single large island –made up of E, Ccot and Wales - Island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe - The ninth largest island in the world & the largest European island Britain: Scotland, England, Wales & Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland - The United Kingdom -The U.K 2/ Politically speaking  states in British Isles:  The Republic of Ireland (Eire): govern most of the island of Ireland  The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the United Kingdom or the UK or Great Britain): authorize the rest of British Isles  In 2001, Britain's population is made up of: 54,154,000 White 1,053,000 Indian 747,000 Pakistani 566,000 Black Caribbean 485,000 Black African 283,000 Bangladeshi 248,000 Non-Chinese Asian 247,000 Chinese 30,000 Other 3/ The Four Nations A long gradual process of political unification  Wales + England (13 century)  Scotland + England ( 17 century)  Ireland+ Great Britain (18 century)  Northern Ireland + Great Britain ( 1920) →The United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland British as nationality but different signs of national identity  Racial differences: Celtic race vs Germanic race  Celtic languages vs English  Economic, social and legal differences British – Briton – English  British - people who live in Britain  Briton - a word used in official contexts & formal writing to describe a citizen of the U.K  English - people who live in England  - Scottish people or Scots => anyone born in Scotland, or to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from within Scotland  - Welsh people  - Irish people The Dominance of England Population, Language, Custom and practice, Economic and military power, Other aspects of public life John Bull : looked upon with affection as English personification: honest, generous, straightforward, with a zest for life and ready to stand up and fight for what he believes in HISTORY I PREHISTORY 2000 years ago: Iron Age Celtic culture The Celts: arrived from Europe from 8th century BC onwards Chief significance: sense of mystery (astonishing monumental architecture, remains of which exist in the country) Little known about the early inhabitants Prehistoric remains: Silbury Hill, Stonehenge From the 8th century BC onwards, Celts arrived II THE ROMAN PERIOD (43-410) The Roman province of Britannia covered most of England & Wales Impose own way of life, culture Celtic aristocracy to govern Roman dress & Roman language (Latin) Celtic tribe (Scots) migrated from Ireland to Scotland => allies of the Picts and opponents of the Romans => Division of the Celts - The Britons in England and Wales - The Gaels in Ireland and Scotland => distinct branches of the Celtic group of languages Long occupation (43-410) but little influence Imposed way of life and culture Use of towns: villas, baths, temples, roads but soon destroyed Lasting reminder: place names (Britannia, Londinium, Chester, Manchester) III THE GEMANIC INVASIONS (410-1066) waves of Germanic invasions The Anglo-Saxons The Vikings 5th century: a number of tribes from the north-western European mainland invaded & settled in large numbers tribes: the Angles, the Saxons => Anglo-Saxons => grasp the south-east 6th century: Their way of life predominated in all of England & parts of southern Scotland The Anglo-Saxons: Had great effect on the countryside Introduced new farming methods Founded the thousands of self-sufficient villages => formed the basis of English society Christianity spread (Rome, Ireland) Germanic culture 9th century: The Vikings (Danes) conquered, settled the north & west Scotland, some coastal regions of Ireland Conquest of England was halted when they were defeated by King Alfred of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex => divided England between Wessex (S+W) and Danelaw (N+E) Large scale: Angle+land = England Use of countryside: new farming method, self-sufficient villages →basic of English society The cultural differences between Anglo-Saxons & Vikings (Danes): small Led the same way of life & spoke the same Germanic tongue The Danes soon converted to Christianity => political unification 10th century: England =>1 kingdom with a Germanic culture V THE NORMAN INVASION (1066-1485)  The successful Norman invasion of England brought Britain into the mainstream of western European culture  The Norman invasion: small scale but strict feudal system Strict feudal system: imposed  Peasants: English-speaking Saxons  Lords, barons: French-speaking Normans => English class system  System of government: Anglo-Norman kingdom => The most powerful political force  Conquests of Wales, Scotland & Ireland  Evolution of Parliament GEOGRAPHY I CLIMATE - No climate => weather - Very variable – changes so frequently => difficult to forecast - No “extreme” weather - Not “very” hot, not “very” cold Further West => more rain Mild winters = snow: higher areas Winter: colder in the East than in the West Summer: warmer & sunnier in the South than in the North  Spring - March to May  Summer - June to August  Autumn - September to November  Winter - December to February II LAND & SETTLEMENT No towering mountain ranges, large rivers, plains, forests - South, east: - Low-lying, flat plains, rolling hills - North, west: Mountainous areas - Blocks of flats - Outward > upward III LONDON - Largest city in Europe - Headquarters of government departments, Parliament, major legal institutions & the monarch - Headquarters of national TV networks & national Newspapers - Population: 1/5 of population of UK West End Theatres, cinemas, expensive shops East End - Poor residential area of central London - Large numbers of immigrants - Home of the Cockney LONDON  Cosmopolitan  137 languages/ district  Losing place as one of the world biggest financial centres  Cultural variety, long history IV SOUNTHERN ENGLAND The county of Kent  Garden of England  Many kinds of fruit & vegetables The Downs  Hills in a horseshoe shape  Sheep farming  White cliffs of the south coast  Services & light manufacturing  Little heavy industry The West country  Bristol  Dairy produce, fruit  South-west peninsula: - Rocky coast - Small bays - Wild moorlands  Tourist industry East Anglia  North-east London  Large expanses of uniformly flat land  Dry climate  Grow wheat, arable crops V THE MIDLANDS Birmingham  Heavy industry  Iron, steel => variety of goods  Industry areas: - The Potteries - Derby - Leicester - Nottingham Grimsby: fishing ports * Stratford-upon-Avon (Shakespeare’s birthplace) Nottingham  Heavy industry  Coal  Iron ore VI NORTHERN ENGLAND Western: Manchester area Cotton goods Eastern: Bradford, Leeds Woolen goods Southern: Sheffield Steel goods Northern: Newcastle Shipbuilding  Lake District (North-western corner of country)  Largest National Park in England VII SCOTLAND Southern uplands: Sheep farming Central plain: 80% of population Oil industry Highlands: Tourism Whisky Glasgow (3rd largest city in Britain)  Heavy industry  Artistic heritage  Glasgow school Edinburgh (capital)  Historic buildings  Topography (the Athens of the North)  Edinburgh festival of the arts VIII WALES Cardiff (capital) South Wales: Coal mine High proportion of industrial villages Most of the rest of Wales: mountainous IX NORTHERN IRELAND  Belfast Manufacture of linen Shipbuilding  The rest of Ireland Agriculture  Giant’s Causeway (enormous stepping stones) ... Wales + England (13 century)  Scotland + England ( 17 century)  Ireland+ Great Britain (18 century)  Northern Ireland + Great Britain ( 1920) →The United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland British... Britons in England and Wales - The Gaels in Ireland and Scotland => distinct branches of the Celtic group of languages Long occupation (43-410) but little influence Imposed way of life and culture... genetic origins are from within Scotland  - Welsh people  - Irish people The Dominance of England Population, Language, Custom and practice, Economic and military power, Other aspects of public life
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