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Thermophysical Properties of Fluids

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  • Thermophysical Properties of Fluids

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Thermophysical Properties of Fluids PART 1 ENERGY 3 CHAPTER 1 THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Peter E Liley School of Mechanical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana TABLE 1 CONVE. 1 ENERGY PART Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Energy and Power, Volume 4, Third Edition Edited by Myer Kutz Copyright  2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc CHAPTER THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS Peter E Liley School of Mechanical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE CONVERSION FACTORS PHASE TRANSITION DATA FOR THE ELEMENTS PHASE TRANSITION DATA FOR COMPOUNDS THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF LIQUID AND SATURATED VAPOR AIR IDEAL GAS THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OFAIR THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE U.S STANDARD ATMOSPHERE THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CONDENSED AND SATURATED VAPOR CARBON DIOXIDE FROM 200 K TO THE CRITICAL POINT TABLE FIGURE TABLE 10 TABLE 11 TABLE 12 10 TABLE 13 12 FIGURE FIGURE THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE AT BAR PRESSURE ENTHALPY–LOG PRESSURE DIAGRAM FOR CARBON DIOXIDE 16 ENTHALPY–LOG PRESSURE DIAGRAM FOR MERCURY 17 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED METHANE 18 THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METHANE AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 19 THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED REFRIGERANT 22 19 THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERANT 22 AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 20 ENTHALPY–LOG PRESSURE DIAGRAM FOR REFRIGERANT 22 21 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED REFRIGERANT 134a 22 THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERANT 134a 23 13 TABLE 14 TABLE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED MERCURY 14 TABLE 15 15 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids FIGURE FIGURE TABLE 16 TABLE 17 TABLE 18 TABLE 19 TABLE 20 TABLE 21 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR OF REFRIGERANT 134a ENTHALPY–LOG PRESSURE DIAGRAM FOR REFRIGERANT 134a THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SODIUM THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ICE / WATER THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM / WATER THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MISCELLANEOUS SUBSTANCES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE TABLE 22 24 25 TABLE 23 TABLE 24 26 27 TABLE 25 TABLE 26 28 TABLE 27 30 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NUMBERED REFRIGERANTS 32 SPECIFIC HEAT (kJ / kg ⅐ K) AT CONSTANT PRESSURE OF SATURATED LIQUIDS 36 FIGURE RATIO OF PRINCIPAL SPECIFIC HEATS, cp / cv , FOR LIQUIDS AND GASES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 37 SURFACE TENSION (N / m) OF LIQUIDS 38 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (W / m ⅐ K) OF SATURATED LIQUIDS 39 VISCOSITY (10Ϫ4 Pa ⅐ s) OF SATURATED LIQUIDS 40 THERMOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AT 1.013 BAR, 298.15 K 41 IDEAL GAS SENSIBLE ENTHALPIES (kJ / kg ⅐ mol) OF COMMON PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION 43 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART 45 In this chapter, information is usually presented in the System International des Unite´s, called in English the International System of Units and abbreviated SI Various tables of conversion factors from other unit systems into the SI system and vice versa are available The following table is intended to enable rapid conversion to be made with moderate, that is, five significant figure, accuracy, usually acceptable in most engineering calculations The references listed should be consulted for more exact conversions and definitions Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table Conversion Factors Density: kg / m3 ϭ 0.06243 lbm / ft3 ϭ 0.01002 lbm / U.K gallon ϭ 8.3454 ϫ 10Ϫ3 lbm / U.S gallon ϭ 1.9403 ϫ 10Ϫ3 slug / ft3 ϭ 10Ϫ3 g / cm3 Energy: kJ ϭ 737.56 ft ⅐ lbf ϭ 239.01 calth ϭ 0.94783 Btu ϭ 3.7251 ϫ 10Ϫ4 hp hr ϭ 2.7778 ϫ 10Ϫ4 kWhr Specific energy: kJ / kg ϭ 334.54 ft ⅐ lbf / lbm ϭ 0.4299 Btu / lbm ϭ 0.2388 cal / g Specific energy per degree: kJ / kg ⅐ K ϭ 0.23901 Btuth / lb ⅐ ЊF ϭ 0.23901 calth / g ⅐ ЊC Mass: kg ϭ 2.20462 lbm ϭ 0.06852 slug ϭ 1.1023 ϫ 10Ϫ3 U.S ton ϭ 10Ϫ3 tonne ϭ 9.8421 ϫ 10Ϫ4 U.K ton Pressure: bar ϭ 105 N / m2 ϭ 105 Pa ϭ 750.06 mm Hg at 0ЊC ϭ 401.47 in H2O at 32ЊF ϭ 29.530 in Hg at 0ЊC ϭ 14.504 lb / in.2 ϭ 14.504 psia ϭ 1.01972 kg / cm2 ϭ 0.98692 atm ϭ 0.1 MPa Temperature: T(K) ϭ T (ЊC) ϩ 273.15 ϭ [T (ЊF) ϩ 459.69] / 1.8 ϭ T (ЊR) / 1.8 Temperature difference: ⌬T (K) ϭ ⌬T (ЊC) ϭ ⌬T (ЊF) / 1.8 ϭ ⌬T (ЊR) / 1.8 Thermal conductivity: W / m ⅐ K ϭ 0.8604 kcal / m ⅐ hr ⅐ ЊC ϭ 0.5782 Btu / ft ⅐ hr ⅐ ЊF ϭ 0.01 W / cm ⅐ K ϭ 2.390 ϫ 10Ϫ3 cal / cm ⅐ s ⅐ ЊC Thermal diffusivity: m2 / s ϭ 38750 ft2 / hr ϭ 3600 m2 / hr ϭ 10.764 ft2 / sec Viscosity, dynamic: N ⅐ s / m2 ϭ Pa ⅐ s ϭ 107 ␮P ϭ 2419.1 lbm / ft ⅐ hr ϭ 103 cP ϭ 75.188 slug / ft ⅐ hr ϭ 10 P ϭ 0.6720 lbm / ft ⅐ sec ϭ 0.02089 lbf ⅐ sec / ft2 Viscosity, kinematic (see thermal diffusivity) Source: E Lange, L F Sokol, and V Antoine, Information on the Metric System and Related Fields, 6th ed., G C Marshall Space Flight Center, AL (exhaustive bibliography); B N Taylor, The International System of Units, NBS S.P 330, Washington, D.C., 2001; E A Mechtly, The International System of Units Physical Constants and Conversion Factors, NASA S.P 9012, 1973 Numerous revisions periodically appear: see, for example, Pure Appl Chem., 51, 1– 41 (1979) and later issues Table Phase Transition Data for the Elementsa Name Actinium Aluminum Antimony Argon Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine Symbol Formula Weight Tm (K) Ac Al Sb Ar As Ba Be Bi B Br Cd Ca C Ce Cs Cl2 227.028 26.9815 121.75 39.948 74.9216 137.33 9.01218 208.980 10.81 159.808 112.41 40.08 12.011 140.12 132.905 70.906 1323 933.5 903.9 83 885 1002 1560 544.6 2320 266 594 1112 3810 1072 301.8 172 ⌬hfus (kJ / kg) 63 398 163 30 55.8 1355 54.0 1933 66.0 55.1 213.1 390 16.4 180.7 Tb (K) 3475 2750 1905 87.2 2750 1838 4000 332 1040 1763 4275 951 239 Tc (K) 7850 5700 151 2100 4450 6200 4450 3300 584 2690 4300 7200 9750 2015 417 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table (Continued ) Name Chromium Cobalt Copper Dysprosium Erbium Europium Fluorine Gadolinum Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Symbol Formula Weight Tm (K) Cr Co Cu Dy Er Eu F2 Gd Ga Ge Au Hf He Ho H2 In I2 Ir Fe Kr La Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N2 Os O2 Pd P Pt Pu K Pr Pm 51.996 58.9332 63.546 162.50 167.26 151.96 37.997 157.25 69.72 72.59 196.967 178.49 4.00260 164.930 2.0159 114.82 253.809 192.22 55.847 83.80 138.906 207.2 6.941 174.967 24.305 54.9380 200.59 95.94 144.24 20.179 237.048 58.70 92.9064 28.013 190.2 31.9988 106.4 30.9738 195.09 244 39.0983 140.908 145 2133 1766 1357 1670 1795 1092 53.5 1585 303 1211 1337 2485 3.5 1744 14.0 430 387 2718 1811 115.8 1194 601 454 1937 922 1518 234.6 2892 1290 24.5 910 1728 2740 63.2 3310 54.4 1826 317 2045 913 336.4 1205 1353 ⌬hfus (kJ / kg) 325.6 274.7 206.8 68.1 119.1 60.6 13.4 63.8 80.1 508.9 62.8 134.8 2.1 73.8 28.5 125.0 13.7 247.3 19.6 44.6 23.2 432.2 106.6 368.4 219.3 11.4 290.0 49.6 16.4 297.6 283.7 25.7 150.0 13.8 165.0 101 11.7 60.1 49 Tb (K) Tc (K) 2950 3185 2845 2855 3135 1850 85.0 3540 2500 3110 3130 4885 4.22 2968 20.4 2346 457 4740 3136 119.8 3715 2025 1607 3668 1364 2334 630 4900 3341 27.1 4160 3190 5020 77.3 5300 90.2 3240 553 4100 3505 1032 3785 2730 5500 6300 8280 6925 7250 4350 144 8670 7125 8900 7250 10400 5.2 7575 6150 785 7800 8500 209.4 10500 5500 3700 3850 4325 1720 1450 7900 44.5 12000 8000 12500 126.2 12700 154.8 7700 995 10700 10500 2210 8900 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table (Continued ) Name Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium a Symbol Formula Weight Tm (K) Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 231 226.025 222 186.207 102.906 85.4678 101.07 150.4 44.9559 78.96 28.0855 107.868 22.9898 87.62 32.06 180.948 98 127.60 158.925 204.37 232.038 168.934 118.69 47.90 183.85 238.029 50.9415 131.30 173.04 88.9059 65.38 91.22 1500 973 202 3453 2236 312.6 2525 1345 1813 494 1684 1234 371 1043 388 3252 2447 723 1631 577 2028 1819 505 1943 3660 1406 2191 161.3 1098 1775 692.7 2125 ⌬hfus (kJ / kg) 64.8 12.3 177.8 209.4 26.4 256.3 57.3 313.6 66.2 1802 104.8 113.1 1042 53.4 173.5 232 137.1 67.9 20.1 69.4 99.6 58.9 323.6 192.5 35.8 410.7 17.5 44.2 128.2 113.0 185.3 Tb (K) 4300 1900 211 5920 3980 964 4430 2064 3550 958 3540 2435 1155 1650 718 5640 4550 1261 3500 1745 5067 2220 2890 3565 5890 4422 3680 164.9 1467 3610 1182 4681 Tc (K) 377 18900 7000 2070 9600 5050 6410 1810 5160 6400 2500 4275 1210 16500 11500 2330 8470 4550 14400 6450 7700 5850 15500 12500 11300 290 4080 8950 10500 Tm ϭ normal melting point; ⌬hfus ϭ enthalpy of fusion; Tb ϭ normal boiling point; Tc ϭ critical temperature Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table Phase Transition Data for Compoundsa Substance Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetone Acetylene Air Ammonia Aniline Benzene n-Butane Butanol Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chlorobenzene Chloroform m-Cresol Cyclohexane Cyclopropane n-Decane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylene Ethylene oxide Formic acid Heptane Hexane Hydrazine Hydrogen peroxide Isobutane Methane Methanol Methyl acetate Methyl bromide Methyl chloride Methyl formate Methylene chloride Naphthalene Nitric oxide Octane Pentane Tm (K) ⌬hm (kJ / kg) Tb (K) ⌬hv (kJ / kg) Tc (K) Pc (bar) 149.7 289.9 178.6 73.2 195.3 98 96.4 293.4 391.7 329.5 189.2 584 405 501 687 331.9 113.3 125.9 80.2 125.2 184 57.7 29.8 173.9 239.7 457.6 353.3 261.5 391.2 194.7 319.6 81.6 349.9 145.2 405 334.4 475.9 356 240.3 447.3 184.6 351.5 350.2 169.5 283.9 373.9 371.6 341.9 386.7 431 272.7 111.5 337.7 330.2 277.7 249.3 305 312.7 491 121.4 398.9 309.2 1368 485 394 366 593 573 352 215 195 138 325 249 421 357 477 276 488 840 366 480 580 502 316 335 1207 1263 386 512 1104 410 252 429 481 328 341 460 303 357 461 594 508 309 133 405.6 699 562 425.2 563 304.2 552 133 556 227.9 632.4 536.6 705 554.2 397.8 617 305.4 516 523.3 283.1 469 576 540 507 653 55.4 57.9 47 61.3 37.7 112.8 53.1 49 38 44.1 73.8 79 35 45.6 37.4 45.2 54.7 45.5 40.7 54.9 21 48.8 63.8 38.3 51.2 71.9 34.6 27.4 29.7 147 408.1 191.1 513.2 507 464 416.3 487.2 510.2 747 180.3 569.4 469.8 36.5 46.4 79.5 46.9 71.2 66.8 60 60.8 39.5 65.5 25 33.7 60 195.4 267.2 267.7 134.8 188 216.6 161 68.1 250.3 89.5 228 210 285.1 279.6 145.5 243.2 89.9 158.6 190.8 104 161.5 281.4 182.6 177.8 274.7 271.2 113.6 90.7 175.4 174.8 180 178.5 173.4 176.4 353.2 111 216.4 143.7 77.1 31.7 129.4 202.1 94.3 109 119 119.5 117.6 246.4 140.2 151.2 395 310 78.1 58.7 99.2 62.9 127.4 125.5 54.4 148.1 76.6 180.6 116.6 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table (Continued ) Substance Propane Propanol Propylene Refrigerant 12 Refrigerant 13 Refrigerant 13B1 Refrigerant 21 Refrigerant 22 Steam / water Sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Toluene Tm (K) ⌬hm (kJ / kg) Tb (K) ⌬hv (kJ / kg) Tc (K) Pc (bar) 86 147 87.9 115 92 105.4 138 113 273.2 283.7 197.7 178.2 80 86.5 71.4 34.3 231.1 370.4 225.5 243.4 191.8 215.4 282.1 232.4 373.2 426 696 438 165 148 119 242 234 2257 370 537 365 385 302.1 340 451.7 369 647.3 42.5 51.7 46.2 41.2 38.7 39.6 51.7 49.8 221.2 47.6 334 100.7 115.5 v v v v 268.4 383.8 386 339 430.7 594 78.8 41 v ϭ variable; Tm ϭ normal melting point; ⌬hm ϭ enthalpy of fusion; Tb ϭ normal boiling point; ⌬hv ϭ enthalpy of vaporization; Tc ϭ critical temperature; Pc ϭ critical pressure a Table Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid and Saturated Vapor Aira Pƒ (MPa) Pg (MPa) vƒ vg T (K) (m3 / kg) (m3 / kg) 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 132.5b 0.0066 0.0159 0.0340 0.0658 0.1172 0.1954 0.3079 0.4629 0.6687 0.9334 1.2651 1.6714 2.1596 2.743 3.770 0.0025 0.0077 0.0195 0.0424 0.0826 0.1469 0.2434 0.3805 0.5675 0.8139 1.1293 1.5238 2.0081 2.614 3.770 0.001027 0.001078 0.001103 0.001130 0.001160 0.001193 0.001229 0.001269 0.001315 0.001368 0.001432 0.001512 0.001619 0.001760 0.00309 6.876 2.415 1.021 0.4966 0.2685 0.1574 0.0983 0.0644 0.0439 0.0308 0.0220 0.0160 0.0116 0.0081 0.0031 hƒ (kJ / kg) hg (kJ / kg) sƒ (kJ / kg ⅐ K) sg (kJ / kg ⅐ K) Ϫ144.9 Ϫ144.8 Ϫ144.0 Ϫ132.8 Ϫ124.4 Ϫ115.2 Ϫ105.5 Ϫ95.4 Ϫ84.8 Ϫ73.8 Ϫ62.2 Ϫ49.7 Ϫ35.9 Ϫ19.7 59.7 64.5 69.1 73.5 77.5 81.0 84.1 86.5 88.2 89.1 89.1 87.7 84.5 78.0 33.6 2.726 2.727 2.798 2.896 3.004 3.114 3.223 3.331 3.436 3.540 3.644 3.750 3.861 3.985 4.38 6.315 6.070 5.875 5.714 5.580 5.464 5.363 5.272 5.189 5.110 5.033 4.955 4.872 4.770 4.38 33.6 v ϭ specific volume; h ϭ specific enthalpy; s ϭ specific entropy; ƒ ϭ saturated liquid; g ϭ saturated vapor MPa ϭ 10 bar a b Approximate critical point Air is a multicomponent mixture 10 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table Ideal Gas Thermophysical Properties of Aira T (K) 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 v (m3 / kg) 0.5666 0.5949 0.6232 0.6516 0.6799 0.7082 0.7366 0.7649 0.7932 0.8216 0.8499 0.8782 0.9065 0.9348 0.9632 0.9916 1.0199 1.0482 1.0765 1.1049 1.1332 1.1615 1.1898 1.2181 1.2465 1.2748 1.3032 1.3315 1.3598 1.3882 1.4165 1.473 1.530 1.586 1.643 1.700 1.756 1.813 1.870 1.926 1.983 2.040 2.096 2.153 2.210 2.266 h (kJ / kg) Ϫ103.0 Ϫ92.9 Ϫ82.8 Ϫ72.8 Ϫ62.7 Ϫ52.7 Ϫ42.6 Ϫ32.6 Ϫ22.5 Ϫ12.5 Ϫ2.4 7.6 17.7 27.7 37.8 47.9 57.9 68.0 78.1 88.3 98.4 108.5 118.7 128.8 139.0 149.2 159.4 169.7 179.9 190.2 200.5 221.1 241.8 262.6 283.5 304.5 325.6 346.7 368.0 389.3 410.8 432.3 453.9 475.7 497.5 519.4 s (kJ / kg ⅐ K) 6.4591 6.5082 6.5550 6.5998 6.6425 6.6836 6.7230 6.7609 6.7974 6.8326 6.8667 6.8997 6.9316 6.9625 6.9926 7.0218 7.0502 7.0778 7.1048 7.1311 7.1567 7.1817 7.2062 7.2301 7.2535 7.2765 7.2989 7.3209 7.3425 7.3637 7.3845 7.4249 7.4640 7.5018 7.5385 7.5740 7.6086 7.6422 7.6749 7.7067 7.7378 7.7682 7.7978 7.8268 7.8551 7.8829 cp (kJ / kg ⅐ K) 1.008 1.007 1.006 1.006 1.005 1.005 1.005 1.004 1.004 1.005 1.005 1.005 1.006 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.015 1.016 1.018 1.019 1.021 1.022 1.024 1.026 1.028 1.030 1.034 1.038 1.042 1.047 1.051 1.056 1.060 1.065 1.070 1.075 1.080 1.084 1.089 1.094 1.099 ␥ 1.398 1.399 1.399 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.400 1.399 1.399 1.399 1.398 1.398 1.397 1.397 1.396 1.395 1.395 1.394 1.393 1.392 1.391 1.390 1.389 1.389 1.388 1.387 1.385 1.382 1.380 1.378 1.376 1.374 1.371 1.369 1.367 1.364 1.362 1.360 1.358 1.356 1.354 (m / s) ␩ (N ⅐ s / m2) ␭ (W / m ⅐ K) Pr 283.3 290.4 297.3 304.0 310.5 317.0 323.3 329.4 335.5 341.4 347.2 352.9 358.5 364.0 369.5 374.8 380.0 385.2 390.3 395.3 400.3 405.1 409.9 414.6 419.3 423.9 428.3 433.0 437.4 441.8 446.1 454.6 462.9 471.0 479.0 486.8 494.4 501.9 509.3 516.5 523.6 530.6 537.5 544.3 551.0 557.6 l.33.Ϫ5 1.39.Ϫ5 1.44.Ϫ5 1.50.Ϫ5 1.55.Ϫ5 1.60.Ϫ5 1.65.Ϫ5 1.70.Ϫ5 1.75.Ϫ5 1.80.Ϫ5 1.85.Ϫ5 1.90.Ϫ5 1.94.Ϫ5 1.99.Ϫ5 2.04.Ϫ5 2.08.Ϫ5 2.12.Ϫ5 2.17.Ϫ5 2.21.Ϫ5 2.25.Ϫ5 2.29.Ϫ5 2.34.Ϫ5 2.38.Ϫ5 2.42.Ϫ5 2.46.Ϫ5 2.50.Ϫ5 2.53.Ϫ5 2.57.Ϫ5 2.61.Ϫ5 2.65.Ϫ5 2.69.Ϫ5 2.76.Ϫ5 2.83.Ϫ5 2.91.Ϫ5 2.98.Ϫ5 3.04.Ϫ5 3.11.Ϫ5 3.18.Ϫ5 3.25.Ϫ5 3.32.Ϫ5 3.38.Ϫ5 3.45.Ϫ5 3.51.Ϫ5 3.57.Ϫ5 3.64.Ϫ5 3.70.Ϫ5 0.0183 0.0191 0.0199 0.0207 0.0215 0.0222 0.0230 0.0237 0.0245 0.0252 0.0259 0.0265 0.0272 0.0279 0.0285 0.0292 0.0298 0.0304 0.0311 0.0317 0.0323 0.0330 0.0336 0.0342 0.0348 0.0355 0.0361 0.0367 0.0373 0.0379 0.0385 0.0398 0.0410 0.0422 0.0434 0.0446 0.0458 0.0470 0.0482 0.0495 0.0507 0.0519 0.0531 0.0544 0.0556 0.0568 0.734 0.732 0.730 0.728 0.726 0.725 0.723 0.722 0.721 0.720 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.719 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.716 0.716 0.716 0.716 0.716 vs b Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 11 Table (Continued ) T (K) (m3 / kg) h (kJ / kg) s (kJ / kg ⅐ K) cp (kJ / kg ⅐ K) ␥ (m / s) ␩ (N ⅐ s / m2) ␭ (W / m ⅐ K) Pr 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2.323 2.380 2.436 2.493 2.550 2.606 2.663 2.720 2.776 2.833 2.975 3.116 3.258 3.400 3.541 3.683 3.825 3.966 4.108 4.249 4.391 4.533 4.674 4.816 4.958 5.099 5.241 5.383 5.524 5.666 5.808 5.949 6.091 6.232 6.374 6.516 6.657 6.800 6.940 7.082 541.5 563.6 585.8 608.1 630.4 652.9 675.5 698.1 720.8 743.6 800.8 858.5 916.6 975.0 1033.8 1093.0 1152.3 1212.2 1272.3 1332.7 1393.3 1454.2 1515.3 1576.7 1638.2 1700.0 1762.0 1824.1 1886.4 1948.9 2011.6 2074.4 2137.3 2200.4 2263.6 2327.0 2390.5 2454.0 2517.7 2581.5 7.9101 7.9367 7.9628 7.9885 8.0136 8.0383 8.0625 8.0864 8.1098 8.1328 8.1887 8.2423 8.2939 8.3437 8.3917 8.4381 8.4830 8.5265 8.5686 8.6096 8.6493 8.6880 8.7256 8.7622 8.7979 8.8327 8.8667 8.8998 8.9322 8.9638 8.9948 9.0251 9.0547 9.0837 9.1121 9.1399 9.1672 9.1940 9.2203 9.2460 1.103 1.108 1.112 1.117 1.121 1.125 1.129 1.133 1.137 1.141 1.150 1.158 1.165 1.173 1.180 1.186 1.193 1.199 1.204 1.210 1.215 1.220 1.225 1.229 1.233 1.237 1.241 1.245 1.248 1.252 1.255 1.258 1.260 1.263 1.265 1.268 1.270 1.273 1.275 1.277 1.352 1.350 1.348 1.346 1.344 1.342 1.341 1.339 1.338 1.336 1.333 1.330 1.327 1.324 1.322 1.319 1.317 1.315 1.313 1.311 1.309 1.308 1.306 1.305 1.303 1.302 1.301 1.300 1.299 1.298 1.297 1.296 1.295 1.294 1.293 1.293 1.292 1.291 1.291 1.290 564.1 570.6 576.8 583.1 589.3 595.4 601.5 607.5 613.4 619.3 633.8 648.0 661.8 675.4 688.6 701.6 714.4 726.9 739.2 751.3 763.2 775.0 786.5 797.9 809.1 820.2 831.1 841.9 852.6 863.1 873.5 883.8 894.0 904.0 914.0 923.8 933.5 943.2 952.7 962.2 3.76.Ϫ5 3.82.Ϫ5 3.88.Ϫ5 3.94.Ϫ5 4.00.Ϫ5 4.05.Ϫ5 4.11.Ϫ5 4.17.Ϫ5 4.23.Ϫ5 4.28.Ϫ5 4.42.Ϫ5 4.55.Ϫ5 4.68.Ϫ5 4.81.Ϫ5 4.94.Ϫ5 5.06.Ϫ5 5.19.Ϫ5 5.31.Ϫ5 5.42.Ϫ5 5.54.Ϫ5 5.66.Ϫ5 5.77.Ϫ5 5.88.Ϫ5 5.99.Ϫ5 6.10.Ϫ5 6.21.Ϫ5 6.32.Ϫ5 6.43.Ϫ5 6.53.Ϫ5 6.64.Ϫ5 6.74.Ϫ5 6.84.Ϫ5 6.95.Ϫ5 7.05.Ϫ5 7.15.Ϫ5 7.25.Ϫ5 7.35.Ϫ5 7.44.Ϫ5 7.54.Ϫ5 7.64.Ϫ5 0.0580 0.0592 0.0603 0.0615 0.0627 0.0639 0.0650 0.0662 0.0673 0.0684 0.0711 0.0738 0.0764 0.0789 0.0814 0.0839 0.0863 0.0887 0.0911 0.0934 0.0958 0.0981 0.1004 0.1027 0.1050 0.1072 0.1094 0.1116 0.1138 0.1159 0.1180 0.1200 0.1220 0.1240 0.1260 0.1279 0.1298 0.1317 0.1336 0.1354 0.715 0.715 0.715 0.715 0.715 0.715 0.714 0.714 0.714 0.714 0.714 0.715 0.715 0.715 0.716 0.716 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.718 0.718 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.717 0.718 0.718 0.718 0.719 0.719 0.720 0.720 v vs v ϭ specific volume; h ϭ specific enthalpy; s ϭ specific entropy; cp ϭ specific heat at constant pressure; ␥ ϭ specific heat ratio, cp / cv (dimensionless); vs ϭ velocity of sound; ␩ ϭ dynamic viscosity; ␭ ϭ thermal conductivity; Pr ϭ Prandtl number (dimensionless) Condensed from S Gordon, Thermodynamic and Transport Combustion Properties of Hydrocarbons with Air, NASA Technical Paper 1906, 1982, Vol These properties are based on constant gaseous composition The reader is reminded that at the higher temperatures the influence of pressure can affect the composition and the thermodynamic properties b The notation 1.33.Ϫ5 signifies 1.33 ϫ 10Ϫ5 a Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 31 Table 19 (Continued ) Temperature (K) 250 300 350 400 450 500 0.7317 259.1 6.650 1.042 0.9992 322 0.0223 0.155 0.724 0.8786 311.2 6.840 1.041 0.9998 353 0.0259 0.178 0.715 1.025 363.3 7.001 1.042 0.9998 382 0.0292 0.200 0.713 1.171 415.4 7.140 1.045 0.9999 407 0.0324 0.220 0.710 1.319 467.8 7.263 1.050 1.0000 432 0.0366 0.240 0.708 1.465 520.4 7.374 1.056 1.0002 455 0.0386 0.258 0.706 0.6402 226.9 6.247 0.915 0.9987 301 0.0226 0.179 0.725 0.7688 272.7 6.414 0.920 0.9994 330 0.0266 0.207 0.716 0.9790 318.9 6.557 0.929 0.9996 356 0.0305 0.234 0.713 1.025 365.7 6.682 0.942 0.9998 379 0.0343 0.258 0.710 1.154 413.1 6.793 0.956 1.0000 401 0.0380 0.281 0.708 1.282 461.3 6.895 0.972 1.0000 421 0.0416 0.303 0.707 0.451 877.2 5.840 1.50 0.970 227 0.0128 0.070 0.820 0.548 957.0 6.131 1.70 0.982 248 0.0182 0.082 0.772 0.644 1048 6.409 1.96 0.988 268 0.0247 0.096 0.761 0.738 1149 6.680 2.14 0.992 285 0.0296 0.108 0.765 0.832 1261 6.944 2.35 0.994 302 0.0362 0.119 0.773 0.926 1384 7.202 2.55 0.996 317 0.0423 0.131 0.793 0.585 957.6 6.354 1.55 0.987 257 0.0177 0.087 0.769 0.686 1040 6.606 1.73 0.992 278 0.0233 0.101 0.754 0.786 1131 6.851 1.91 0.994 298 0.0296 0.115 0.742 0.884 1235 7.095 2.09 0.995 315 0.0363 0.128 0.731 0.972 1338 7.338 2.27 0.996 333 0.0438 0.141 0.728 Nitrogen v h s cp Z vs ␭ ␩ Pr Oxygen v h s cp Z Vs ␭ ␩ Pr Propane v h s cp Z vs ␭ ␩ Pr Propylene v h s cp Z vs ␭ ␩ Pr 0.482 891.8 6.074 1.44 0.976 247 0.0127 0.072 0.814 a v ϭ specific volume (m3 / kg); h ϭ specific enthalpy (kJ / kg); s ϭ specific entropy (kJ / kg ⅐ K); cp ϭ specific heat at constant pressure (kJ / kg ⅐ K); Z ϭ compressibility factor ϭ Pv / RT; vs ϭ velocity of sound (m / s); ␭ ϭ thermal conductivity (W / m ⅐ K); ␩ ϭ viscosity (10Ϫ4)(N ⅐ s / m2) (thus, at 250 K for n-butane the viscosity is 2.545 ϫ 10Ϫ4 N ⅐ s / m2 ϭ 0.0002545 Pa ⅐ s); Pr ϭ Prandtl number 32 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table 20 Physical Properties of Numbered Refrigerantsa Number 10 CFC-11 11B1 11B2 11B3 CFC-12 12B1 12B2 CFC-13 BFC-13B1 FC-14 20 21 HCFC-22 HFC-23 HCC-30 31 HFC-32 33 40 FX-40 HFC-41 50 FX-57 110 111 112 CFC-113 113a CFC-114 114a CFC-115 FC-116 120 121 122 HCFC-123 HCFC-123a HCFC-124 E-125 Formula, Composition, Synonym R-32 / 125 / 134a / 143a (10 / 33 / 21 / 36) CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) CCl3F CBrCl2F CBr2ClF CBr3F CCl2F2 CBrClF2 CF2Br2 CClF3 CBrF3 (Halon 1301) CF4 (carbon tetrafluoride) CHCl3 (chloroform) CHCl2F CHClF2 CHF3 CH2Cl2 (methylene chloride) CH2ClF CH2F2 R-22 / 124 / 152a (40 / 43 / 17) CH3Cl (methyl chloride) R-32 / 125 / 143a (10 / 45 / 45) CH3F (methyl fluoride) CH4 (methane) R-22 / 124 / 142b (65 / 25 / 10) CCl3CCl3 CCl3CCl2F CCl2FCCl2F CClF2CCl2F CCl3CF3 CClF2CClF2 CF3CCl2F CClF2CF3 CF3CF3 (perfluoroethane) CHCl2CCl3 CHCl2CCl2F CClF2CHCl2 CHCl2CF3 CHClFCClF2 CHClFCF3 CHF2OCF2 Molecular Weight n.b.p (ЊC) Crit P (bar) Crit T (ЊC) 94.50 Ϫ49.4 40.1 77.5 153.8 137.37 181.82 226.27 270.72 120.91 165.36 209.81 104.46 148.91 88.00 119.38 102.92 86.47 70.01 84.93 68.47 52.02 96.62 50.49 90.70 34.03 16.04 96.70 236.8 220.2 203.8 187.38 187.36 170.92 170.92 154.47 138.01 202.3 185.84 131.39 152.93 152.93 136.48 136.02 76.8 23.8 52 80 107 Ϫ29.8 Ϫ2.5 24.5 Ϫ81.4 Ϫ57.8 Ϫ127.9 61.2 8.9 Ϫ40.8 Ϫ82.1 40.2 Ϫ9.1 Ϫ51.7 Ϫ28.8 Ϫ12.4 Ϫ48.4 Ϫ78.4 Ϫ161.5 Ϫ35.2 185 137 92.8 47.6 47.5 3.8 3.0 Ϫ39.1 Ϫ78.2 162 116.6 72.0 27.9 28.0 Ϫ12.0 Ϫ41.9 45.6 44.1 283.2 198.0 41.1 42.5 40.7 38.7 39.6 37.5 54.5 51.7 49.9 48.7 60.8 56.2 58.0 112.0 153.0 204.9 28.8 67.0 Ϫ45.7 263.4 178.5 96.2 26.3 237.0 153.8 78.2 66.7 40.5 58.8 46.4 47.0 33.4 143.1 72.0 44.3 Ϫ82.5 105.0 401.8 33.4 34.4 278 214.1 32.5 33.0 31.5 30.4 34.8 145.7 145.5 79.9 19.9 373 36.7 44.7 36.4 33.3 183.7 188.5 122.5 80.4 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 33 Table 20 (Continued ) Number HFC-125 131 132 133 E-134 HFC-134 HFC-134a 141 141a HCFC-141b 142 142a HCFC-142b 143 E-143a HFC-143a 151 152 HFC-152a HCC-160 HFC-161 E-170 HC-170 216 FC-218 HFC-227ca HFC-227ea 234da 235ca HFC-236ca HFC-236cb HFC-236ea HFC-235fa HFC-245ca E-245cb HFC-245cb E-245fa HFC-245fa HFC-254cb HC-290 RC-318 400 Formula, Composition, Synonym CHF2CF3 CHCl2CHClF CHClFCHClF CHClFCHF2 CHF2OCHF2 CHF2CHF2 CH2FCF3 CH2ClCHClF CHCl2CH2F CH3CCl2F CHF2CH2Cl CHClFCH2F CH3CClF2 CHF2CH2F CH3OCF3 CH3CF3 CH2FCH2Cl CH2FCH2F CH3CHF2 CH3CH2Cl CH3CH2F CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether) CH3CH3 (ethane) C3Cl2F6 CF3CF2CF3 CHF2CF2CF3 CF3CHFCF3 CF3CHClCHClF CF3CF2CH2Cl CHF2CF2CHF2 CH2FCF2CF3 CHF2CHFCF3 CF3CH2CF3 CH2FCF2CHF2 CHF2OCH2CF3 CH3CF2CF3 CHF2OCH2CF3 CHF2CH2CF3 CH3CF2CHF2 CH3CH2CH3 (propane) cyclo-CF2CF2CF2CF2 R-12 / 114 Molecular Weight n.b.p (ЊC) Crit P (bar) Crit T (ЊC) 120.02 151.4 134.93 118.5 118.03 102.03 102.03 116.95 116.95 116.95 100.49 100.49 100.50 84.04 100.04 84.04 82.50 66.05 66.05 64.51 48.06 46.07 30.07 220.93 188.02 170.03 170.03 114.03 156.46 152.04 152.04 152.04 152.04 134.05 150.05 134.05 150.05 134.05 116.06 44.10 200.04 Ϫ48.1 36.3 66.3 42.3 46.2 40.6 153.5 118.7 101.1 32.2 35.1 42.5 204.4 Ϫ9.8 41.2 137.2 35.9 38.3 104.9 73.6 43.4 45.2 52.4 47.0 53.2 48.9 27.5 26.8 28.7 29.5 171.8 113.3 186.6 102.2 128.8 32.2 180.0 71.9 106.3 103.5 34.1 31.2 35.3 31.8 38.6 153.2 130.2 141.2 130.7 178.5 185.2 108.5 170.9 157.6 146.2 96.8 115.4 102.5 58.5 17.0 6.2 Ϫ23.0 Ϫ26.1 76 Ϫ24.1 Ϫ47.4 53.2 10.5 Ϫ24.0 12.4 Ϫ37.1 Ϫ24.8 Ϫ88.8 35.7 Ϫ36.7 Ϫ17.0 Ϫ18.3 70.1 28.1 5.1 Ϫ1.4 6.6 Ϫ1.1 25.5 34.0 Ϫ18.3 29.2 15.3 Ϫ0.8 Ϫ42.1 Ϫ5.8 32.6 37.3 36.4 37.5 42.5 27.8 34 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table 20 (Continued ) Number R-401a R-401b R-401c R-402a R-402b R-403a R-403b R-404a R-405a R-406a R-407a R-407b R-407c R-408a R-409a R-410a R-410b R-411a R-411b R-412a R-500 R-501 R-502 R-503 R-504 R-505 R-506 R-507 R-508 R-509 R-600 R-600a R-610 R-611 630 631 702 702p 704 717 718 Formula, Composition, Synonym Molecular Weight n.b.p (ЊC) Crit P (bar) Crit T (ЊC) R-22 / 124 / 152a (53 / 34 / 13) R-22 / 124 / 152a (61 / 28 / 11) R-22 / 124 / 152a (33 / 52 / 15) R-22 / 125 / 290 (38 / 60 / 2) R-22 / 125 / 290 (60 / 38 / 2) R-22 / 218 / 290 (75 / 20 / 5) R-22 / 218 / 290 (56 / 39 / 5) R-125 / 134a / 143a (44 / / 52) R-22 / 142b / 152a / C318 (45 / / / 43) R-22 / 142b / 600a (55 / 41 / 4) R-32 / 125 / 134a (20 / 40 / 40) R-32 / 125 / 134a (10 / 70 / 20) R-32 / 125 / 134a (23 / 25 / 52) R-22 / 125 / 143a (47 / / 46) R-22 / 124 / 142b (60 / 25 / 15) R-32 / 125 (50 / 50) R-32 / 125 (45 / 55) R-22 / 152a / 1270 (88 / 11 / 2) R-22 / 152a / 1270 (94 / / 3) R-22 / 142b / 218 (70 / 25 / 5) R-12 / 152a (74 / 26) R-12 / 22 (25 / 75) R-22 / 115 (49 / 51) R-13 / 23 (60 / 40) R-32 / 115 (48 / 52) R-12 / 31 (78 / 22) R-31 / 114 (55 / 45) R-125 / 143a (50 / 50) R-23 / 116 (39 / 61) R-22 / 218 (44 / 56) CH3CH2CH2CH3 (butane) CH3CH3CH3CH (isobutane) C4H10O (ethyl ether) C2H4O2 (methyl formate) CH3NH (methyl amine) C2H5NH2 (ethyl amine) H2 (hydrogen) Parahydrogen He (helium) NH3 (ammonia) H2O (water) 94.44 92.84 101.04 101.55 94.71 91.06 102.06 97.60 116.00 Ϫ33.1 Ϫ34.7 Ϫ28.4 Ϫ49.2 Ϫ47.4 Ϫ50.0 Ϫ49.5 Ϫ46.5 Ϫ27.3 46.0 46.8 43.7 41.3 44.5 50.8 50.9 37.3 42.6 108.0 106.1 112.7 75.5 82.6 93.3 90.0 72.1 106.1 89.85 90.10 102.94 86.20 87.02 97.45 72.56 Ϫ30.0 Ϫ45.5 Ϫ47.3 Ϫ43.6 Ϫ43.5 Ϫ34.2 Ϫ50.5 47.4 45.4 41.6 46.2 43.4 45.0 49.6 123.0 82.8 75.8 86.7 83.5 107.0 72.5 99.31 Ϫ33.5 44.2 105.5 111.64 87.28 79.2 103.5 93.7 98.90 100.10 124.0 58.13 58.13 74.12 60.05 31.06 45.08 2.016 2.016 4.003 17.03 18.02 Ϫ45.4 Ϫ87.8 Ϫ57.2 Ϫ30 Ϫ12 Ϫ46.7 Ϫ85.7 Ϫ47 Ϫ0.4 Ϫ11.7 Ϫ116.3 40.8 43.6 47.6 82.2 19.5 66.4 37.9 70.9 23.1 38.0 36.5 36.0 59.9 74.6 56.2 13.2 12.9 2.3 114.2 221.0 152.0 135.0 194.0 204 156.9 183.0 Ϫ239.9 Ϫ240.2 Ϫ267.9 133.0 374.2 31.8 Ϫ6.7 16.6 Ϫ252.8 Ϫ252.9 Ϫ268.9 Ϫ33.3 100.0 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 35 Table 20 (Continued ) Number 720 728 728a 729 732 740 744 744a R-764 1113 1114 1120 1130 1132a 1141 1150 1270 R-7146 Formula, Composition, Synonym Ne (neon) N2 (nitrogen) CO (carbon monoxide) - (air) O2 (oxygen) A (argon) CO2 (carbon dioxide) N2O (nitrous oxide) SO2 (sulfur dioxide) C2ClF3 C2F4 CHClCCl2 CHClCHCl C2H2F2 C2H3F (vinyl fluoride) C2H4 (ethylene) C3H6 (propylene) SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) Molecular Weight n.b.p (ЊC) Crit P (bar) Crit T (ЊC) 20.18 28.01 28.01 28.97 32.00 39.95 44.01 44.02 64.07 116.47 100.02 131.39 96.95 64.03 46.04 28.05 42.09 146.05 Ϫ246.1 Ϫ198.8 Ϫ191.6 Ϫ194.3 Ϫ182.9 Ϫ185.9 Ϫ78.4 Ϫ89.5 Ϫ10.0 Ϫ27.9 Ϫ76.0 34.0 34.0 35.0 37.6 50.8 49.0 73.7 72.2 78.8 40.5 39.4 50.2 54.8 44.6 52.4 51.1 46.2 37.6 Ϫ228.7 Ϫ146.9 Ϫ140.3 Ϫ140.6 Ϫ118.4 Ϫ122.3 87.2 47.8 Ϫ85.7 Ϫ72.2 Ϫ103.7 Ϫ185 Ϫ63.8 31.1 36.5 157.5 106 33.3 271.1 243.3 29.7 54.7 9.3 91.8 45.6 a Refrigerant numbers in some cases are tentative and subject to revision Compositions rounded to nearest weight percent Based on data supplied by M O McLinden, NIST, Boulder, CO, PCR Chemicals, Gainesville, FL, G H Thomson, DIPPR, Bartlesville, OK, and literature sources 36 a — 2.07 4.54 — — 2.23 2.17 0.838 1.31 — 3.20 2.24 1.97 3.78 — 2.10 2.12 2.34 2.10 1.61 1.92 2.02 2.41 2.10 2.27 — 1.32 1.65 1.96 3.25 — 2.08 2.09 2.31 2.07 1.58 1.90 1.96 2.35 2.04 2.22 — 1.31 1.60 260 — 2.05 4.48 — — 2.19 2.13 0.833 1.29 — 2.97 — a 250 Dashes indicate inaccessible states Acetic acid Acetone Ammonia Aniline Benzene n-Butane Butanol Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene m-Cresol Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl sulfide Ethylene Formic acid Heptane Hexane Methanol Methyl formate Octane Oil, linseed Oil, olive Pentane Propane Propanol Propylene Sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Turpentine Substance 2.13 1.65 1.95 2.08 2.48 2.16 2.34 — 1.33 1.70 1.97 5.0 — 2.13 2.15 2.37 — 2.10 4.60 2.03 — 2.27 2.22 0.843 1.32 — 3.50 2.28 270 2.16 1.69 1.98 2.14 2.56 2.24 2.43 — 1.34 1.75 — 2.17 2.19 2.41 — 2.13 4.66 2.04 1.69 2.32 2.27 0.848 1.32 — 4.00 2.33 1.89 1.98 280 2.03 2.16 4.73 2.05 1.71 2.37 2.33 0.853 1.33 2.04 5.09 2.38 1.92 2.00 — 2.15 2.20 2.22 2.46 2.16 2.19 1.73 2.01 2.21 2.65 2.32 2.55 1.39 1.36 1.80 290 2.06 2.19 4.82 2.07 1.73 2.43 2.38 0.858 1.33 2.07 9.92 2.45 1.94 2.01 — 2.16 2.24 2.26 2.52 2.16 2.22 1.78 2.05 2.28 2.76 2.41 2.69 1.41 1.39 1.85 300 310 2.26 1.82 2.09 2.35 2.89 2.51 2.87 1.43 1.42 1.90 2.09 2.22 4.91 2.10 1.75 2.50 2.44 0.864 1.34 2.11 — 2.54 1.97 2.02 — 2.17 2.28 2.31 2.58 Table 21 Specific Heat (kJ / kg ⅐ K) at Constant Pressure of Saturated Liquids 2.31 1.87 2.13 2.42 3.06 2.62 3.12 1.45 1.46 1.95 2.12 2.26 5.02 2.13 1.78 2.58 2.51 0.870 1.36 2.14 — 2.64 2.00 2.03 — 2.18 2.32 2.36 2.65 320 2.35 1.91 2.16 2.49 3.28 2.74 3.44 1.46 1.50 2.00 — 2.20 2.36 2.41 2.73 2.16 2.30 5.17 2.16 1.81 2.67 2.58 0.879 1.38 2.18 — 2.75 2.03 330 Temperature (K) 2.39 1.95 2.20 2.56 3.62 2.86 3.92 1.48 1.55 2.05 — 2.22 2.41 2.46 2.82 2.19 2.35 5.37 2.19 1.84 2.76 2.65 0.891 1.40 2.21 — 2.86 2.06 340 2.43 1.99 2.24 2.63 4.23 2.99 4.75 1.50 1.61 2.10 — 2.24 2.45 2.51 2.91 2.23 2.40 5.64 2.22 1.87 2.86 2.73 0.912 1.42 2.24 — 2.99 2.09 350 2.47 2.03 2.28 2.70 5.98 3.12 6.75 1.51 1.68 2.15 2.52 2.08 2.32 2.77 — 3.26 — 1.53 1.76 2.20 — 2.28 2.54 2.62 3.12 6.68 2.31 1.94 3.08 2.93 0.975 1.46 2.30 — 3.26 2.16 6.04 2.26 1.91 2.97 2.82 0.941 1.44 2.27 — 3.12 2.13 — 2.26 2.49 2.56 3.01 2.29 370 2.26 360 1.49 2.35 — 3.56 2.24 1.47 2.32 — 3.41 2.20 2.57 2.13 2.37 2.84 — 3.40 — 1.54 1.85 2.25 2.62 2.17 2.41 2.91 — 3.55 — 1.56 1.99 2.30 — 2.33 2.64 2.76 3.36 3.20 3.06 — 2.30 2.59 2.69 3.24 10.3 2.47 2.03 2.36 390 7.80 2.38 1.98 2.33 380 2.69 2.21 2.46 2.98 — 3.71 — 1.57 2.14 2.35 — 2.36 2.70 2.83 3.49 1.51 2.38 — 3.72 2.28 3.36 21 2.58 2.09 2.39 400 37 1.665 1.413 1.350 1.404 1.250 1.387 1.667 1.428 1.356 1.654 1.333 1.667 1.399 1.397 1.506 1.632 1.663 1.418 1.393 1.667 1.439 1.357 1.649 1.337 1.667 1.399 1.398 1.513 1.623 1.405 1.294 1.399 1.313 1.399 Acetylene Air Ammonia Argon n-Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Ethane Ethylene Fluorine Helium n-Hydrogen Isobutane Krypton Methane Neon Nitrogen Oxygen Propane Propylene R12 R21 R22 Steam Xenon 220 200 Substance 1.639 1.380 1.667 1.418 1.357 1.657 1.328 1.667 1.399 1.397 1.173 1.133 1.171 1.666 1.409 1.332 1.403 1.233 1.277 1.399 240 1.643 1.666 1.406 1.317 1.402 1.219 1.268 1.374 1.667 1.413 1.362 1.659 1.322 1.667 1.399 1.396 1.158 1.122 1.159 1.261 1.399 260 1.651 1.204 1.666 1.112 1.303 1.402 1.205 1.251 1.368 1.667 1.409 1.113 1.661 1.314 1.667 1.399 1.395 1.145 1.111 1.148 1.247 1.399 280 1.655 1.666 1.103 1.290 1.401 1.193 1.236 1.362 1.667 1.406 1.103 1.662 1.306 1.667 1.399 1.394 1.135 1.101 1.139 1.179 1.190 1.234 1.399 300 1.658 1.667 1.403 1.096 1.662 1.296 1.667 1.399 1.392 1.126 1.091 1.132 1.165 1.174 1.222 1.399 1.307 1.666 1.096 1.282 1.401 1.182 1.223 320 1.661 1.667 1.402 1.089 1.662 1.287 1.667 1.399 1.389 1.118 1.082 1.127 1.156 1.167 1.211 1.398 1.299 1.666 1.089 1.273 1.400 1.172 1.212 340 1.667 1.401 1.084 1.662 1.278 1.667 1.398 1.387 1.111 1.072 1.122 1.148 1.160 1.323 1.662 1.200 1.397 1.291 1.666 1.084 1.265 1.399 1.163 1.201 360 Temperature (K) Table 22 Ratio of Principal Specific Heats, cp / cv , for Liquids and Gases at Atmospheric Pressure 1.667 1.400 1.079 1.662 1.268 1.667 1.398 1.384 1.105 1.063 1.118 1.142 1.153 1.321 1.662 1.396 1.284 1.666 1.079 1.258 1.398 1.155 1.192 380 1.667 1.399 1.075 1.662 1.258 1.667 1.397 1.381 1.100 1.055 1.115 1.137 1.148 1.319 1.662 1.395 1.278 1.666 1.075 1.253 1.396 1.148 1.183 400 1.667 1.398 1.071 1.663 1.249 1.667 1.396 1.378 1.095 1.046 1.112 1.133 1.144 1.317 1.662 1.394 1.271 1.666 1.072 1.247 1.395 1.141 1.175 420 1.667 1.398 1.068 1.663 1.241 1.667 1.395 1.375 1.091 1.038 1.110 1.129 1.140 1.315 1.662 1.392 1.265 1.666 1.069 1.242 1.393 1.135 1.168 440 1.667 1.398 1.065 1.664 1.233 1.667 1.393 1.371 1.087 1.030 1.108 1.126 1.136 1.313 1.662 1.390 1.260 1.666 1.066 1.238 1.391 1.130 1.162 460 1.667 1.397 1.063 1.666 1.226 1.667 1.392 1.368 1.084 1.023 1.106 1.123 1.132 1.311 1.662 1.388 1.255 1.666 1.063 1.233 1.389 1.125 1.156 480 1.667 1.397 1.060 1.667 1.219 1.667 1.391 1.365 1.081 1.017 1.104 1.120 1.129 1.309 1.662 1.386 1.249 1.666 1.061 1.229 1.387 1.120 1.151 500 38 0.0279 0.0294 0.0165 0.0071 0.0228 0.0047 0.0261 0.0019 0.0234 0.0218 0.472 0.0243 0.0118 0.0120 0.0135 0.0042 0.0327 — 0.0291 0.0317 0.0177 0.0092 0.0244 0.0059 0.0271 0.0032 0.0244 0.0229 0.474 0.0251 0.0132 0.0133 0.0148 0.0057 0.0342 — Acetone Ammonia Benzene Butane CO2 Chlorine Ethane Ethanol Ethylene Heptane Hexane Mercury Methanol Octane Propane Propylene R-12 R-13 Toluene Water 260 250 Substance 0.0234 0.0104 0.0106 0.0122 0.0029 0.0312 — 0.0266 0.0271 0.0320 0.0153 0.0051 0.0213 0.0035 0.0251 0.0009 0.0224 0.0207 0.470 270 0.0225 0.0091 0.0091 0.0109 0.0018 0.0298 0.0746 0.0253 0.0248 0.0306 0.0141 0.0032 0.0198 0.0024 0.0242 0.0002 0.0214 0.0197 0.468 280 Table 23 Surface Tension (N / m) of Liquids 0.0216 0.0079 0.0078 0.0096 0.0009 0.0285 0.0732 0.0240 0.0226 0.0292 0.0129 0.0016 0.0183 0.0013 0.0232 — 0.0205 0.0186 0.466 290 0.0228 0.0203 0.0278 0.0116 0.0003 0.0168 0.0005 0.0223 — 0.0195 0.0175 0.464 0.0223 0.0207 0.0067 0.0065 0.0083 0.0003 0.0272 0.0716 300 0.0214 0.0181 0.0265 0.0104 — 0.0153 — 0.0214 — 0.0185 0.0165 0.462 0.0214 0.0197 0.0056 0.0053 0.0070 — 0.0260 0.0699 310 0.0201 0.0159 0.0252 0.0092 — 0.0138 — 0.0205 — 0.0176 0.0154 0.460 0.0205 0.0188 0.0046 0.0042 0.0058 — 0.0249 0.0684 320 0.0187 0.0138 0.0239 0.0080 — 0.0123 — 0.0196 — 0.0166 0.0145 0.458 0.0196 0.0179 0.0037 0.0032 0.0047 — 0.0236 0.0666 330 Temperature (K) 0.0174 0.0117 0.0227 0.0069 — 0.0108 — 0.0186 — 0.0156 0.0135 0.456 0.0187 0.0170 0.0028 0.0023 0.0036 — 0.0225 0.0650 340 0.0162 0.0099 0.0215 0.0059 — 0.0094 — 0.0177 — 0.0147 0.0125 0.454 0.0178 0.0161 0.0018 0.0014 0.0027 — 0.0214 0.0636 350 0.0150 0.0080 0.0203 0.0049 — 0.0080 — 0.0167 — 0.0137 0.0115 0.452 0.0168 0.0152 0.0009 0.0006 0.0018 — 0.0203 0.0614 360 0.0139 0.0059 0.0191 0.0040 — 0.0066 — 0.0158 — 0.0127 0.0106 0.450 0.0159 0.0143 — — 0.0010 — 0.0193 0.0595 370 0.0128 0.0040 0.0179 0.0031 — 0.0052 — 0.0148 — 0.0118 0.0096 0.448 0.0149 0.0135 — — 0.0003 — 0.0183 0.0575 380 0.0117 0.0021 0.0167 0.0023 — 0.0044 — 0.0137 — 0.0109 0.0086 0.446 0.0139 0.0127 — — — — 0.0173 0.0555 390 0.0106 0.0003 0.0155 0.0016 — 0.0037 — 0.0126 — 0.0099 0.0076 0.444 0.0128 0.0120 — — — — 0.0163 0.0535 400 39 250 — 0.179 0.562 — — 0.130 0.161 0.114 0.137 — 0.105 — 0.158 0.144 0.100 — 0.138 0.138 0.218 0.202 0.141 0.175 0.170 0.133 0.120 0.166 0.137 — 0.227 Substance Acetic acid Acetone Ammonia Aniline Benzene Butane Butanol Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene m-Cresol Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl sulfide Ethylene Formic acid Heptane Hexane Methanol Methyl formate Octane Oil, linseed Oil, olive Pentane Propane Propanol Propylene Sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Turpentine — 0.175 0.541 — — 0.126 0.159 0.112 0.135 — 0.098 0.178 0.155 0.142 0.090 — 0.136 0.135 0.215 0.199 0.138 0.173 0.170 0.128 0.116 0.163 0.131 — 0.221 260 — 0.171 0.522 0.175 — 0.122 0.157 0.110 0.133 — 0.091 0.176 0.152 0.140 0.078 — 0.133 0.132 0.211 0.196 0.136 0.171 0.169 0.124 0.112 0.161 0.127 — 0.214 270 — 0.167 0.503 0.175 0.151 0.118 0.155 0.107 0.131 — 0.084 0.173 0.149 0.138 0.064 — 0.130 0.129 0.208 0.193 0.133 0.169 0.169 0.120 0.107 0.158 0.122 — 0.208 0.128 280 0.165 0.163 0.484 0.174 0.149 0.115 0.153 0.105 0.129 0.150 0.074 0.169 0.146 0.136 — 0.293 0.127 0.125 0.205 0.190 0.130 0.167 0.168 0.116 0.102 0.156 0.118 0.324 0.202 0.127 290 Table 24 Thermal Conductivity (W / m ⅐ K) of Saturated Liquids 0.164 0.160 0.466 0.173 0.145 0.111 0.151 0.103 0.127 0.149 0.065 0.166 0.143 0.134 — 0.279 0.125 0.122 0.202 0.187 0.128 0.165 0.168 0.112 0.097 0.154 0.111 0.329 0.196 0.127 300 0.161 0.152 0.424 0.172 0.138 0.104 0.147 0.098 0.123 0.148 — 0.160 0.137 — 0.241 0.119 0.116 0.196 0.181 0.123 0.161 0.167 0.106 0.088 0.150 0.101 0.336 0.184 — 0.255 0.122 0.119 0.199 0.184 0.125 0.163 0.167 0.108 0.093 0.152 0.107 0.332 0.190 0.126 320 0.162 0.156 0.445 0.172 0.141 0.108 0.149 0.100 0.125 0.148 — 0.163 0.140 310 — 0.114 0.110 0.191 0.175 0.118 0.157 0.165 0.098 0.079 0.146 0.090 0.342 0.158 0.117 0.112 0.194 0.178 0.120 0.159 0.166 0.102 0.084 0.148 0.096 0.339 0.172 0.158 0.145 0.382 0.170 0.132 0.097 0.143 0.094 0.119 0.146 — 0.155 0.131 340 — 0.160 0.149 0.403 0.171 0.135 0.101 0.145 0.096 0.121 0.147 — 0.158 0.134 330 Temperature (K) 0.111 0.107 0.188 0.172 0.115 0.154 0.165 0.094 0.075 0.144 0.083 0.345 — 0.157 0.141 0.359 0.169 0.129 0.094 0.141 0.092 0.117 0.146 — 0.153 0.128 350 0.106 0.101 0.183 0.110 0.150 0.163 0.086 — 0.141 — 0.352 0.108 0.104 0.186 0.112 0.152 0.164 0.090 0.070 0.142 0.077 0.349 — — 0.149 0.121 — 0.151 0.124 — 0.154 0.133 0.309 0.167 0.123 0.086 0.138 0.087 0.113 370 0.156 0.137 0.335 0.168 0.126 0.090 0.139 0.089 0.115 360 0.107 0.148 0.163 0.082 — 0.139 — 0.355 0.104 0.099 0.180 — — 0.147 0.118 0.153 0.130 0.284 0.166 0.120 0.082 0.136 0.085 0.111 380 0.105 0.146 0.162 0.078 — 0.138 — 0.358 0.102 0.096 0.178 — — 0.145 0.115 0.152 0.126 0.252 0.165 0.117 0.078 0.135 0.083 0.109 390 0.103 0.144 0.161 0.074 — 0.136 — 0.361 0.100 0.093 0.176 — — 0.143 0.112 0.150 0.122 0.227 0.165 0.114 0.075 0.133 0.080 0.107 400 40 250 260 270 280 290 Acetic acid — — — — 13.1 Acetone 5.27 4.63 4.11 3.68 3.32 Ammonia 2.20 1.94 1.74 1.58 1.44 Aniline — — 96.9 71.6 53.5 Benzene — — — 8.08 6.80 Butane 2.63 2.37 2.15 1.95 1.77 Butanol 94.2 70.9 53.9 41.4 32.1 Carbon tetrachloride 14.0 11.9 10.2 Chlorobenzene 13.9 12.2 10.7 9.50 8.44 m-Cresol — — — — 261 Ethane 0.81 0.70 0.60 0.51 0.42 Ethanol — 23.3 18.9 15.5 12.8 Ethyl acetate 7.21 6.53 5.86 5.28 4.78 Ethyl sulfide 7.69 6.68 5.86 5.19 4.64 Ethylene 0.582 0.505 0.418 0.31 — Formic acid 48.3 37.4 29.5 23.6 19.2 Heptane 7.25 6.25 5.46 4.82 4.28 Hexane 5.03 4.46 3.97 3.57 3.22 Methanol 12.3 10.1 8.43 7.15 6.14 Methyl formate 5.71 5.04 4.50 4.04 3.66 Octane 10.5 8.80 7.49 6.45 5.66 Oil, linseed 2300 1500 1000 700 490 Oil, olive 8350 4600 2600 1600 1000 Pentane 3.50 3.16 2.87 2.62 2.39 Propane 1.71 1.53 1.37 1.23 1.10 Propanol 67.8 50.0 37.7 29.0 22.7 Propylene 1.41 1.27 1.16 1.05 0.94 Sulfuric acid 363 259 Sulfur dioxide 5.32 4.53 3.90 3.39 2.85 Turpentine 36.3 28.8 23.3 19.1 15.9 Substance Table 25 Viscosity (10Ϫ4 Pa ⅐ s) of Saturated Liquids 310 320 330 340 11.3 9.77 8.49 7.40 6.48 3.01 2.73 2.49 2.28 2.10 1.31 1.20 1.08 0.98 0.88 40.3 30.7 23.6 18.2 14.2 5.84 5.13 4.52 4.05 3.60 1.61 1.56 1.33 1.21 1.10 25.1 19.8 15.7 12.6 10.1 8.78 7.70 6.81 6.06 5.43 7.53 6.74 6.05 5.46 4.93 136 72.0 39.0 21.5 12.1 0.35 — — — — 10.6 8.81 7.39 6.24 5.29 4.33 3.95 3.60 3.30 3.03 4.18 3.78 3.45 3.16 2.92 — — — — — 15.9 13.3 11.2 9.56 8.24 3.83 3.45 3.14 2.87 2.62 2.93 2.68 2.45 2.24 2.07 5.32 4.60 4.09 3.60 3.19 3.34 3.06 2.82 2.61 2.43 5.01 4.48 4.03 3.65 3.33 356 263 198 152 118 630 410 278 193 136 2.20 2.03 1.87 1.73 1.59 0.98 0.87 0.76 0.66 0.58 18.0 14.6 11.9 9.87 8.27 0.84 0.75 0.67 0.60 0.53 189 141 107 82.6 64.7 2.42 2.09 1.83 1.62 1.45 13.4 11.4 9.80 8.50 7.44 300 Temperature (K) 360 370 380 390 400 5.70 5.03 4.45 3.95 3.52 3.15 1.94 0.78 0.70 0.64 0.58 0.53 0.48 11.2 8.84 7.03 5.63 4.54 3.68 3.29 2.98 2.70 2.45 2.24 2.04 1.00 0.90 0.81 0.73 0.66 0.60 8.22 6.71 5.50 4.53 3.75 3.13 4.89 4.41 4.00 3.65 3.34 3.07 4.47 4.07 3.70 3.39 3.10 2.85 6.90 — — — — — — 4.51 3.86 3.31 2.86 2.48 2.15 2.79 2.57 2.38 2.20 2.04 1.90 2.70 2.51 2.34 2.20 2.06 1.95 — — — — — — 7.16 6.27 5.53 4.91 4.39 3.94 2.39 2.20 2.03 1.87 1.72 1.59 1.92 1.78 1.63 1.50 1.38 1.26 2.84 2.53 2.28 2.06 1.85 1.65 2.27 2.13 2.01 1.89 1.79 1.70 3.05 2.80 2.58 2.38 2.18 2.02 93.5 74.8 60.6 49.6 41.1 34.3 98.3 72.2 54.0 40.9 31.0 24.6 1.46 1.34 1.22 1.11 1.01 0.92 0.51 0.45 — — — — 6.99 5.97 5.14 4.46 3.90 3.44 0.47 0.42 — — — — 51.4 41.4 33.7 27.7 23.1 19.4 1.30 1.16 1.02 0.89 0.77 0.66 6.56 5.83 5.21 4.68 4.23 3.85 350 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 41 Table 26 Thermochemical Properties at 1.013 Bar, 298.15 K Substance Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetone Acetylene Ammonia Aniline Benzene Butanol n-Butane n-Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrafluoride Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclopropane n-Decane Diphenyl Ethane Ethanol Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethylene Ethylene oxide Heptane Hexane Hydrazine Hydrazine Hydrogen peroxide Isobutane Isopentane Methane Methanol Methanol Methyl acetate Methyl bromide Methyl chloride Formula C2H4O(g) C2H4O2(g) C3H6O(l) C2H2(g) NH3(g) C6H7N(l) C6H6(l) C4H10O(l) C4H10(l) C4H10(g) CO2(g) CS2(g) CO(g) CCl4(g) CF4(g) CHCl3(g) C6H12(g) C3H6(g) C10H22(l) C12H10(g) C2H6(g) C2H6O(g) C2H6O(l) C4H8O2(g) C2H5Cl(g) C4H10O(g) C2H4(g) C2H4O(g) C7H16(g) C6H18(g) N2H4(l) N2H4(g) H2O2(l) C4H10(g) C5H12(g) CH4(g) CH4O(l) CH4O(g) C3H6O2(l) CH3Br(g) CH3Cl(g) ⌬H؇ƒ (kJ / kg ⅐ mol) ⌬G Њƒ (kJ / kg ⅐ mol) Ϫ166,000 Ϫ436,200 Ϫ248,000 ϩ266,740 Ϫ46,190 ϩ35,300 ϩ49,030 Ϫ332,400 Ϫ105,900 Ϫ126,200 Ϫ393,510 Ϫ109,200 Ϫ110,520 Ϫ103,000 Ϫ921,300 Ϫ104,000 Ϫ123,100 ϩ53,300 Ϫ332,600 Ϫ172,800 Ϫ84,670 Ϫ235,200 Ϫ277,600 Ϫ432,700 Ϫ107,600 Ϫ250,800 ϩ52,280 Ϫ38,500 Ϫ187,800 Ϫ208,400 Ϫ50,600 ϩ95,400 Ϫ187,500 Ϫ134,500 Ϫ154,500 Ϫ74,840 Ϫ238,600 Ϫ200,900 Ϫ444,300 Ϫ36,200 Ϫ86,300 Ϫ132,900 ϩ315,500 Ϫ155,300 ϩ209,190 Ϫ16,590 ϩ153,200 ϩ117,000 Ϫ168,300 265.2 282.5 200.2 200.8 192.6 191.6 172.8 227.6 Ϫ17,100 Ϫ394,390 Ϫ149,200 ϩ159,300 Ϫ120,400 Ϫ20,900 Ϫ14,600 Ϫ50,790 Ϫ126,800 Ϫ162,100 310.1 213.7 237.8 197.6 311.3 261.5 295.6 298.2 237.7 425.5 348.5 229.5 282.7 160.7 376.8 274.8 352.5 219.4 242.9 166.0 270.7 121.2 238.4 109.6 294.6 343.6 186.2 81.8 247.9 Ϫ25,900 Ϫ63,000 246.1 234.2 Ϫ137,160 Ϫ66,100 Ϫ878,200 Ϫ70,500 ϩ31,800 ϩ104,300 Ϫ17,500 Ϫ283,900 Ϫ32,900 Ϫ168,700 Ϫ174,600 Ϫ325,800 Ϫ55,500 Ϫ118,400 ϩ68,130 Ϫ11,600 Ϫ427,800 16,500 SЊ (kJ / kg ⅐ mol ⅐ K) 42 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table 26 (Continued ) Substance Methyl formate Methylene chloride Naphthalene Nitric oxide Nitrogen peroxide Nitrous oxide Octane Octane n-Pentane Propane Propanol Propylene R11 R12 R13 R13B1 R23 Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Toluene Water Water Formula ⌬H؇ƒ (kJ / kg ⅐ mol) ⌬G Њƒ (kJ / kg ⅐ mol) C2H4O2(g) CH2Cl2(g) C10H8(g) NO(g) NO2(g) N2O(g) C8H18(l) C8H18(g) C5H12(g) C3H8O(g) C3H8(g) C3H6(g) CFCl3(g) CCl2F2(g) CClF3(g) CF3Br(g) CHF3(g) SO2(g) SF6(g) C7H8(g) H2O(l) H2O(g) Ϫ335,100 Ϫ94,000 Ϫ151,500 ϩ90,300 ϩ33,300 ϩ82,000 Ϫ250,000 Ϫ208,400 Ϫ146,400 Ϫ103,800 Ϫ258,800 ϩ20,400 Ϫ284,500 Ϫ468,600 Ϫ715,500 Ϫ642,700 Ϫ682,000 Ϫ296,900 Ϫ1,207,900 Ϫ50,000 Ϫ285,830 Ϫ241,820 Ϫ301,000 Ϫ67,000 Ϫ224,200 86,600 ϩ104,000 6,610 16,500 Ϫ8,370 Ϫ107,200 Ϫ164,100 ϩ62,700 Ϫ238,000 Ϫ439,300 Ϫ674,900 Ϫ616,300 Ϫ654,900 Ϫ300,200 Ϫ1,105,000 Ϫ122,300 Ϫ237,210 Ϫ228,600 SЊ (kJ / kg ⅐ mol ⅐ K) 292.8 270.2 336.5 210.6 240.0 219.9 360.8 466.7 348.9 269.9 322.6 267.0 309.8 300.9 285.6 297.6 259.6 248.1 291.7 320.2 70.0 188.7 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 43 Table 27 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies (kJ / kg ⅐ mol) of Common Products of Combustiona,b T (K) 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 Substance CO CO2 H2O( g) NO NO2 N2 O2 SO2 Ϫ2858 Ϫ2276 Ϫ1692 Ϫ1110 Ϫ529 Ϫ3414 Ϫ2757 Ϫ2080 Ϫ1384 Ϫ667 Ϫ3280 Ϫ2613 Ϫ1945 Ϫ1277 Ϫ608 Ϫ2950 Ϫ2345 Ϫ1749 Ϫ1148 Ϫ547 Ϫ3494 Ϫ2803 Ϫ2102 Ϫ1390 Ϫ668 Ϫ2855 Ϫ2270 Ϫ1685 Ϫ1105 Ϫ525 Ϫ2860 Ϫ2279 Ϫ1698 Ϫ1113 Ϫ529 Ϫ3736 Ϫ3008 Ϫ2266 Ϫ1508 Ϫ719 54 638 1221 1805 2389 2975 3562 4152 4642 5334 5929 7427 8941 10475 12020 13590 15175 16780 18400 20030 21690 23350 25030 26720 28430 30140 31870 33600 35340 37090 38850 40610 42380 44156 45940 47727 49520 51320 53120 54930 67 822 1594 2383 3187 4008 4841 5689 6550 7424 8314 10580 12915 15310 17760 20270 22820 25410 28040 30700 33410 36140 38890 41680 44480 47130 50160 53030 55910 58810 61710 64800 67580 70530 73490 76460 79440 82430 85430 88440 63 736 1411 2088 2768 3452 4138 4828 5522 6221 6920 8695 10500 12325 14185 16075 17990 19945 21920 23940 25980 28060 30170 32310 34480 36680 38900 41130 43450 45770 48100 50460 52840 55240 57680 60130 62610 65100 67610 70140 54 652 1248 1847 2444 3042 3641 4247 4849 5054 6058 7589 9146 10720 12310 13890 15550 17200 18860 20540 22230 23940 25650 27380 29120 30870 32630 34400 36170 37950 39730 41520 43320 45120 46930 48740 50560 52380 54200 56020 67 813 1573 2344 3130 3929 4739 5560 6395 7243 8100 10295 12555 14875 17250 19675 22140 24640 27180 29740 32340 34950 37610 40260 42950 45650 48350 51090 53810 56560 59310 62070 64850 67640 70420 73220 76010 78810 81630 84450 55 636 1217 1800 2383 2967 3554 4147 4737 5329 5921 7401 8902 10415 11945 13490 15050 16630 18220 19835 21460 23100 24750 26430 28110 29810 31510 33220 34940 36670 38410 40160 41910 43670 45440 47210 49000 50780 52570 54370 60 650 1238 1832 2429 3029 3633 4241 4853 5468 6088 7655 9247 10865 12500 14160 15840 17535 19245 20970 22710 24460 26180 27990 29770 31560 33350 35160 36970 38790 40610 42440 44280 46120 47970 49830 51690 53560 55440 57310 75 882 1702 2541 3387 4251 5123 6014 6923 7827 8749 11180 13545 16015 18550 21150 23720 26390 29020 31700 34430 37180 39920 42690 45460 48270 51070 53900 56720 59560 62400 65260 68120 71000 73870 76760 79640 82540 85440 88350 44 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table 27 (Continued ) Substance T (K) CO CO2 H2O( g) NO NO2 N2 O2 SO2 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 56740 60380 64020 67680 71350 75020 78710 82410 86120 89830 93540 91450 97500 103570 109670 115790 121930 128080 134260 140440 146650 152860 72690 77830 83040 88290 93600 98960 104370 109810 115290 120810 126360 57860 61530 65220 68910 72610 76320 80040 83760 87490 91230 94980 87260 92910 98580 104260 109950 115650 121360 127080 132800 138540 144270 56160 59760 63380 67010 70660 74320 77990 81660 85360 89050 92750 59200 62990 66800 70630 74490 78370 82270 86200 90140 94110 98100 91250 97080 102930 108790 114670 120560 126460 132380 138300 144240 150180 a Converted and usually rounded off from JANAF Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971 To illustrate the term sensible enthalpy, which is the difference between the actual enthalpy and the enthalpy at the reference temperature, 298.15 K (ϭ 25ЊC ϭ 77ЊF ϭ 537ЊR), the magnitude of the heat transfer, in kJ / kg ⅐ mol fuel and in kJ / kg fuel, will be calculated for the steady-state combustion of acetylene in excess oxygen, the reactants entering at 298.15 K and the products leaving at 2000 K All substances are in the gaseous phase The basic equation is b QϩWϭ ͸ n (⌬hЊ ϩ ⌬h ) Ϫ ͸ n (⌬hЊ ϩ ⌬h ) i ƒ P s i i ƒ s i R where P signifies products and R reactants, s signifies sensible enthalpy, and the ⌬hs are looked up in the table for the appropriate temperatures If the actual reaction was C2H2 ϩ ⁄2O2 → 2CO2 ϩ H2O ϩ 3O2 11 then W ϭ and Q ϭ 2(Ϫ393,510 ϩ 91,450) ϩ 1(Ϫ241,810 ϩ 72,690) ϩ 3(0 ϩ 59,200) Ϫ (226,740 ϩ 0) Ϫ 11⁄2(0 ϩ 0) ϭ Ϫ604,120 ϩ (Ϫ169,120) ϩ 177,600 Ϫ 226,740 ϭ Ϫ822,380 kJ / mg mol C2H2 ϭ Ϫ31,584 kJ / kg C2H2 Had the fuel been burnt in air one would write the equation with an additional 3.76(5.5) N2 on each side of the equation In the above, the enthalpy of formation of the stable elements at 298.15 K has been set equal to zero For further information, most undergraduate engineering thermodynamics texts may be consulted 45 Figure Psychrometric chart (ASHRAE chart No 1, 1981 Prepared at the Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID Copyright 1981 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.) ... THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF LIQUID AND SATURATED VAPOR AIR IDEAL GAS THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OFAIR THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE U.S STANDARD ATMOSPHERE THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CONDENSED... factor of Refrigerant 134a Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Figure Enthalpy–log pressure diagram for Refrigerant 134a 25 26 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table 16 Thermodynamic Properties. .. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED REFRIGERANT 134a 22 THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERANT 134a 23 13 TABLE 14 TABLE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED MERCURY 14 TABLE 15 15 Thermophysical Properties
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