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Analysis the influence of threaded pin profile in friction stir welding by numerical simulation

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  • Analysis the influence of threaded pin profile in friction stir welding by numerical simulation

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VIET NAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY HO CHI MINH CITY HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DO HUYNH NHU ANALYSIS THE INFLUENCE OF THREADED PIN PROFILE IN FRICTION STIR WELDING BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION REN Discipline: Engineering Mechanics Discipline Code: 8520101 MASTER THESIS Ho Chi Minh City, January 2022 -HCM ngày 19 tháng 01 C 2022 y viên KHOA D - - MSHV: 1970360 08/05/1997 Long An Chuyên ngành: 8520101 ren 22/02/2021 : 05/12/2021 : Tp HCM, ngày 05 tháng 12 CH A 21 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Firstly, I would like to express thanks to professor, Assoc Prof.Dr Vu Cong Hoa for his unwavering support, supervision, and helpful recommendations during this research project Besides that, he usually encouraged and gave me good advice when the Covid-19 is spreading to my accommodation On top of that, he gave a chance to be able to work in Nha Trang University Secondly, I would like to thank the teachers working at the Faculty of Applied Science for supporting me in publishing a scientific article Thirdly, I would like to thank and apologize my family, often shared my feelings and gave me timely advice during a long time of studying However, I made my parents worry when my dorm had a lot of people infected with Covid-19 Last but not least, I am grateful to all of my best friends and my boyfriend who contributed to help me overcome my internship ii ABSTRACT Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding process in which heat is generated by friction between the rotating tool and the workpiece material, resulting in the contact surface being heated to ductile state Friction stir welding process is widely used for joining aluminum alloy in many fields such as aerospace, railway, marine, and many other modern industries This welding method allows to improve the weld strength of aluminum alloys in groups as 5xxx, 6xxx and 7xxx In this study, the numerical model of the FSW process with different threaded tools based on Coupled EulerianLagrangian formulation is investigated by ABAQUS software The reliability of this method is demonstrated by comparing the results of the temperature distribution between the numerical simulation method and the published experimental method An important point in this research is the investigation of friction weld on 7075-T6 aluminum alloy material with threaded pin profile combined with three flats Based on void information and temperature field distribution, this study would recommend a new pin profile that provides the best welding quality among the pin configurations tested As a result, 14% is the average error of welding temperature between simulation and experiment Although this error is quite high, behavior of this simulation model is slightly similar to experimental model Besides that, there are several reasons why it has such difference as the thermal properties of material, parameters in process, assumption of the heat transfer coefficient With four profiles including TF0, TF30, TF60 and TF90 investigated, it is observed that TF60 brings more advantages in joining materials as a smaller void, not much difference in temperature between two sides of material and a larger stirring zone There are four chapters in this master thesis Chapter 1: Introduction to Friction stir welding process and many recent studies related to this problem iii Chapter 2: Theoretical basis Chapter 3: Research methodology Chapter 4: Results and conclusions iv TÓM T T LU Hàn ma sát khu y công ngh hàn tr ng thái r c t o nh s ma sát gi a d ng c hàn v t li u hàn, làm cho v t li n tr ng thái d o Nh vào s khu y tr n áp l c c a d ng c gi a hai t m v t li khu t o m i liên k t y v t li u Công ngh hàn ma sát c áp d ng r ng r hàn h p kim nh ngành công nghi p hi c i thi b n m i hàn c a h p kim nhơm nhóm 5xxx, 6xxx, 7xxx Trong nghiên c u này, mơ hình mơ ph ng s q trình hàn ma sát khu y v i nhi u ch t ren c kh o sát ph n m ph tin c y c c ch ng b ng cách so sánh k t qu ph n b nhi hình mơ ph ng s mơ hình th c nghi gi a mô c công b m quan tr ng nh t nghiên c u kh o sát hàn ma sát khu y v t li u AA 7075T6 v i ch t hàn ren k t h p nhi u góc m khác c b nhi a vào ph n ng nhi t s hình thành khuy t t t m ch t hàn ren m i mang l i ch ng m i hàn t xu t i ch c kh o sát K t qu cho th y 14% sái s gi a k t qu th c nghi m k t qu mô ph ng v i t s v n t c quay v n t c di chuy n c a d ng c hàn / 2000 / 180 vg/mm M c dù, k t qu sai s cao nhiên ng x trình hàn ma sát khu y gi a mô ph ng th c nhi m có ph n ph i nhi sai s u nguyên nhân khách quan d truy n nhi t th ng s th i gian gi b n biên d ng ch ch i gi ng Và s ma sát, h s n c a trình hàn V i c kh o sát TF0, TF30, TF60 TF90 TF60 mang l i ng m i hàn t t nh t chênh l ch nhi hình thành kho ng tr ng nh gi a hai bên m i hàn th p d b xu t t u nghiên c ng d ng th c t v Lu c trình bày v i ng quan gi i thi u v công ngh hàn ma sát khu y nghiên c u liên quan lý thuy t 4: K t qu bàn lu n u vi GUARANTEE I hereby declare that the thesis, is my independent scientific research The scientific research data and research results of the thesis are honest, and the references have been clearly cited If I find any copying from other research results or errors in research data, I will take full responsibility before the school and the board Author Hu vii CONTENT List of Figures ix List of Tables xi Glossary of Terms xii List of Symbols xiii CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Process and Reasons for Study 1.1.1 Historical Development of Friction Stir Welding 1.1.2 Reasons for Study 1.2 Object and Scope of Study 1.2.1 Objectives 1.2.2 Scope of Study 1.3 Overview of Master thesis 1.4 Literature review CHAPTER THEORETICAL BASIS 11 2.1 Working Principle of Friction Stir Welding 11 2.1.1 Principle of Operation 11 2.1.2 Material flow and Mechanism of Joining 12 2.1.3 The force Analysis of Friction Stir Welding 14 2.1.4 Friction Stir Welding tool 15 2.2 Using Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian formulation in Friction Stir Welding17 2.2.1 Introduction to the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) 17 2.2.2 Model description in ABAQUS/ Explicit in FSW process 20 37 Table 4-1 Comparing the temperature difference between two material plates in the cases of using TF0, TF30, TF60 and T90 profiles Highest temperature Lowest temperature Average temperature difference (oC) difference (oC) difference (oC) TF0 ~ 52 ~ 19.2 ~ 39 TF30 ~ 35.2 ~9 ~ 22.5 TF60 ~ 21.1 ~3.7 ~ 10.5 TF90 ~ 57 ~ 20.5 ~ 41 Based on figure 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, overall, all four profiles investigated in this study create a weld with a peak temperature lower than the melting point, which is correct in theory of the friction stir welding process Next, it can be seen that TF30 model and TF60 model make a less difference temperature between retreating side and advancing side than TF0 model and TF90 model It is further demonstrated in the table 4-1 For TF0 and TF90 model, 40oC is the number of average temperature difference of two plates, which is pretty high By contract, this difference is around 10 20oC for TF30 and TF60 model, in there in which TF60 is the configuration that helps the temperature difference between the two sides of the weld to be the lowest According to Abhishek Ajri [35] weld defects can be caused by large temperature differences on both sides of the weld Therefore, TF60 profile can provide this weld technology with a better quality of weld, while TF90 can cause more weld detects 38 Figure 4-2 Temperature between advancing side (right) and retreating side (left) in welding phase for the TF0 profile Figure 4-3 Temperature between advancing side (right) and retreating side (left) in welding phase for the TF30 profile 39 Figure 4-4 Temperature between advancing side (right) and retreating side (left) in welding phase for the TF60 profile Figure 4-5 Temperature between advancing side (right) and retreating side (left) in welding phase for the TF0 profile Besides that, figure 4-6 shows peak temperature in the middle of weld in welding phase It is easier to observe that TF60 model has the highest temperature so it can 40 make soften weldment zone better and it leads to a more even mixing of the two solder materials to create higher weld strength [36] Figure 4-6 Peak temperature in the middle of the weld (oC) Figure 4-7 gives information about temperature in the process of heating and softening the material in dweller phase Figure 4-7 The process of heating and softening the material in dweller phase 41 TF0 and TF30 have roughly the same temperature fluctuations However, at the end of the phase TF30 tend to increase slightly from 631oC to 633oC, while temperature in TF0 have a tendency to decrease from 632oC to 620oC It can be seen that TF0, TF30 and TF90 oscillates slightly, while there is a dramatic fluctuation of temperature for TF60 with the highest being 628oC and the lowest being 605oC However, this temperature does not fluctuate between dweller phase and welding phase 4.1.1.2 Heat flux Besides, heat flux is also one of the aspects evaluated in the friction stir welding process There are two main factors causing the heat flux including deformation process and friction between tool and workpiece [37] In this study, pin of tool is changed about profile which lead to change the friction and deformation of this process Figure 4-8 shows the heat flux in four model used to study in this research Figure 4-8 Heat flux in Friction stir welding process investigated in this study 42 It can be seen obviously that there is a considerable difference in terms of heat flux to four profiles In general, the difference between the two sides of the weld for four profiles is arranged in order from high to low as follows TF0, T60, TF30, TF90 However, if it only considers the area near the pin, then TF30 and TF60 have the least difference According to [37], the heat flux must maintain the highest temperature in the workpiece at a level that is high enough for the pin to stir the material more easily and smoothly This can be predicted that TF30 and TF60 may bring many advantages to the weld quality 4.1.2 Prediction of void formation As mentioned above theory, Coupled Eulerian Lagragian methods is used to investigate void formation by Eulerian Volume Fraction option in the ABAQUS software With EVF_VOID = (not blue region), there are no material in elements, which means weld detects By contract, with EVF_VOID = (blue region), there are full material, which needs to evaluate the quality of weld Figure 4-9 describes the void formation in dweller phase TF90 has a red region on the right side, which seems likely have more weld detects It is quite true to the prediction of poor-quality welds based on part 5.1 Next, the material mixing in the TF60 model is smoother than the TF30 and TF0 models because red regions almost not appear around the pin tool Figure 4-10 shows the void formation in welding phase Similarly, TF90 create more voids around the pin tool than TF0, T30 and T60 However, TF60 is a good profile since it stirs material smoothly better (almost no or very little red region at advancing side and retreating side) 43 Figure 4-9 Void formation of four pin profiles at the end of dweller phase 44 Figure 4-10 Void formation of four pin profiles at the beginning of welding phase 4.2 Conclusions This study used Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) to predict the quality of weld in case of changing pin profiles threaded cylindrical-three flats with various opening angles AA 7075-T6 is a material investigated in this friction stir welding process with the ratio of rotational and translational speeds / v 1200 / 180 vg/ph In this research solved a number of problems as follows: Overview of this friction welding technology and applicability of this welding method in our country Successfully applying CEL method to compare the predicted temperature distribution in numerical simulation results and published experimental 45 results The average error of the two results is about 14% As a result, it increases the reliability of this simulation model Understand the Johnson-cook material model and how to find constants in this model based on stress and strain curves Know how to use ABAQUS software to simulate this Friction stir welding process through CEL method Creating for new pin profiles and then recommend TF60 as the best pin profile in terms of increasing the weld quality This is based on temperature distribution and void formation mentioned above There are some advantages that TF60 brings such as: the temperature difference between the two welding plates is the lowest, the formation of large holes around the solder pin is the least, peak temperature is the highest, thus increasing the weld quality The CEL method applied to simulate this FSW process is quite good, especially in predicting void formation by EVF option, but the process of simulating a problem is quite long, about more than 14 days Nonetheless, there are a lot of drawbacks in this study that need to improve in the future: The error between the published experimental results and the simulation results is still quite high There are many factors influencing this result including radiation, convection and friction coefficient Besides that, some experimental parameters are not clear as time step 2, speed of moving pin in step so need to refer to other papers which is lead to this error Due to the limited time and budget as well as the Covid-19 Pandemic, only simulations have been performed on four new pin profiles, experiments have not been performed to adjust the above-mentioned parameters in order to make reliable conclusions Have not had a deep understanding of the CEL simulation algorithm so this study only stops at proficient use of the software 46 The material constant of AA 7075-T6 in the Johnson-Cook model are only referenced from other papers This welding simulation model is very time consuming and requires a wellconfigured computer, thus affecting the analysis of the results There are many recommendations for future work: Conducting experiments to investigate mechanical properties and predict the service life of welds created when using four pin profiles in this study in order to adjust many suitable parameters in FEMs model Finding the material constant of AA 7075-T6 in Johnson-cook material model Although there are a lot of references studying about this model, it also depends on the experimental environment and temperature conditions in our country Conducting experiments for model in this study with many different parameters such as the ratio of rotational and translational speed, the longitudinal force, time in three phases to create a better weld Finding out how to optimize this friction stir welding simulation time 47 List of Publications I Published works D H Nhu, and V C Hoa in Friction Stir Welding by Numerical Simulation, Science & Technology Development Journal, vol 24, SI45-SI52, Dec, 2021 II Planed works D H Nhu, T N T Dat, and V C Hoa, of Pin Profiles Threaded Cylindrical-three Flats 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The mix zone, in which the most mixing of the two weld faces is combined The degree of inter-material bonding in this zone, as determined by the creation of metals, is often what determines the
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