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Subtitled authentic videos and incidental vocabulary learning a study among efl high school students in thanh hoa

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING VINH UNIVERSITY NGUYEN THI THANH HUYEN SUBTITLED AUTHENTIC VIDEOS AND INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING: A STUDY AMONG EFL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THANH HOA MASTER’S THESIS IN EDUCATION NGHỆ AN- 2017 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING VINH UNIVERSITY NGUYEN THI THANH HUYEN SUBTITLED AUTHENTIC VIDEOS AND INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING: A STUDY AMONG EFL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THANH HOA Field: Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages(TESOL) Code: 60.14.01.11 MASTER’S THESIS IN EDUCATION Supervisor: Dr Tran Thi Ngoc Yen Nghệ An, 2017 i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I hereby acknowledge that this study is my own work The data and findings discussed in the thesis are true and have not been published elsewhere Author Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen i ABSTRACT This study was set out to determine if the use of subtitled English videos enhances EFL high school students’ incidental vocabulary learning The students participating in the experiment aged around 16 years old and were divided into three groups, one being the control group and the other two the experimental groups During the treatment time, each experimental group was asked to watch short video clips, either with English subtitles or dual subtitles A vocabulary level test was used as the pre- and post-treatment test to determine whether watching these videos played a role in the participants’ vocabulary learning The data revealed that the three groups did better in the post-test, but there was a significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group It was also found that the two experimental groups did similarly well The data collected from the questionnaire showed that the use of subtitled authentic videos motivated EFL students’ vocabulary learning In addition, participants have positive attitudes toward learning from subtitled videos, both inside and outside schools’ boundaries The study suggested that subtitled videos can be used as an effective learning tool in the second language classroom ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Dr TRAN THI NGOC YEN, who I believe is the most wonderful supervisor, for her valuable time, suggestions, guidance, warm encouragement, and continuous support throughout this study Without her help, my study would not have been completed I also wish to thank the students who participated in my study Without their help, this study could not have been successful Finally, I would like to delicate this work to my colleagues and family, who have been always supporting me with love and sympathy iii TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP i ABSTRACT ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FINGERS .vii CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aim of study 1.3 Research questions 1.4 Scope of study 1.5 Thesis design CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Vocabulary 2.1.1 Definition 2.1.2 Word aspects 2.1.3 The role of vocabulary 2.1.4 Assessing EFL learners’ vocabulary level 2.2 Vocabulary learning and teaching 2.2.1 Methods and techniques to teach vocabulary 2.2.2 Principles for teaching vocabulary 2.2.3 Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition 2.2.3.1 The influence of NL 2.2.3.2 FL anxiety 12 2.2.3.3 Motivation and FL vocabulary learning 13 2.3 Literature on using subtitled videos for language learning 16 2.3.1 Defining ‘authentic video’ 16 2.3.2 Defining subtitles 16 2.3.2.1 Inter-lingual subtitles 17 2.3.2.2 Intra-lingual subtitles: 17 2.3.2.3 Reversed subtitles 18 2.3.2.4 Dual subtitles 18 2.4 Related theories of language learning 19 2.4.1 The Comprehensible Input Hypothesis 19 2.4.2 The Affective Filter Hypothesis 20 2.4.3 Incidental Learning 20 2.5 Vocabulary learning through subtitled videos 21 2.5.1 Intra-lingual subtitle videos 21 2.5.2 Dual subtitle videos 22 2.5.3 The effects of subtitled videos on second language learning 23 CHAPTER METHODOLOGY 26 3.1 Introduction 26 3.2 Participants 27 3.3 Materials 28 3.3.1 The video clip and selection criteria 28 3.3.2 The Vocabulary Level Test 29 3.3.3 Multiple-choice opinion survey 30 iv 3.4 Data collection procedure 31 3.5 Coding schemes 32 3.5.1 The Vocabulary Level Test 32 3.5.2 Opinion survey 32 CHAPTER FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 33 4.1 Results 33 4.1.1 General English test results 33 4.1.2 The VLT results 35 4.1.2.1 Experimental groups’ results 35 4.1.2.2 Control groups’ results 39 4.1.3 The improvement compared between control group and the two experimental groups in VLT scores 42 4.2 Attitudes about Learning from Subtitles 43 4.2.1 Part one: Discover the respondents' English language video viewing habits 43 4.2.2 Part Two: Subtitles preference 43 4.2.3 Part three: Subtitled video and autonomous learning 44 4.3 Discussion 45 4.3.1 The effect of using subtitled video clips on vocabulary acquisition 45 4.3.1.1 Vocabulary Level Test( VLT) results 45 4.3.1.2 The role of the audio-visual materials 49 4.3.1.3 Possible factors related to the input 50 4.3.2 Participants’ attitudes towards learning from subtitled videos: 51 4.3.2.1 The questionnaire survey results 51 4.3.2.1.1 General attitudes towards learning from subtitled videos 51 4.3.2.1.2 Subtitle Preference 55 4.3.2.2 Subtitled video and autonomous learning 56 CHAPTER CONCLUSION 59 5.1 Summary of the study 59 5.2 Limitations of the study 61 5.3 Suggestions for the study 62 5.4 Implications for future research 63 REFERENCES 64 APPENDIX A 68 APPENDIX B: 72 APPENDIX C 74 APPENDIX D 76 Questionnaire survey( English version) 76 APPENDIX E 77 v LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Scores on the general English test for all participants: The control group and The experimental groups 33 Table The average total scores and standard deviations of general English test in the experimental group and the control group 34 Table 4.3 Pre- and post-scores on the Vocabulary Level Test for the English subtitle group .36 Table 4.4 Pre- and post-scores on the Vocabulary Level Test for the Dual subtitle group .38 Table 4.5 Pre- and post-scores on the Vocabulary Level Test for the Control groups 40 vi LIST OF FINGERS Figure Intra-lingual subtitles .18 Figure Dual subtitles 19 Figure Score rate on the general test for the English subtitle group 34 Figure Score rate on the general test for the Dual subtitle group .35 Figure Score rate on the general test for the Control group 35 Figure Score rate on the pre treatment test for the English subtitle group 37 Figure Score rate on the pre treatment test for the Dual subtitle group .37 Figure Score rate on the post treatment test for the English subtitle group 39 Figure Score rate on the post treatment test for the Dual subtitle group 39 Figure 10 Score rate on the pre treatment test for the control group .41 Figure 11 Score rate on the post treatment test for the control group 41 Figure 12 VLT Gain by All the Three Groups 42 Figure 13 The respondent’s English Language Video Viewing Habit 43 Figure 14 Preferring Vocabulary Learning from Subtitled Video 44 Figure 15 The Effectiveness of Subtitles .44 vii CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale As an English teacher, I am fortunate to have access to multimedia technology for both in my teaching and searching I have made a great effort to keep abreast with these developments by using technology to create and exploit learning opportunities for my students I would like to encourage students’ interest in subtitled authentic videos and make them feel confident when using such videos as learning tools It’s the teacher’s duty to put students in a position where they are capable of increasing their knowledge of vocabulary independently of the teacher by looking at the subtitled words in meaningful and stimulating circumstances I decided to carry out the current study to determine whether subtitled authentic videos could be effective vocabulary learning tools for Thanh Hoa EFL high school students 1.2 Aim of study This study aimed to demonstrate that watching the English subtitled videos will improve EFL high school students’ knowledge of English vocabulary and to determine whether the participants felt that the subtitles accompanying the treatment video motivate them 1.3 Research questions This research aims to answer the following questions: - How does the use of English subtitled videos affect EFL high school students’ vocabulary learning? - Will the use of English subtitled videos help to motivate EFL high school students to learn English? 1.4 Scope of study This research focuses on the effect of using English subtitled videos as vocabulary learning tools for Thanh Hoa EFL high school students The study is to determine which subtitled video( English subtitled video or English and Vietnamese subtitled First, as the comparative effect of the two subtitle types investigated in this study for learners with Vietnamese background remains unclear, this research can be replicated with more participants, avoiding the limitations of the vocabulary tests used in this study, either by improving it or developing more precise and effective pre-tests, as an evaluation of the effect of the subtitles Second, by reviewing literature when using subtitled videos for language learning, it seems that there is still a gap in the knowledge, and areas that need to be explored with regard to using subtitled videos For example, the effectiveness of subtitled video has been explored extensively in terms of listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition, but there is a lack of research in respect to the acquisition of lexical chunks 5.4 Implications for future research It can be said that subtitled authentic video, films and movies may be an optimal source of acquisition of lexical chunks for two reasons First, as authentic videos were not designed for learning purposes, they contain genuine use of language, in which phrases, collocations and lexical chunks form a large portion of the language used Second, in contexts where contact with native speakers is very limited, subtitled video becomes a valuable resource, offering easy and low-cost access to native speakers’ language, as used in daily life Thus, future research investigating the effect of exposure to subtitled authentic video on developing second language learners’ knowledge of lexical chunks would be a valuable study, informing both second language educators and learners 63 REFERENCES Alwehaibi, H., (2013) The Impact of using You Tube in EFL Classroom on Enhancing E Students' Content Learning In:The Clute Institute International Academic Conference, 2013 Paris Franc Aurstad, L M , (2013) The Role of Subtitles in Second Language Acquisition An experimental study in the context of the Norwegian school system.MA thesis in English Language, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Becelaere, E., (2011).Accidental Second Language Grammar Acquisition of English through Watching Subtitles Television Programmes or Films Unpublished dissertation Universiteit Gent Benson, P & Voller, P (1996) Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning Harlow: Longman Brett, P (1997) A comparative study of the effects of the use of multimedia on listening comprehension System, 25(1), 39–53 Boers, F., Eyckmans, J., Kappel, J., Stengers, H., & Demecheleer, M (2006).Formulaic sequences and perceived oral proficiency: Putting a lexical approach to the test Language Teaching Research, 10, 245–261 Bearne, E., Clark, C., Johnson, A., Manford, P., Mottram, M & Wolstencroft, H With Anderson, R., Gamble, N & Overall, L (2007) Reading on screen Research undertaken by the United Kingdom Literacy Association with support from the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Chan, D and C Herrero (2010) Using Film to Teach Languages, Manchester, Cornerhouse Ciccone,A.(1995)Teaching with Authentic Video: Theory and Practice In: Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy ,edited by Eckman ,F ,Highland, D ,Lee,P.,Mileeham ,J ,Weber, R New Jersey.US Lawerence Erlbaum.pp.203-215 Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K (1989) Research methods in education NewYork: Routledge 64 Cross, J (2011) Comprehending news videotexts: The influence of the visual content Language Learning & Technology, 15(2), 44-68 Danan, M (2004) Captioning and subtitling: Undervalued language learning strategies Meta: Translators’ Journal, 49 (1), 67-77 Dornyei, Z (2007).Research Methods in Applied Linguistics Oxford Oxford University Press d’Ydewalle, G., & De Bruycker, W (2007) Eye movements of children and adults while reading television subtitles European Psychologist, 12, 196–205 d’Ydewalle, G., & Van de Poel, M (1999) Incidental foreign-language acquisition by children watching Psycholinguistic subtitled Research, television 28 (3), programs 227-244 Journal of Retrieved from:http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1023/A%3A1023202130625 Guillory, H G (1998) The effects of keyword captions to authentic French video on learner comprehension Calico Journal, 15(1-3), 89–108 Guo,S., (2011) Impact of an Out-of-class Activity on Students’ English Awareness, Vocabulary, and Autonomy Language Education in Asia, 2(2), 246-256 Gilmore, A (2007) Authentic materials and authenticity in foreign language learning Language Teaching, 40, 97-118 Harji, M B., Woods, P C., & Alavi, Z K (2010) The effect of viewing subtitled videos on vocabulary learning Journal of College Teaching & Learning (9), 37-42 Huckin, T., & Coady, J (1999) Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21 (2), 181-193 Karimian, Z., &M Talebinejad (2013) Students‟ Use of Translation as a Learning Strategy in EFL Classroom Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4, (3), 605-610 King, J (2002) “Using DVD feature films in the EFL classroom”, in Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15, 5: 509-523 65 Koolstra, C M & J W J Beentjes (1999) Children’s vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language through watching subtitled television programs at home Educational Technology Research & Development 47.1, 51–60 Krashen,S.(1982)Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition Oxford: Pergamon Markham, P L (1993) Captioned television videotapes: Effects of visual support on second language comprehension Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 21(3), 183-191 Marshall, J.M (2002) Learning with technology: Evidence that technology can, and does, support learning White paper prepared for Cable in the Classroom Manochehri, N., & Sharif, K (2010) A model-based investigation of learner attitudes towards recently introduced classroom technology Journal of Information Technology Education Research, 9, 31-52 Available from http://www.jite.org/documents/Vol9/JITEv9p031-052Manochehri744 pdf Melodie, G.(2013)Intentional vocabulary learning from watching DVDs with subtitles: A case study of an average learner of French International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning (1), 21- 32 Paul Nation (the 1980s) The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) published in Nation, 1990 Raine,P.,(2012) Incidental learning of vocabulary through subtitled authentic videos MA dissertation, University of Birmingham Secules, T., Herron, C., & Tomasello, M (1 992) The effect of video context on foreign language learning The Modem Language Journal 76 (4), 480 - 490 Shan, W.P (2010) The effectiveness of learning vocabulary through English news subtitles: A case study with Hong Kong ESL learners, MA dissertation University of Hong Kong Sherman, J (2003) Using authentic video in the language classroom Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP 66 Sobini Films, (2013) An American Girl Chrissa Stands Strong [video, online].Accessed at March 2014.Available at : < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WawuF25XYHY > Tschirner, E (2001) Language acquisition in the classroom: The role of digital video Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14,305–319 Validation of this test: Laufer, B & Nation, P (1999), A vocabulary size test of controlled productive ability Language Testing 16(1), 33-51 Walma van der Molen, J (2001) Assessing text-picture correspondence in television news: The development of a new coding scheme Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 45(3), 483– 498 Waring, R., (2002), Scales of Vocabulary Knowledge in Second Language Vocabulary Assessment, Kiyo, Notre Dame Seishin University: Studies in Foreign Languages and Literature 26 (1): 40-54 Wilson, C C (2002) Practical aspects of using video in the foreign language classroom The TESL Journal, (11) Retrieved (2008) from: http://iteslj.org/articles/Canning-video html Wesche, M and T Paribakht (1996.) Assessing vocabulary knowledge: depth vs breadth Canadian Modern Language Review, 53 (1): 13-40 Zanon, N T., 2006 Using subtitles to enhance foreign language learning Porta Linguarum, 6, 41-52 Zarei, A A., & Rashvand, Z (2011) The effect of interlingual and intralingual, verbatim and nonverbatim subtitles on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production Journal of Language Teaching and Research, (3), 618-625 Source: https://www.youtube.com/?gl=VN 67 APPENDIX A The General Test (45’) KET Reading part 1: Nối thông báo với câu phù hợp nội dung (1 điểm) KET Reading part 2: Đọc câu dọn dẹp nhà cửa Chọn từ cho chỗ trống.(3 điểm) Martina decided to her house a spring clean A give C took B got C took She tidied _ her books and papers A out B cleaned She _ all her old toys and games to a second hand shop A brought C get First Martina _ all her clothes away in the cupboard A put B have B up C down She some fresh flowers on the shelf A bought B got C put 68 She put new on the bed A curtains B carpets C blankets KET Reading part 3: Conversations Có câu hỏi phần Hoàn thành đoạn hội thoại Chọn câu trả lời nhất.(2,5 điểm) Are you looking forward to your holiday? A We’re going to China B Yes, I’m really excited about it C Not to worry Would you like a cup of tea? A I’d love one B Sorry, I’m not C Yes, I like tea Would you like some more dessert? A Enjoy your meal! B It’s delicious! C No thanks, I’m full How often you go hiking? A I go with three friends B We stay for a weekend C Most weekends What time does it finish? A I’m not sure B On Thursday C It takes 15 minutes 69 KET Reading part 4: Hãy đọc báo chị em gái Sau xác định tình “Right” hay “Wrong”? Nếu khơng có đủ thơng tin để trả lời “Right” hay “Wrong”, chọn “Doesn’t say”(3,5 điểm) Something very strange happened to Tamara She never knew she had a twin sister until she started university! Tamara was born in Mexico Her parents could not look after her so she went to live with a family in Manhattan, USA When Tamara was twenty years old, she started university in Long Island She enjoyed her university life But one day she was walking home from class, and a student smiled at her “Hello Adriana!” said the student “I’m not Adriana,” said Tamara This happened to Tamara again and again People Tamara didn’t know kept calling her Adriana It was very strange One day, when a woman called her Adriana, Tamara asked “Why you keep calling me Adriana?” The woman replied, “You look like my friend Adriana You have the same face and the same hair Is Adriana your sister?” Tamara said that she did not have a sister called Adriana But she was interested in this girl Adriana Finally she asked someone for Adriana’s email address When Tamara wrote to Adriana, she found out that they both had the same birthday, they looked the same and both of them were from Mexico.When Tamara went to live with the family in Manhattan, Adriana moved to Long Island to live with a family there It had to be true! Adriana and Tamara were twin sisters! Tamara and her sister were both born in Mexico A Right Tamara’s parents moved from Mexico to Manhattan A Right C Doesn’t say B Wrong People called Tamara “Adriana” many times A Right C Doesn’t say B Wrong C Doesn’t say B Wrong Adriana wrote to Tamara first A Right C Doesn’t say B Wrong 70 Adriana always knew she had a twin sister A Right Adriana is Tamara’s only sister A Right C Doesn’t say B Wrong C Doesn’t say B Wrong Adriana was a student at Long Island University A Right C Doesn’t say B Wrong 71 APPENDIX B: THE PRE-TREATMENT TEST/ POST-TREATMENT TEST A vocabulary levels test: Version Instructions: Mỗi câu hỏi có ba từ tiếng Việt bên phải sáu từ Tiếng Anh bên trái Với từ tiếng Việt, chọn từ tương đương Tiếng Anh sáu từ bên trái viết số thứ tự từ vào dòng kẻ trước từ Tiếng Việt Dưới ví dụ: l business clock phần ngơi nhà horse động vật có chân pencil vật dùng để viết shoe wall Em trả lời giống sau: l business clock phần ngơi nhà horse động vật có chân pencil vật dùng để viết shoe wall Có số từ khó kiểm tra Em khơng phải tìm nghĩa từ Trong ví dụ trên, từ “business, clock, shoe” Hãy cố gắng hoàn thành kiểm tra Version The 2,000 word level birth dust _ trò chơi choice operation _ chiến thắng crop _ nhiệt độ row sinh flesh _ thịt salary _ tiền công thường sport xuyên cho công việc victory 72 secret temperature bake connect _ kết nối cap inquire khơng mục đích education _ dạy học limit journey _ số để đo lường recognize parent _ tới nơi xa wander _ hạn chế scale trick burst attack concern _ nổ tung deliver _ làm tốt _ mang tới charm _ vàng bạc fold lack _ chất lượng dễ chịu cho pen _ khơng có improve shadow urge treasure original cream private _ factory _ phần sữa royal _ riêng tư nail _ nhiều tiền slow _ thêm vào pupil _ người học sorry sacrifice total wealth brave electric _ thường xuyên firm _ đói examine _ kiểm tra hungry _ không sợ hãi pour local adopt climb _ trèo _ bao quanh satisfy usual surround 73 APPENDIX C Lesson Plan Name of the film: Extra English: Hector goes shopping (Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch ) Language level: Elementary (A1) Time: 54 minutes Activity: Watching subtitled videos or video without subtitles Topic: Go ahead, make up new words Language: Target words in videos related to the 2nd 1000 most commonly used English words Materials: Short videos PROCEDURE Activity 1: The Pre-treatment test(10’) - T assigns participants into one of the three group - T gives a brief explanation of the experiment - T tells them how to answer the pre-treatment test and clarifies the meaning of each statement (The pre-treatment test is distributed among the participants, whether they are in the control group or in the experimental groups) Activity 2: Watching a video(24’) - For the two experimental groups, a video clip is going to be played twice to each group separately, with subtitles as follows: Group A: a video clip with intralingual subtitles ( English) Group B: a video clip with dual subtitles (Vietnamese and English) 74 - Participants in these two experimental groups are asked to focus on the video content and especially subtitles in order to acquire the target vocabulary - The control group is exposed to the same clip twice but without subtitles (EXTRA ENGLISH: Hector goes shopping on youtube.com) Activity 3: The Post-treatment test(10’) - After watching the 24-minute video clip, participants in all the three groups re-rate their knowledge of the target vocabulary, for which they again granted ten minutes - T interpret the post-test score to classify the participants’ answers into categories as the following: No improvement: participants’ responses not change and remain the same in the pre- and post-treatment test Improvement to recognition level: participants’ responses improve from zero knowledge of the target word in the pre-treatment test to recognizing the target word in the post-treatment test Activity 4: The questionnaire survey(10’) - The experimental groups’ participants are asked to complete the opinion survey and are allowed to take it home and return it next day if they wish 75 APPENDIX D Questionnaire survey( English version) Name: Group : Dear participant, After watching the video, kindly please complete the following survey about your opinion of and attitudes towards watching subtitled video for language learning It should be take to 10 minutes of your time Part 1: 1, How often you watch English language videos to improve your knowledge of English language vocabulary? Never Hardly ever Sometimes Often Don’t know Part 2: 1, When you watch English language videos to improve your knowledge of English language vocabulary, which (types) of subtitles you prefer? English subtitles Dual subtitles No subtitles Don’t know Part 3: 1, I was able to improve my knowledge of English language vocabulary from watching the video Strongly Disagree Don’t know Agree Strongly agree disagree 2, Watching authentic subtitled videos encourage me to learn English language vocabulary Strongly Disagree Don’t know disagree 76 Agree Strongly agree APPENDIX E Questionnaire survey( Vietnamese version) Tên: Nhóm: Xin chào, Sau xem video, làm ơn hoàn thành khảo sát sau quan điểm thái độ em việc xem video có phụ đề phục vụ cho việc nâng cao kiến thức từ vựng Thời gian hoàn thành đến 10 phút Part 1: 1, Bạn có thường xem video có phụ đề để nâng cao kiến thức từ vựng tiếng Anh không? Chưa Hiếm Đôi Thường xuyên Không biết Part 2: 1, Khi bạn xem video có phụ đề để cải thiện kiến thức từ vựng tiếng Anh, bạn thích loại phụ đề hơn? Phụ đề tiếng Anh Phụ đề Anh Việt Không phụ đề Không biết Part 3: 1, Tơi cải thiện kiến thức từ vựng tiếng Anh từ việc xem video có phụ đề Hồn tồn Khơng đồng ý Khơng biết Đồng ý Hồn tồn đồng ý phản đối 2, Xem video có phụ đề khuyến khích tơi học từ vựng tiếng Anh Hồn tồn phản Khơng đối Khơng biết đồng ý 77 Đồng ý Hồn toàn đồng ý ...MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING VINH UNIVERSITY NGUYEN THI THANH HUYEN SUBTITLED AUTHENTIC VIDEOS AND INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING: A STUDY AMONG EFL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THANH HOA Field:... of vocabulary The area of vocabulary learning is giving significant attention within second language teaching discourses Vocabulary plays a fundamental role in language learning, as is dedicated... learning involvement, (4) mastery of vocabulary learning tactics; (5) vocabulary knowledge, and (6) post-appraisal of vocabulary learning tactics Without elaborating on how 14 these factors are
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