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Role ambiguity of junior incumbents at logistics service provider h

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UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY International School of Business CAO MINH HIEP ROLE AMBIGUITY OF JUNIOR INCUMBENTS AT LOGISTICS SERVICE PROVIDER H MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SUPERVISOR: DR PHAN THI MINH THU Ho Chi Minh City, Year 2021 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS .i ABBREVIATIONS iii LIST OF FIGURES iv LIST OF TABLES iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION .3 SYMPTOMS 2.1 High Employee Turnover Rate of Group with Less Than Years of Experience 2.2 Low Seniority of Working Incumbents 10 2.3 Increasing Overtime Hours 12 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 14 3.1 Problem mess 14 3.2 Problem validation 22 3.2.1 Role Ambiguity 22 3.2.2 Unsatisfactory Compensation and Benefits 24 3.2.3 Less Career Advancement 25 3.2.4 Diversity of Choices 26 3.3 Justify the importance of main problem .27 ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS .30 4.1 Cause Validation 30 4.1.1 Complex Organizational Structure 30 4.1.2 Complex Content in Job Description 32 4.1.3 Information Biases in Applicants/ Incumbents 34 4.1.4 Inefficient Communications from Leaders 35 4.2 Alternative Solutions .37 4.2.1 Solution Set 37 4.2.2 Solution Set 41 4.3 Selection of Solution Set 43 i 4.4 Action Plans in Organization 44 CONCLUSION 50 SUPPORTING INFORMATION 51 6.1 Interview guide 51 6.1.1 Transcript 1: Ms N.C.B 51 6.1.2 Transcript 2: Ms N.T.N 52 6.1.3 Transcript 3: Ms T.T.B 53 6.1.4 Transcript 4: Ms N.H.N 54 6.2 Interview guide 55 6.2.1 Transcript 5: Ms A.H.V 55 6.2.2 Transcript 6: Ms N.T.V 58 6.2.3 Transcript 6: Mr T.V.T 61 6.3 Interview guide 63 6.3.1 Transcript 7: Ms N.H.N 63 6.3.2 Transcript 8: Ms V.K.N 65 6.3.2 Transcript 9: Ms L.D 67 REFERENCES 69 ii ABBREVIATIONS No Abbreviation Meaning AM ante meridiem (before midday) BOD Board of Director CS Customer Service FTE Full-Time Employees HR Human Resources HRBP Human Resources Business Partner KAM Key Account Manager KPIs Key Performance Indicators OT Overtime 10 PDP Personal Development Plan 11 PM post meridiem (after midday) 12 SOP Standard Operations Procedure 13 USD U.S Dollars 14 VCML Vietnam-Cambodia-Myanmar-Laos iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 The organization chart of Logistics Service Provider H Vietnam Figure 2.1 Employee turnover rate of CS Fashion during 2018-2020 Figure 2.2 Working ratio of CS Fashion during 2018-2020 10 Figure 2.3 Overtime working hours of employees of CS Fashion 13 Figure 3.1 The initial cause-and-effect tree of CS Fashion 18 Figure 3.2 The updated cause-and-effect tree of CS Fashion 28 Figure 4.1 The Cause and Effect Diagram of Role Ambiguity 36 Figure 4.2 The Alternative Solutions for Role Ambiguity 42 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Groups of employees of CS Fashion Table 2.2 Overtime working hours of employees of CS Fashion 12 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Without the valuable guidance as well as support of several individuals, this paper would not have been completed The author, therefore, would like to express his sincere thanks to those who, in one way or another, contributed their enthusiastic assistance in the completion of this research First and foremost, the author would like to emphasize his utmost gratitude to her research supervisor, Dr Phan Thi Minh Thu, for her hearted support during the time doing this thesis, and above all, for her patience, enthusiasm and immense knowledge Without his assistance and dedicated involvement in every step throughout the process, this thesis would have never been finalized Besides my supervisor, the author would like to send thanks to the management team of CS Fashion for their kind support in in-depth interviews to figure out the main problem, main causes, alternative solutions and action plans for the project Moreover, it is a gratitude to both the leaving employees and junior colleagues of the team to help the author to explore some interesting insights to develop the project Finally, due to the limit of time, resources and the author’s imperfect competence, the thesis may still hold limitations as well as errors The author, then, heartily welcomes all comments and contributions for future improvements of the project EXECUTIVE SUMMARY To begin with the project, the author would like to analyze the context and existing symptoms of CS Fashion in the first chapter Afterwards, many in-depth interviews have been conducted in order to explore the potential problems of the team; in combination with literature review, the author expects to justify the main problem within chapter Last but not least, further to chapter 3, it is expected to figure out the potential and main causes of the main problem in chapter 2, then alternative solutions and action plans can be developed to solve the main problem INTRODUCTION Enterprise H Global was established in 1904 in the town of Svendborg (Denmark), which was initially named Dampskibsselskabet Svendborg (The Steamship Company Svendborg) Throughout more than 115 years of development with many ups and downs, Enterprise H Global has become one of the largest container shipping companies all over the world Moreover, Enterprise H Global also expands its business into other fields, such as logistics, terminal operations, and oil drilling, etc., by acquiring other companies As a result, Logistics Service Provider H Global was established to be in charge of the logistics service and help the enterprise to achieve the goal of being “a global integrator of container logistics connecting and simplifying our customers’ supply chain” Logistics Service Provider H Vietnam is a part of the Vietnam-Cambodia-MyanmarLaos area (VCML) of Logistics Service Provider H Global Logistics Service Provider H Vietnam (also called Logistics Service H in short) has main offices in Ha Noi, Hai Phong, and Ho Chi Minh City; furthermore, operates rent warehouses in Bac Ninh, Hai Phong, and Binh Duong With core values: (1) Constant care, (2) Humbleness, (3) Uprightness, (4) Our employees, and (5) Our name, the company aims to provide customers with much better end-to-end supply chain services Logistics Service Provider H has various departments as shown below figure; however, due to limitations of resources, the author would like to focus on CS Fashion function, a part of the Customer Service (CS) department, and to explore its current problems CEO HR ADMIN FIN CS RETAIL SALES CS FASHION WAREHOU SE AND DISTRIBUT ION LOGISTICS AND SERVICE OCEAN TRANSPOR TATION CUSTOMER SERVICE GSC (SYSTEM) OPERATIO NS CS FURNITUR E CS SPORTING CS 4PL IMPLEMEN TATION CONTINUO US IMPROVEM ENTS Figure 1.1 The organization chart of Logistics Service Provider H Vietnam (Source: HR department, synthesized by author, 2021) To be specific, CS Fashion currently has 22 full-time employees (FTE), including Manager, Team Leaders, and 18 Members Each team leader will be the escalation person for separate members, which means that CS Fashion has sub-group, and all of them will report directly to CS Manager The main tasks of CS Fashion are described in the job description as follows: - Focus on the key Customer Service Drivers: Easy to Business with; Timely Delivery of Documents; Pro-Active Notification; Exception Management and Efficient claim handling - Arrange to book with vendors/ shippers and plan with vendors/ shippers (Vendor coordination) - Query resolution with Shippers/Customers/Key Account Managers (KAMs), especially timely resolution and response - To be responsible for cross-selling/upselling, customer retention - Follow up on the outstanding bookings & query resolution - Prepare contracts and charge structures in line with the Logistics Service Provider H’ Policy - Record and report the performance of the designated set of Solutions Customers that help provide suitable recommendations on Service delivery wins as well as Service failures 6.2.2 Transcript 6: Ms N.T.V - Title: SCM Customer Service Leader - Working status: currently working for more than years - Answer: Hiep: What are the leaving reasons you have heard from previous junior incumbents? Ms N.T.V: It is not abnormal that our company has a high turnover rate at some departments because we target fresh graduates, and our team is not an exception Most of them just start their 1st job at Logistics Service Provider H to earn experience and even not know which industry they would love to work for Hence, it is unavoidable that they will leave after 1-2 years when their passion for the logistics industry goes away Ms N.T.V: During the time I have been a leader, I received sharings from many senior incumbents that they wanted to lead a sub-team Even some of them knew how to make development plans for themselves when waiting for the opportunities, while the others did not However, it depends on the situation of the company whether there are any open positions or not That is another reason why some employees left the company since they could not stand the long waiting time Ms N.T.V: I also heard many leaving staff complain that they could not find any personal improvements from my careers at the team and company However, I not agree with their reasons that they had too much daily workload I felt that they did not have a clear PDP at the beginning That’s why they had nothing to base on and keep track of their yearly development … Hiep: I would like to summarize key factors that have impacts on the leaving intention of junior employees as role ambiguity (misunderstanding of role perceptions), unsatisfactory compensation and benefits, less career advancement and diversities of choices (opportunities/jobs) What you think about them? Ms N.T.V: Maybe, but I only support the first factor as the main one The others, to some aspect, we cannot decide since they are the demands of incumbents but the company cannot supply it with the situation Although we can discuss separately with 58 staff case by case, we cannot adapt all of them if their performances not meet the requirements Hiep: Why you think that role ambiguity is the most important factor? Ms N.T.V: If they are not clear about their tasks and responsibilities, they will their jobs incorrectly and may further receive complaints from stakeholders Consequently, they may suffer from low motivation and misbehave Hiep: What you think about the reasons for role ambiguity? Ms N.T.V: Although our jobs are interesting, there are some limitations due to the nature of the logistics industry and our forwarder role, which we have to accept Some applicants just look at the halo effects of the jobs through the media and make applications without further careful studies Our company always welcomes the passionate freshers to the logistics industry, but the tasks of clarification will be much harder for our roles as leaders after they join the company and the team Hiep: Do you think that our complex organizational structure and job description are also other reasons? Ms N.T.V: I agree that our organization has a complex structure with not only small departments but also many stakeholders However, we not have the authority to change it but to accept it About the job description, the content might be long due to the nature of the job and the wording may be difficult for freshers to understand I think we can something with it and you can suggest the solutions Hiep: Among these factors, which one you think is the main cause for role ambiguity? Ms N.T.V: Let’s think about the factors that we can intervene: to improve the complex content of job description and the efficiency of communications from leaders You can begin to think about the solutions of these matters Hiep: I would like to propose sets of solutions herein (written in paper) What would be your preferred one? And why? Ms N.T.V: I like the 1st Solution Set As you can see, our team suffers from a huge daily workload and needs to work overtime, especially with the combined impact of 59 both peak season and Covid-19 pandemic Hence, it is infeasible to gather the employees together for some off-the-job training … Hiep: Here is the action plan for Solution Set Please help to review it And also thank you for your kind support 60 6.2.3 Transcript 6: Mr T.V.T - Title: SCM Customer Service Leader - Working status: currently working for more than years - Answer: Hiep: What are the leaving reasons you have heard from previous junior incumbents? Mr T.V.T: In my opinion, I found that very few junior employees are aware of the importance of PDP although we have refreshment sharing every year That’s why they did not make the complete PDP at the beginning of the year, and afterward, could not follow up to improve their skills Consequently, it is hard for them to move up their careers to higher positions and enjoy much preferable salary and allowance … Hiep: I would like to summarize key factors that have impacts on the leaving intention of junior employees as role ambiguity (misunderstanding of role perceptions), unsatisfactory compensation and benefits, less career advancement and diversities of choices (opportunities/jobs) What you think about them? Mr T.V.T: I support the first factors Many newcomers are disappointed with what they have to as the Customer Service at CS Fashion compared with what they expected previously Regarding the compensation and benefits, although the base salary for freshers is relatively higher than the average of the logistics market, the increase rate for experienced staff is not reasonable compared with their expectations However, we should also consider their performances as well, so I think it is not the main problem Therefore, I support role ambiguity as the most important factor Hiep: What you think about the reasons for role ambiguity? Mr T.V.T: I feel that they did not research very carefully about the logistics industry and jobs to figure out whether they are passionate or not It seems that they also have inadequate information from many sources such as the media, their relatives and even from their peers or classmates One more thing I found out is that the job descriptions from our company are not clear enough for them to understand Hiep: Do you think that our complex organizational structure and inefficient communications from leaders are also other reasons? 61 Mr T.V.T: To some extent, I agree It is true that our company has too many stakeholders, especially for our department and our roles as the front line CS However, for the latter factor, it may happen in our team for some period only since all members of the team suffer from the peak seasons and workload The leaders and manager still conduct periodic coachings and sharings but some may think they are not enough for the clarity Hiep: Among these factors, which one you think is the main cause for role ambiguity? Mr T.V.T: The organizational structure and the salary scale cannot be changed from our position, you agree with me? So I think about the other factors, which we can make some changes Hiep: You mean that the complex content of job description and the efficiency of communications from leaders are the main causes of role ambiguity, don’t you? Mr T.V.T: Yes, you are right! Hiep: I would like to propose sets of solutions herein (written in paper) What would be your preferred one? And why? Mr T.V.T: I find Solution Set much better Continuous recognition and feedback are more helpful for the team members to fulfill their PDP And with the current “crazy” situation of the logistics industry, the most appropriate time to conduct gathering training is the weekend and I not think that many employees are happy and willing to join … Hiep: Here is my action plans for Solution Set Please help to review it And also thank you for your kind support 62 6.3 Interview guide - Objective: to discover the perspective of junior employees on the main problem of CS Fashion and its causes - Interviewee: Ms N.H.N (the leaving staff); Ms V.K.N and Ms L.P.D (the current members of CS Fashion) - Methodology: in-depth interview 6.3.1 Transcript 7: Ms N.H.N - Title: SCM Customer Service Agent - Working status: already left CS Fashion on June 2020 - Working experience at the team: months - Answer: Hiep: Although you left the company to study abroad, what you think about the impact of three other factors on general leaving intention (misunderstanding of role perceptions, unsatisfactory compensation and benefits, and less career advancement)? Ms N.H.N: I think your three mentioned factors also have its own impact As you knew, I realized my misunderstanding of role perceptions the most after I joined the company and the team in October 2010 I suffered from a lot of stress at that time with much knowledge to deal with Hiep: I would like to call the misunderstanding of role perceptions as more academic terminology as role ambiguity And could you please advise further about your situation at that time? Ms N.H.N: I was very fresh about the logistics industry at that time without any basic knowledge and skills Thanks to you and your support, I overcame the situation and got used to the necessary capabilities to stay with the job Hiep: Why did you join the logistics industry/ the company/ CS Fashion team? Ms N.H.N: I studied Economics and I wanted to explore the job related to my learning That was the reason why I tried myself in the logistics industry This industry is a dream career for fresh graduates and I was not the exception Hiep: Why you say the logistics industry is a dream career for fresh graduates in Economics? 63 Ms N.H.N: As you know, almost every media has news about this industry until now, from its development and potential career development with competitive benefits Hiep: And how about you, have you had any research before applying for a position at Logistics Service Provider H? Ms N.H.N: Just a little, I did research via job description and asked some friends only I did not get some chances to learn in a formal way about this industry My family and friends supported me on my decision and that’s why I applied Hiep: Turning to another topic, what you think about the company structure? Ms N.H.N: I almost forgot I remembered that it was very complicated There were too many parties to work with It made me more confused about what I should for my job, my role and my responsibilities and I had to ask for advice all the time Hiep: What you feel about the support and communications from your leader? Ms N.H.N: I felt that my leaders are supportive and encouraging I was thankful for that although they could not follow up with me closely due to the huge workload either Hiep: Thank you for your time and answer 64 6.3.2 Transcript 8: Ms V.K.N - Title: SCM Customer Service Agent - Working status: currently working for year and months - Answer: Hiep: Why did you apply for the job in the logistics industry? Ms K.V.N: I would like to know whether I am fit for the job or not since I found it interesting from both the media and my older brother Previously, I already tried myself at other industries such as e-wallet or event agency Hiep: Then had you read the job description from our company carefully before you applied? Ms K.V.N: To some extent only but not the whole one It is too complicated with many specialized words in the logistics industry and I cannot understand the whole content That’s why I wanted to explore the job when working on the field instead of just standing outside and guessing Hiep: What you think about your current work? Ms K.V.N: Sometimes I am still confused about the role and responsibilities of my job I know that my expectations for myself are very high and I want to complete my tasks perfectly even though they are not in my scope Hiep: How long have you been suffering from this situation? Ms K.V.N: I needed nearly a half year to get familiar with the scope of the job and many stakeholders The company structure is very complicated too and it took time for me to know it well Hiep: Then have you thought about what you expect from the company to make you clearer about the job? Ms K.V.N: Yes of course, I really want a peer at work, who can be the role model for myself and also advise which I should and which skills I should enhance to be a better version at this job But my leader is very busy with both work and her family, so I am very appreciative whenever she helps me with my troubles and could not expect more from her Hiep: And how about now? Do you still have that feeling? 65 Ms K.V.N: The bad situation came back to me months ago, I received more tasks when I was familiar with the job The Covid-19 makes the logistics market even worse than before The stakeholders also suffer from the bad performances due to the consequences of the pandemic I have to work overtime for a long time until now and my motivation is very bad now If I cannot get away from it soon, I may quit the job Hiep: I would like to propose sets of solutions herein (written in paper) to help you overcome the situation What would be your preferred one? And why? Ms K.V.N: I not like the 2nd one since I want to spend my spare time for other hobbies or interesting part-time jobs instead of formal training Hiep: Thanks for your kind support 66 6.3.2 Transcript 9: Ms L.D - Title: SCM Customer Service Agent - Working status: currently working for months - Answer: Hiep: I knew that you have a very good background but why did you apply for the job in the logistics industry? Ms L.D: I spent my consecutive years studying from university to master Although I had part-time jobs, I still wanted to experience any specific industry from the beginning and I was willing to it Hiep: Then when you applied for a CS position at our team from another department, had you read the job description from our company carefully before you applied? Ms L.D: No, I did not have any chances to read the full job description, I just received references and explanations from both my previous manager and through the interviews Hiep: After you just read it, how you feel? Ms L.D: It’s quite long and complicated although it covers the necessary information about the tasks that a CS role should It also has some specialized wording of the logistics industry and may be unclear for the new people to discover carefully Hiep: What you think about our company structure? Ms L.D: It is very complicated with too many departments and stakeholders, especially when we migrate local team offshore to the Philippines and India Sometimes I not know which party I should approach and need to get advice from leaders and other senior colleagues Hiep: What you think about your current work? Ms L.D: Although I have been here for nearly a year, I am still confused about my tasks and responsibilities I usually have to work overtime but I am not really sure whether it is the reason or not And sometimes I have very bad motivation too Hiep: Then have you thought about what you expect from the company to make you clearer about the job? Ms L.D: I really want some detailed clarification sessions from my leader but he somehow has high expectations of his subordinates as well as a huge workload; therefore, I sometimes feel that I am scared to raise my voice to him 67 … Hiep: I would like to propose sets of solutions herein (written in paper) to help you overcome the situation What would be your preferred one? And why? 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V admitted that the current ratio of the team is quite high in comparison with the expectation of her and team leaders although it is unavoidable She... team and company However, I not agree with their reasons that they had too much daily workload I felt that they did not have a clear PDP at the beginning That’s why they had nothing to base on
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