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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC:

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " RESEARCH ARTICLE BROADCASTED LOCATION-AWARE DATA CACHE FOR VEHICULAR APPLICATION" PPTX

Received 15 October 2006; Revised 7 March 2007; Accepted 17 April 2007 Recommended by Gunasekaran S. Seetharaman There has been increasing interest in the exploitation of advances in information technology, for example, mobile computing and wireless communications in ITS (intelligent transport systems). Classes of applications that can benefit from such an infrastructure include tra ffi c information, roadside businesses, weather reports, entertainment, and so on. There are several wireless communica- tion methods currently available that can be utilized for vehicular applications, such as cellular phone networks, DSRC (dedicated short-range communication), and digital broadcasting. While a cellular phone network is relatively slow and a DSRC has a very small communication area, one-segment digital terrestrial broadcasting service was launched in Japan in 2006, high-performance digital broadcasting for mobile hosts has been available recently. However, broadcast delivery methods have the drawback that clients need to wait for the required data items to appear on the broadcast channel. In this paper, we propose a new cache system to e ff ectively prefetch and replace broadcast data using “scope” (an available area of location-dependent data) and “mobility spec- ification” (a schedule according to the direction in which a mobile host moves). We numerically evaluate the cache system on the model close to the tra ffi c road environment, and implement the emulation system to evaluate this location-aware data delivery method for a concrete vehicular application that delivers geographic road map data to a car navigation system.
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PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING  P30 POTX

PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING P30 POTX

Broadband A communications channel that has greater bandwidth than a voice grade line and is potentially capable of greater transmission rates. Opposite of baseband. In wide band operation the data to be transmitted are first modulated on a high frequency carrier signal. They can then be simultaneously transmitted with other data modulated on a different carrier signal on the same transmission medium.
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WIRELESS ATM AND AD HOC ROUTING

WIRELESS ATM AND AD HOC ROUTING

storage of these values in the SST is made possible by periodic link-layer beaconing of nodes in SSR. Based on the quality of the beacon signal, SST entries identify links as ‘weak’ or ‘strong’. All packet transmissions are monitored by the DRP before being passed to the node’s SRP which examines the packet in order to find out whether it is destined for this node or another one. In the first case, the packet is pushed up to higher protocol layers. In the second case the packet must be forwarded to its destination. Thus, the node searches in its RT for a route to the destination. If no route is found, then a route search process is initiated. The corresponding control packets are transmitted to the neighbors of the current node and the procedure continues until the destination has been reached. During this procedure, intermedi- ate nodes are allowed to forward the control packet only if it (a) has not yet been received by the node and (b) it was received over a strong link. Upon arrival of the first control packet at the destination, the latter sends a reply message back to the initiator of the route search process. The reason for choosing the first control packet to arrive at the destination is that it is probable that this packet arrived over the shortest and/or least congested path. As the reply travels along the returning path, node DRPs update intermediate nodes’ RTs corre- spondingly.
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PRACTICAL TCP/IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING- P36 POTX

PRACTICAL TCP/IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING- P36 POTX

message. The broadcast is created with UDP ports 67 (BOOTP client) and 68 (BOOTP server). This message contains the MAC address and NetBIOS name for the client system to be used in the next phase of sending a lease offer. If no DHCP server responds to the initial broadcast, the request is repeated three more times at 9, 13, and 16-second intervals, plus a random event occurring in the period between 0 and 1000 milliseconds. If still no response is received, a broadcast message is made every five minutes until it is finally answered. If no DHCP server ever becomes available, no TCP/IP communications will be possible.
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AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY PART 77 PPS

AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY PART 77 PPS

It was not long after Bush’s detailed prophecy that automatic retrieval of photographically reduced documentary information was embodied in working hardware. The Filmorex system, invented by Jacques Samain in France early in the 1950s, used 70×45mm (23/4×13/4in) film-cards (or microfiche, which French word has been adopted into English). Each Filmorex fiche contained two moderately reduced page images, together with a grid of tiny squares on which was encoded up to 500 bits of index information. When the fiche passed by an array of photocells in the Filmorex selector, code-combinations matching the search request would trip a release mechanism and divert the selected fiche to a bin for viewing. A similar system, Minicard, was developed in the 1950s by Kodak’s Recordak Division. This was based on tiny fiche cut from 16mm microfilm, each of which could store up to six pages at a 60:1 reduction, together with more than 1500 bits of data. Roll microfilm was used for optical data storage in FOSDIC (Film Optical Scanning Device for Input to Computers) to speed up the processing of the vast amount of data collected for the 1960 US census; data were reduced images of punched cards, compressed vertically by photographing them through an anamorphic lens.
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PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING  P47 PPSX

PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING P47 PPSX

13.11 News 13.11.1 News push The original approach to news via the Internet has been to search the World Wide Web and ‘pull down’ relevant news items. This is not only time consuming but also costly for an individual who has to connect through an ISP. On the other hand, products such as PointCast aggregate news from more than 700 sources, process this in a central broadcast facility and then broadcast it world-wide via the Internet. Only the news categories selected by the user is PUSHED down for collection every morning.
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PARALLEL PROGRAMMING: FOR MULTICORE AND CLUSTER SYSTEMS- P19 PPSX

PARALLEL PROGRAMMING: FOR MULTICORE AND CLUSTER SYSTEMS- P19 PPSX

There are only d different bit positions so that each set A i , i = 1 , . . . , m, can only contain at most d edges. Thus, the sets A i are constructed such that | A i | = d for 1 ≤ i < m and | A m | ≤ d. Since the sets A 1 , . . . , A m should be pairwise disjoint and the total number of edges in the spanning tree is 2 d − 1 (there is an incoming edge for each node except the root node), we get
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COMPTIA NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION STUDY GUIDE PART 18 PDF

COMPTIA NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION STUDY GUIDE PART 18 PDF

Spanning Tree The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) was developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to prevent broadcast storms that result from looping. A broadcast is a message that is sent across a LAN at the data link layer (that is Layer 2 of the OSI model), and it can be forwarded by switches to other segments of the network. When a switch has more than one way to communicate with a node, it can cause broadcasts to go out across more than one path. This can create a loop in the way this data travels across the network. When data loops endlessly around the network in this way, it eats up the available bandwidth and can affect network performance. Not only can computers on the network experience slow response times, but they also can have problems just logging into the network.
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PARALLEL PROGRAMMING: FOR MULTICORE AND CLUSTER SYSTEMS- P19 POT

PARALLEL PROGRAMMING: FOR MULTICORE AND CLUSTER SYSTEMS- P19 POT

d-dimensional hypercube takes at least ( p − 1) / log p time steps. There are algo- rithms that attain this lower bound and we construct one of them in the following according to [19]. The multi-broadcast operation is considered as a set of single-broadcast opera- tions, one for each node in the hypercube. A spanning tree is constructed for the single-broadcast operations and the message is sent along the links of the tree in a sequence of time steps as described above for the single-broadcast in isolation. The idea of the algorithm for the multi-broadcast operation is to construct spanning trees for the single-broadcast operation such that the single-broadcast operations can be performed simultaneously. To achieve this, the links of the different spanning trees used for a transmission in the same time step have to be disjoint. This is the reason why the spanning trees for the single-broadcast in isolation cannot be used here
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MẠNG MÁY TÍNH_ARP- CÁCH THỨC LIÊN LẠC GIỮA HAI MÁY PDF

MẠNG MÁY TÍNH_ARP- CÁCH THỨC LIÊN LẠC GIỮA HAI MÁY PDF

Cách này giảm tải cho router, giải quyết được trường hợp cĩ nhiều router nối vào cùng segment, và đỡ gây nhầm lẫn. Nếu Host A cĩ cấu router nối vào cùng segment, và đỡ gây nhầm lẫn. Nếu Host A cĩ cấu hình sử dụng Defaul gateway trong TCP/IP protocol thì gĩi tin ARP
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC    RESEARCH ARTICLE SCALABLE AD HOC NETWORKS FOR ARBITRARY CAST  PRACTICAL BROADCAST RELAY TRANSMISSION STRATEGY LEVERAGING PHYSICAL LAYER NETWORK CODING  POT

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC RESEARCH ARTICLE SCALABLE AD HOC NETWORKS FOR ARBITRARY CAST PRACTICAL BROADCAST RELAY TRANSMISSION STRATEGY LEVERAGING PHYSICAL LAYER NETWORK CODING POT

Copyright © 2008 Chen Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1. INTRODUCTION In wireless communication, a node may broadcast informa- tion through the electromagnetic (EM) waves to all of its neighboring nodes. At the same time, a node may receive several signals simultaneously sent from its neighbors. Due to the additive nature of the EM waves, information cannot be recovered from these scrambled signals correctly without appropriate protocols. This is a problem called multiple access interference (MAI). A similar problem is illustrated in the pioneering work of Gupta and Kumar [ 1 ], from which it can be concluded that the capacity of wireless ad hoc networks is constrained by the mutual interference of con- current transmissions among nodes (i.e., the MAI problem). When the number of nodes in a distributed ad hoc network gets larger, information is transmitted through a “multihop” method from the source node to the sink nodes. As a result, the opportunity of such a problem is additionally increased. Hence, many researchers attempt to find new approaches to boost the network capacity. Network coding (NC) [ 2 ] is a new method in information theory which allows nodes to
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THE BEST DAMN WINDOWS SERVER 2003 BOOK PERIOD  P35 PPSX

THE BEST DAMN WINDOWS SERVER 2003 BOOK PERIOD P35 PPSX

Another utility that is more useful than tracert and ping combined is pathping. Pathping is basically tracert and ping combined.The pathping command line utility provides an overview of latency and loss of data over a network at each hop from a source to a destination.The pathping utility will continue to ping over a specified period of time in seconds, but it will default to a value related to the total number of hops from the source to the destination. Pathping computes the latency and packet loss from each router.This allows you to identify firewalls that block icmp but still provide information about latency on the hops past the firewall.You can also use pathping to
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TÀI LIỆU SỔ TAY CỦA CÁC MẠNG KHÔNG DÂY VÀ ĐIỆN TOÁN DI ĐỘNG P11 PPT

TÀI LIỆU SỔ TAY CỦA CÁC MẠNG KHÔNG DÂY VÀ ĐIỆN TOÁN DI ĐỘNG P11 PPT

This algorithm has a complexity of O (log N ) for each scheduling decision. Simulation results show that this algorithm performs close to the analytical lower bounds [37]. In [12], a low-overhead, bucket-based scheduling algorithm based on the square root rule was also provided. In this strategy, the database is partitioned into several buckets, which are kept as cyclical queues. The algorithm chooses to broadcast the first item in the bucket for which the expression [ T – R ( I m )] 2 q m / l m evaluates to the largest value. In the ex- pression, T is the current time, R ( i ) is the time at which an instance of item i was most re- cently transmitted, I m is the first item in bucket m , and q m and l m are average values of q i ’s and l i ’s for the items in bucket m . Note that the expression [ T – R ( I m )] 2 q m / l m is similar to equation (11.3). The bucket-based scheduling algorithm is similar to the Bdisk approach, but in contrast to the Bdisk approach, which has a fixed broadcast schedule, the bucket- based algorithm schedules the items online. As a result, they differ in the following as- pects. First, a broadcast program generated using the Bdisk approach is periodic, whereas the bucket-based algorithm cannot guarantee that. Second, in the bucket-based algorithm, every broadcast instance is filled up with some data based on the scheduling decision, whereas the Bdisk approach may create “holes” in its broadcast program. Finally, the broadcast frequency for each disk is chosen manually in the Bdisk approach, whereas the broadcast frequency for each item is obtained analytically to achieve the optimal overall system performance in the bucket-based algorithm. Regrettably, no study has been carried out to compare their performance.
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PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING  P59 PPTX

PRACTICAL TCP IP AND ETHERNET NETWORKING P59 PPTX

Broadband A communications channel that has greater bandwidth than a voice grade line and is potentially capable of greater transmission rates. Opposite of baseband. In wide band operation the data to be transmitted are first modulated on a high frequency carrier signal. They can then be simultaneously transmitted with other data modulated on a different carrier signal on the same transmission medium.
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Practical TCP/IP and Ethernet Networking- P56 ppsx

Practical TCP/IP and Ethernet Networking- P56 ppsx

• Inexpensive means of transmission. There are no land line laying costs and the satellite can cover a huge area. Indeed, in remote areas the high costs may preclude using any land line with significant bandwidth • Portability in communications in the satellite’s range. The ability to move around may have great use for mobile applications
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OPTICAL NETWORKS: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE - PART 63 PPTX

OPTICAL NETWORKS: A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE - PART 63 PPTX

11.2 Enhanced HFC Although we have used the term HFC to describe the existing cable infrastructure, HFC is also the term used to describe an upgraded version of this architecture, which we will refer to as an enhanced HFC architecture. Since both the fiber and the coax cable carry multiple subcarrier modulated streams, and it is a broadcast network, a better term to describe the HFC architecture is subcarrier modulated fiber coax bus (SMFCB). The network architecture is essentially the same as that shown in Figure 11.3. In order to provide increased bandwidth per user, the network is being enhanced using a combination of several techniques. First, the transmitted frequency range can be increased, for example, up to 1 GHz from the 500 MHz in conventional HFC systems. Enhanced HFC systems being deployed today in larger metropolitan areas are already delivering up to 862 MHz of bandwidth. Within each subcarrier channel, we can use spectrally efficient digital modulation techniques, such as 256 QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation), which provides a spectral efficiency of 8 bps/Hz. In addition, we can drive fiber deeper into the network and reduce the number of homes served by a remote node down to about 50 homes, from the 500 homes typically served by an HFC network. This is being done today as well. We can also use multiple fibers and multiple wavelengths to increase the overall capacity.
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BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC:

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: "RESEARCH ARTICLE DOWNLINK MULTICELL PROCESSING WITH LIMITED-BACKHAUL CAPACITY" PPT

be remarked that, when employing techniques such as DPC, encoding is performed with a more sophisticated encoding strategy than simple look-up on a table of codewords on the basis of the transmitted message. The transmitted signal is in fact a function of the interference sequence to be cancelled. Therefore, a more appropriate term for what we refer to as CI would be encoding function information. We choose the first for simplicity but this distinction should be kept in mind.) This scenario is of specific interest for nomadic applications where information about roaming users is not available at the BSs. Having identified the limits of this technique in specific regimes of interest, we then investigate other solutions based
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TÀI LIỆU CCNA PPSX

TÀI LIỆU CCNA PPSX

Extended bridge ID with system ID System ID = VLAN H ọ at độ ng spanning tree yêu c ầ u m ỗ i switch ph ả i có m ộ t BID duy nh ấ t. Trong chu ẩ n 802.1D ban đầ u, BID g ồ m độ ưu tiên v à đị a ch ỉ MAC c ủ a switch, và t ấ t c ả VLAN đượ c miêu t ả b ở i m ộ t CST. B ở i vì PVST+ yêu c ầ u m ỗ i th ự c th ể spanning tree riêng bi ệ t cho t ừ ng VLAN, c ộ t BID yêu c ầ u mang thông tin VLAN ID(VID). Điề u này đượ c hòan thành b ằ ng cách dùng l ạ i m ộ t vùng c ủ a c ộ t Priority nh ư là m ộ t system ID m ở r ộ ng để mang VID . Để làm cho phù h ợ p system ID m ở r ộ ng, 802.1D ban đầ u, c ộ t độ ưu tiên 16bit đượ c chia lam 2 c ộ t , k ế t qu ả BID như sau :
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ĐỀ THI HỌC KỲ I MÔN TIẾNG ANH 12  HỆ 3 NĂM    MÃ ĐỀ THI 481 DOC

ĐỀ THI HỌC KỲ I MÔN TIẾNG ANH 12 HỆ 3 NĂM MÃ ĐỀ THI 481 DOC

Đọc kỹ đoạn văn sau v à ch ọn phương án đúng ( A hoặc B, C, D)cho mỗi đáp án đún g News media are the means or methods by which people learn what is happening in the city, in the country and in the world. The news media can be classified into two general categories of print media and electronic media. Print media use the written material to communicate news to readers. Electronic media use air waves to send news into homes, offices and public places. Print media are usually divided into magazines and newspapers. Most newspapers print news daily. For example, the newspaper “ The New York Times” is published every day of the year. Most news magazines are published weekly, for instance. Newsweek and Time magazines are published once a week. The electronic media are generally divided into radio and television. Radio news is news that you listen to. In the United States, many radio stations broadcast five minutes of news every hour. T.V news is news that you not only listen to but also watch. In Canada and the United States, for example, many people watch an hour of news on TV at 6 o’clock in the evening. In the future new categories of news media will develop. Even today computers are beginning to influence the transmission and reception of news.
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ESSENTIAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE INT PHẦN 8 PPTX

ESSENTIAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE INT PHẦN 8 PPTX

8. 'What do you think --- the new manager?' 'She's all right, I suppose.' 9. Can somebody please explain --- me what I have to do? 10. 'Do you like staying at hotels?' 'It depends --- the hotel.' 11. 'Have you ever been to Borla?' 'No, I've never heard --- it. Where is it?' 12. You remind me --- somebody I knew a long time ago. You took just like her. 13. What's funny? What are you laughing ---.?
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CẤU HÌNH BỘ ĐỊNH TUYẾN CISCO

CẤU HÌNH BỘ ĐỊNH TUYẾN CISCO

CẤU HÌNH X.25 CƠ BẢN Các lưu ý trong cấu hình X.25 -X.25 là một môi trường đa truy nhập không broadcast multi access non broadcast media do đó phải lưu ý khi sử dụng với định tuyến động [r]
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MULTIBOOKS   TỔNG HỢP IT   PC PART 211 PDF

MULTIBOOKS TỔNG HỢP IT PC PART 211 PDF

Chú ý : trong trường hợp framerelay chạy full-meshed , nếu ta để inverse ARP chạy thì không cần cấu hình thêm câu lệnh nào cả . Tại sao ? vì inverse ARP sẽ học được tất cả các DLCI và đưa vào interface của mình nên OSPF lúc này hoạt động như là một mạng broadcast multi-access .
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Cài đặt các dịch vụ mạng

Cài đặt các dịch vụ mạng

- Để th ự c hi ệ n phõn gi ả i tờn mi ề n chớnh xỏc, đầ u tiờn DNS Server c ầ n bi ế t t ừ đ õu s ẽ b ắ t đầ u tỡm ki ế m cỏc tờn trong khụng gian tờn domain DNS. • Thụng tin này đượ c cung c ấ p trong m ẫ u cỏc Root Hint, 1 danh sỏch Resource Record s ơ b ộ đượ c dựng b ở i d ị ch v ụ DNS để đị nh v ị cỏc server cú th ẩ m quy ề n đố i v ớ i Root c ủ a khụng gian tờn domain DNS.
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A survey of digital television broadcast transmission techniques

A survey of digital television broadcast transmission techniques

This paper is a survey of the transmission techniques used in digital television (TV) standards worldwide. With the increase in the demand for High-Definition (HD) TV, videoon-demand and mobile TV services, there was a real need for more bandwidth-efficient, flawless and crisp video quality, which motivated the migration from analogue to digital broadcasting. In this paper we present a brief history of the development of TV and then we survey the transmission technology used in different digital terrestrial, satellite, cable and mobile TV standards in different parts of the world. First, we present the Digital Video Broadcasting standards developed in Europe for terrestrial (DVB-T/T2), for satellite (DVB-S/S2), for cable (DVB-C) and for hand-held transmission (DVB-H).
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ESSENTIAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE INT PHẦN 8 POT

ESSENTIAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE INT PHẦN 8 POT

Units 131-135 31. Put in a preposition where necessary. If the sentence is already complete, leave an empty space (-). 1. She works quite hard. You can't accuse her --- being lazy. 2. Who's going to look --- your children while you're at work? 3. The problem is becoming serious. We have to discuss --- it. 4. The problem is becoming serious. We have to do something --- it. 5. I prefer this chair --- the other one. It's more comfortable. 6. I must phone --- the office to tell them I won't be at work today. 7. The river divides the city --- two parts.
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Broadcast encryption and traitor scheme

Broadcast encryption and traitor scheme

We construct a public key encryption scheme in which there is one public encryption key, but many private decryption keys. If some digital content (e.g., a music clip) is encrypted using the public key and distributed through a broadcast channel, then each legitimate user can decrypt using its own private key. Furthermore, if a coalition of users collude to create a new decryption key then there is an efficient algorithm to trace the new key to its creators. Hence, our system provides a simple and efficient solution to the “traitor tracing problem”. A minor modification to the scheme enables it to resist an adaptive chosen ciphertext attack. Our techniques apply error correcting codes to the discrete log representation problem.
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Định tuyến Multicast groups

Định tuyến Multicast groups

From java, only a single client can listen to broadcast to a particular port on a single machine, while many clients can engage in TRANG 13 CLASS MULTICASTSOCKET The MulticastSocket clas[r]
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FIBER OPTICS ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY   PART 33 DOCX

FIBER OPTICS ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY PART 33 DOCX

frowns sticking a tongue out encapsulated PostScript EPS. A PostScript file for- mat including bounding box information (explicit statements about the lower left and upper right ex- tents of a rectangular area that includes the entire im- age contained in the file). The EPS bounding box in- formation is commonly found in the header at the be- ginning of the program. Many programs cannot print a PostScript page without the EPS information, if it is an imported file, since the size and boundaries of the image may not be explicitly stated in the page de- scription code. (It's like trying to find a frame for a picture without fITst knowing the size ofthe picmre.) EPS is a widely supported vector format and is use- ful for desktop published documents, posters, typog- raphy, and other applications in which one wants to take advantage of the highest possible quality avail- able on a particular output device. See PostScript. Encapsulating Security Payload ESP. In TCPIIP networks, ESP is a transport layer protocol compat- ible with both IPv4 and IPv6 formats. It operates in both tunnel mode and transport mode. In secure net- work transmissions, the ESP may be used in conjunc- tion with an authentication header mechanism. See link encryption, RFC 1827, RFC 2401.
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HANDBOOKS PROFESSIONAL JAVA-C-SCRIP-SQL PART 262 POT

HANDBOOKS PROFESSIONAL JAVA-C-SCRIP-SQL PART 262 POT

_REQUIRED LIBRARY _ require 'thread' _CLASS METHOD _ ConditionVariable::new Creates a ConditionVariable object _INSTANCE METHODS _ _c.broadcast _ Wakes up all waiting queued threads _c.s[r]
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O''''REILLY NETWORK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT''''S BOOK PART 261 PPS

O''''REILLY NETWORK FOR INFORMATION ABOUT''''S BOOK PART 261 PPS

_REQUIRED LIBRARY _ require 'thread' _CLASS METHOD _ ConditionVariable::new Creates a ConditionVariable object _INSTANCE METHODS _ _c.broadcast _ Wakes up all waiting queued threads _c.s[r]
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CHAPTER 8 TAKING CONTROL

CHAPTER 8 TAKING CONTROL

look at it on page 164. • A Microsoft Windows emulator is available. We’ll look at it on page 165. Emulating Linux Linux is a UNIX-like operating system that in many ways is very similar to FreeBSD. We discussed it on page 10. Although it looks very UNIX-like, many of the internal kernel interfaces are different from those of FreeBSD or other UNIX-based systems. The Linux compatibility package handles these differences, and most Linux software will run on FreeBSD. Most of the exceptions use specific drivers that don’t run on FreeBSD, though there is a considerable effort to minimize even this category.
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TÌM HIỂU UNICAST, BROADCAST, MULTICAST, ANYCAST

TÌM HIỂU UNICAST, BROADCAST, MULTICAST, ANYCAST

TRANG 11 Nhóm 17 10 ĐỊA CHỈ QUẢNG BÁ CỤC BỘ SẼ BỊ CHẶN BỞI ROUTER Tuy nhiên trong một số trường hợp như việc sử dụng DHCP Server, Router sẽ được cấu hình để cho phép các gói tin Broadcas[r]
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INTERNETWORKING WITH TCP/IP- P37 PPS

INTERNETWORKING WITH TCP/IP- P37 PPS

Extending host software to receive IP multicast datagrams is more complex. IP software on the host must have an API that allows an application program to declare that it wants to join or leave a particular multicast group. If multiple application pro- grams join the same group, the IP software must remember to pass each of them a copy of datagrams that arrive destined for that group. If all application programs leave a group, the host must remember that it no longer participates in the group. Furthermore, as we will see in the next section, the host must run a protocol that informs the local multicast routers of its group membership status. Much of the complexity comes from a basic idea:
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SUSTAINABLE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS PART 5 DOC

SUSTAINABLE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS PART 5 DOC

1.3 On the methods constraining the shape of the clusters in terms of numbers of nodes, laying out, etc The drawback of LEACH is that, as the nodes elect themselves cluster heads with a certain probability, it is possible that there be not the same number in function of the time, and even that there be no cluster head at all. To solve this problem, O. Younis and S. Fahmy (cf. Younis & Fahmy (2004)) propose the HEED algorithm which allows to select a cluster head in function of its remaining energy and a cost function defined, depending of the target objectives, either on the number of neighbors or on the average of the minimal power necessary to be reached by the neighbors. Either very dense clusters or clusters with a well distributed load can thus be obtained. In Fan & Zhou (2006), partly inspired from WCA presented in Chatterjee et al. (2001) and which does not take into account the residual energy of the node, the cluster heads are chosen with weights functions of the inverse of the node residual energy, their degree, the sum of the distances to their neighbors and the distance to the base station. This function, when it is minimized, leads to choose sensors having the highest residual energy, having a degree as close as possible to a value which is a parameter of the algorithm and minimizing the distance between the nodes and the base station. A similar intuition leads the authors Li et al. (2006) to propose an algorithm where the cluster heads are chosen by maximizing a cost function of the residual energy, the number of neighbors and the time spent for the last time the node was cluster head. Initially, the base station defines the perimeter of the clusters and chooses the first cluster heads, but, later, the clusters pass the baton by choosing themselves the next cluster heads by taking the nodes which maximize this function in the clusters. Then the new cluster heads send an advertisement message and the nodes join their new cluster heads in function of the signal strength level. The authors of Guo et al. (2007) propose to extend HEED to the case where the routing between cluster heads is in a multi hop fashion to the base station (CMRP algorithm).
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PARALLEL PROGRAMMING  FOR MULTICORE AND CLUSTER SYSTEMS  P23 POTX

PARALLEL PROGRAMMING FOR MULTICORE AND CLUSTER SYSTEMS P23 POTX

Collective MPI communication operations are always blocking; no non-blocking versions are provided as is the case for point-to-point operations. The main reason for this is to avoid a large number of additional MPI functions. For the same rea- son, only the standard modus is supported for collective communication operations. A process participating in a collective communication operation can complete the operation and return control as soon as its local participation has been completed, no matter what the status of the other participating processes is. For the root process, this means that control can be returned as soon as the message has been copied into a system buffer and the send buffer specified as parameter can be reused. The other processes need not have received the message before the root process can continue its computations. For a receiving process, this means that control can be returned as soon as the message has been transferred into the local receive buffer, even if other receiving processes have not even started their corresponding MPI Bcast() operation. Thus, the execution of a collective communication operation does not involve a synchronization of the participating processes.
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BÁO CÁO THỰC TẬP  CÔNG TY CỔ PHẦN CÔNG NGHỆ CÔNG NGHIỆP BƯU CHÍNH VIỄN THÔNG

BÁO CÁO THỰC TẬP CÔNG TY CỔ PHẦN CÔNG NGHỆ CÔNG NGHIỆP BƯU CHÍNH VIỄN THÔNG

TRANG 4 TRANG 5 DANH MỤC THUẬT NGỮ VIẾT TẮT MPLS MUITIPLE PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCH CHUYỂN MẠCH NHÃN ĐA GIAO THỨC BCCH BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL KÊNH ĐIỀU KHIỂN QUẢNG BÁ BCH BROADCAST CHANNE[r]
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PUBLIC RELATIONS STRATEGIES AND TACTICS 7TH GLOBAL EDITION WILCOX

PUBLIC RELATIONS STRATEGIES AND TACTICS 7TH GLOBAL EDITION WILCOX

438 on the job sociAl MediA in Action: brand journalism extends the reach of television 440 summary 441 case Activity: getting broadcast time for Peanut butter 442 Questions for review a[r]
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