This continues until one team is completely eliminated and the surviving team emerges as the final winner - thus yielding a possible gaming outcome.. Find the total number of possible ga[r]

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● Finally, as stated above, it **is** also often said that near-multicollinearity **is** more a problem with **the** data than with **the** model, with **the** result that there **is** insufﬁcient information in **the** sample to obtain estimates for all **the** coefﬁcients. This **is** why near-multicollinearity leads coefﬁcient estimates to have wide standard errors, which **is** exactly what would happen if **the** sample size were small. An increase in **the** sample size will usually lead to an increase in **the** accuracy **of** coefﬁcient estimation and, consequently, a reduction in **the** coefﬁcient standard errors, thus enabling **the** model to better dissect **the** effects **of** **the** various explanatory variables on **the** explained variable. A further possibility, therefore, **is** for **the** researcher to go out and collect more data – for example, by taking a longer run **of** data, or switching to a higher frequency **of** sampling. **Of** course, it may be infeasible to increase **the** sample size if all available data are being utilised already. Another method **of** increasing **the** available quantity **of** data as a potential remedy for near-multicollinearity would be to use a pooled sample. This would involve **the** use **of** data with both cross-sectional and time series dimensions, known as a panel (see Brooks, 2008, ch. 10).

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An alternative philosophy **of** econometric model building, which pre- dates Hendry’s research, **is** that **of** starting with **the** simplest model and adding to it sequentially so that it gradually becomes more complex and a better description **of** reality. This **approach**, associated principally with Koopmans (1937), **is** sometimes known as a ‘speciﬁc-to-general’ or ‘bottom- up’ modelling **approach**. Gilbert (1986) terms this **the** ‘average economic regression’, since most applied econometric work has been tackled in that way. This term was also indended to have a joke at **the** expense **of** a top economics journal that published many papers using such a methodology. Hendry and his co-workers have severely criticised this **approach**, mainly on **the** grounds that diagnostic testing **is** undertaken, if at all, almost as an afterthought and in a very limited fashion. If diagnostic tests are not performed, or are performed only at **the** end **of** **the** model-building process, however, all earlier inferences are potentially invalidated. Moreover, if **the** speciﬁc initial model **is** generally misspeciﬁed, **the** diagnostic tests them- selves are not necessarily reliable in indicating **the** source **of** **the** problem. For example, if **the** initially speciﬁed model omits relevant variables that are themselves autocorrelated, introducing lags **of** **the** included variables would not be an appropriate remedy for a signiﬁcant DW test statistic. Thus **the** eventually selected model under a speciﬁc-to-general **approach** could be suboptimal, in **the** sense that the model selected using a general-to-speciﬁc **approach** might represent **the** data better. Under **the** Hendry **approach**, diagnostic tests **of** **the** statistical adequacy **of** **the** model come ﬁrst, with an examination **of** inferences for real estate theory drawn from **the** model left until after a statistically adequate model has been found.

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Claim 2. Given C C P M with k C 2 , there always exists a 2 P matrix G such that the k -rank **of** GC **is** two. For a proof **of** Claim 2, note that the objective can be eas- ily shown equivalent to proving that there exists a 2 P ma- trix G such that the determinants **of** all 2 2 submatrices **of** GC are not zero. G **is** determined by its 2P complex entries. **The** determinant **of** each 2 2 submatrix **of** GC **is** a polyno- mial in those 2P variables, and hence analytic. Sincek C 2, for each specic 2 2 submatrix **of** GC, for instance, **the** sub- matrix comprising **the** rst two columns **of** GC, it **is** not hard to show that there always exists a G 0 such that the determi- nant **of** **the** corresponding submatrix **of** G 0 C **is** not zero. In- voking [7, Lemma 2], we conclude that the set **of** Gs which yield zero determinant for any specic submatrix **of** GC con- stitutes a measure zero set in C 2P . **The** **number** **of** all 2 2 sub- matrices **of** GC **is** nite, and any nite union **of** measure zero sets **is** **of** measure zero. **The** existence **of** **the** desiredG thus follows. Not only does such aG exist, but in fact a random G drawn from, for example, a Gaussian product distribution, will do with probability one. This establishesClaim 2.

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Abstract **The** Jacobi-Stirling numbers **of** **the** first and second kinds were introduced in **the** spectral theory and are polynomial refinements **of** **the** Legendre-Stirling numbers. Andrews and Littlejohn have recently given a **combinatorial** interpretation for **the** second kind **of** **the** latter numbers. Noticing that these numbers are very similar to **the** classical central factorial numbers, we give **combinatorial** interpretations for **the** Jacobi-Stirling numbers **of** both kinds, which provide a unified treatment **of** **the** **combinatorial** theories for **the** two previous sequences and also for **the** Stirling numbers **of** both kinds.

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y = ( x + c ) 2 . **The** equation **of** a parabola with its turning point d units above **the** x -axis **is** written as y = x 2 + d . **The** vertex **of** **the** parabola formed by **the** equation y = ( x + 1) 2 + 2 **is** found one unit to **the** left **of** **the** y -axis and two units above **the** x -axis, at **the** point (–1,2). Alternatively, test each answer choice by plugging **the** x value **of** **the** choice into **the** equation and solving for y . Only **the** coordinates in choice c , (–1, 2), repre- sent a point on **the** parabola ( y = ( x + 1) 2 + 2, 2 = (–1 + 1) 2 + 2, 2 = 0 2 + 2, 2 = 2), so it **is** **the** only point **of** **the** choices given that could be the ver- tex **of** **the** parabola.

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Examples: .45 = 45% .07 = 7% .9 = 90% ■ To change a fraction to a percentage, first change **the** fraction to a decimal. To do this, divide **the** numerator by **the** denominator. Then change **the** decimal to a percentage by moving **the** decimal two places to **the** right.

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∆ ∆ P nR T V = In **the** following discussion, we can assume that the limits discussed are all well behaved. In most instances, no difficulty arises at **the** specific values **of** interest. Even if a few **of** them are not readily evaluated at a particular point, provided they appear well behaved on approaching that point from below and from above, we will be justified in evaluating **the** limits by standard methods. A.3 Differential Calculus An equation usually relates two or more variables, showing **the** values assumed by one quantity as **the** other variable, or variables, take on different **possible** values. For example, **the** pressure, volume, and temperature **of** an ideal gas are related by **the** equation (A1) in which n **is** **the** **number** **of** moles **of** gas, R **is** a universal constant (8.3144 J/mol·K, independent **of** which real gas **is** being considered, to **the** approximation that the real gas follows this equation), and **the** temperature **is** an “absolute” temperature, usually on **the** Kelvin scale. Derivatives. One **of** **the** important questions that can be answered from such an equation concerns **the** rate at which one variable changes with changes in another. For example, we may ask how **the** volume changes with changes in temperature, for a fixed pressure. We can write (A2a) (A2b)

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A shortcoming **of** bioassay systems **is** **the** difficulty **of** relating **the** toxic responses that they measure to **the** toxic effects that would be experienced by free-living organ- isms if exposed to **the** same concentrations **of** chemicals in **the** field. These simple systems do not reproduce **the** complex toxicokinetics **of** living vertebrates and inver- tebrates. As explained earlier in Chapter 2 , toxicokinetic factors are determinants **of** toxicity, and there are often large metabolic differences between species that cause correspondingly large differences in toxicity. With persistent pollutants, this prob- lem may be partially overcome by conducting bioassays upon tissue extracts, but even here there are complications. How closely does **the** use **of** an extract reproduce **the** actual cellular concentrations at **the** site **of** action in **the** living animal? How simi- lar are **the** toxicodynamic processes **of** a test system to those operating in **the** living animal? **The** site **of** action may very well differ when, as **is** usually **the** case, **the** spe- cies represented in **the** test system differs from **the** species under investigation. This may also be the case when comparing a resistant with a susceptible strain **of** **the** same species. It **is** clear from many examples **of** resistance to pesticides that a difference **of** just one amino acid residue **of** a target protein can profoundly change **the** affinity for **the** pesticide, and consequently **the** toxicity (see Chapter 2, Section 2.4 , and various examples in Chapters 5 – 14 ). Thus, **the** use **of** material from a susceptible strain in a test system raises problems when dealing with resistant strains from **the** field.

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did some writers **of** scientific standing, such as Sismondi, 99 who, mostly, derived from them another argument against saving. Most English economists saw deeper than that and did in this matter exactly **the** same kind **of** thing that they did in others, as, for example, in **the** matter **of** international trade: preoccupied with what they considered to be fundamental truth and fighting **the** public’s propensity to attend too exclusively to temporary phenomena, they attended too little to temporary phenomena themselves. With **the** engaging frankness that was justly commended by Marx, Ricardo explained on **the** first page **of** his chapter on machinery that he had shared **the** prevailing view that, barring temporary difficulties **of** transition, 100 labor-saving machinery had no effect other than to benefit all classes as consumers. Like increase in foreign trade, therefore, **the** process **of** mechanization was a matter **of** welfare—which it was sure to increase—rather than a matter **of** that value (Ricardian value), with which he was chiefly concerned, except **of** course that mechanization would reduce **the** real and **the** relative values **of** **the** products affected by it, a fact to which Ricardo points again and again. 101 **The** reason why he thought that no (permanent) reduction in wages (**total** real wages in our sense **of** **the** word) would be induced by it, was that mechanization would not decrease **the** wage fund. 102 But then he went on to confess that he had discovered reasons for believing that it would.

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where we assume D **is** a compact set. Thus, we may write where w(z) **is** **the** representation error, and from **the** universal approxima- tion property we know that W(X) 5 VV for some W > 0. That **is**, for a given approximation structure our representation error T/I/ **is** finite but generally unknown. However, as discussed above, simply by properly increasing **the** size **of** **the** approximator structure we can reduce W to be arbitrarily small so that if we pick any W > 0 a priori there exists an approximator struc- ture that can achieve that representation accuracỵ Also, note that D **is** a compact set. Normally, to reduce W by choosing **the** approximator struc- ture we have to make sure that **the** structure’s parameters result in good “coverage” **of** D so that appropriate parameters 8 in F(x, 0) can be tuned to reduce **the** representation error over **the** entire set D. Next, we will study some properties **of** our Lipschitz continuous approximators that will later allow us to tune parameters when dealing with adaptive systems.

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2 Department **of** Electrical and Electronic Engineering, **The** University **of** Hong Kong Hong Kong, China 1. Introduction A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) **is** also known as a vehicular sensor network [Zhang, Lu, Lin, Ho & Shen (2008)] by which driving safety **is** enhanced through inter-vehicle communications or communications with roadside infrastructure. It **is** an important element **of** **the** Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) [Wang et al. (2006)]. In a typical VANET, each vehicle **is** assumed to have an on-board unit (OBU) and there are road-side units (RSU) installed along **the** roads. A trusted authority (TA) and maybe some other application servers are installed in **the** backend. **The** OBUs and RSUs communicate using **the** Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) protocol [Oh et al. (1999)] over **the** wireless channel while **the** RSUs, TA, and **the** application servers communicate using a secure ﬁxed network (e.g. **the** Internet). Based on this infrastructure, vehicles can broadcast safety messages (e.g. road condition, trafﬁc accident information), referred to as ”ad hoc messages”, to other nearby vehicles and RSU such that other vehicles may adjust their travelling routes and RSU may inform **the** trafﬁc control center to adjust trafﬁc lights for avoiding **possible** trafﬁc congestion. Like other communication networks, security issues have to be well addressed. For example, **the** message from an OBU has to be integrity-checked and authenticated. Otherwise, an attacker can replace **the** safety message from a vehicle or even impersonate a vehicle to transmit a fake safety message. For example, an attacker may impersonate an ambulance to request other vehicles to give way to it or request nearby RSUs to change trafﬁc lights to green. Besides, privacy **is** another important issue. A driver may not want others to know its driving routes by tracing messages sent by its OBU. Thus an anonymous communications protocol **is** needed. While being anonymous, a vehicle’s real identity should be revealable by a trusted party when necessary. For example, **the** driver who sends out fake messages causing an accident should not be able to evade responsibility by using an anonymous identity. In terms **of** integrity-checking and authentication, digital signature in conventional public key infrastructure (PKI) [Housley et al. (1999)] **is** a well accepted choice. However, requiring a vehicle to verify **the** signatures **of** other vehicles by itself using such schemes as in [Tsang & Smith (2008)] induces two problems as mentioned in [Zhang, Lin, Lu & Ho (2008)]. First, **the** computation power **of** an OBU **is** not adequate to handle all veriﬁcations in a short time, especially in places where **the** trafﬁc density **is** high. Second, to verify a message from an unknown vehicle involves **the** transmission **of** a public key certiﬁcate which causes heavy message overhead. Therefore, **the** general **approach** **is** to let **the** nearby RSU help a vehicle verify **the** message **of** another. **The** volume **of** signatures to be veriﬁed can

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The number of students who like badminton is twice the total of those who like football and basketball.. The rest of the cake was eaten by brother and I in a ratio of 3:1.[r]

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Ryuta Takashima Department **of** Risk Science in Finance and Management, Chiba Institute **of** Technology 1. Introduction Currently, there exist 54 commercial nuclear power plants, which have a **total** capacity **of** 48.85 GW, in Japan. These power plants that have been operating for more than 40 years emerge in 2010 and onward. **The** framework for **the** nuclear energy policy describes **the** measures to be followed for aging nuclear power plants and **the** enhancement **of** safety under **the** assumption **of** a nuclear power plant operating for 60 years (AEC, 2006). **The** Tokai Nuclear Power Plant **of** **the** Japan Atomic Power Company, and units 1 and 2 **of** **the** Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant **of** **the** Chubu Electric Power Company are currently under decommissioning, and this decom- missioning can be decided at **the** discretion **of** **the** electric power supplier. In **the** future, it **is** also likely that the firm will determine **the** decommissioning **of** aging nuclear power plants, taking into account **the** economics **of** **the** plant. Moreover, it **is** necessary to make decisions not only regarding decommissioning but also regarding **the** replacement. In this context, although decommissioning and replacement as well as new construction have become important prob- lems, there exist many factors that need to be solved, such as large costs, electricity demand, that **is**, profit **of** electric power selling and electricity deregulation.

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As with the distribution of the total number of visits, the distribution of the number of unique visitors has the greatest density of points for the smaller numbers of visitors, with the[r]

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Abstract For a bar and joint framework ( G, p ) with point group C 3 which describes 3-fold rotational symmetry in **the** plane, it was recently shown in (Schulze, Discret. Comp. Geom. 44:946-972) that the standard Laman conditions, together with **the** condition derived in (Connelly et al., Int. J. Solids Struct. 46:762-773) that no vertices are fixed by **the** automorphism corresponding to **the** 3-fold rotation (geometrically, no vertices are placed on **the** center **of** rotation), are both necessary and sufficient for ( G, p ) to be isostatic, provided that its joints are positioned as generically as **possible** subject to **the** given symmetry constraints. In this paper we prove **the** analogous Laman-type conjectures for **the** groups C 2 and C s which are generated by a half-turn and a reflection in **the** plane, respectively. In addition, analogously to **the** results in (Schulze, Discret. Comp. Geom. 44:946-972), we also characterize symmetry generic isostatic graphs for **the** groups C 2 and C s in terms **of** inductive Henneberg-type constructions, as well as Crapo-type 3Tree2 partitions - **the** full sweep **of** methods used for **the** simpler problem without symmetry.

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NSERIES, a numeric variable that gives the total number of unique time series variables having data for the BY group NSELECT, a numeric variable that gives the total number of selected t[r]

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Chapter 12 is entitled “Total quality management (TQM) and purchasing.” Preliminary studies indicate that assembly time is roughly proportional to the number of parts assembled. It has been shown that the number of parts in a design can be decreased by 20–40 percent when engineers are told to design the product to minimize the number of parts.

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17: end while 18: return **the** set **of** chaincode ( 𝑣 𝑖 ) for every 𝑣 𝑖 ∈ 𝐺; all chains **is** **the** entire set **of** nodes in 𝐺, and **the** intersection **of** nodes in any two chains **is** empty. **The** optimal chain cover **of** 𝐺 **is** a chain cover **of** 𝐺 that contains **the** least **number** **of** chains among all **possible** chain covers **of** 𝐺.

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To have a quantum-mechanical treatment we model a crystalline solid as matter in which **the** atoms have long-range order , that **is** a recurring (periodical) pattern **of** atomic positions that extends over many atoms. We will describe **the** wavefunctions and energy levels **of** electrons in such periodical atomic structures.

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4.1 Wireless mesh networking testbed An indoors wireless mesh networking testbed was built to evaluate **the** VIMLOC distributed location management scheme in conjunction with greedy forwarding and to compare it with simple proactive and reactive schemes. **The** experimental setup includes a 12-node multi-radio backbone WMN, as shown in Fig. 2(a), over an approximate area **of** 1200 square meters. All nodes run Click 1.6.0 over a Linux kernel 2.6.24. Backbone nodes (WMRs) are built based on a mini-ITX board (Pentium M 1.6 GHz) and mount up to four CM9 wireless cards (802.11abg) with Madwifi driver v0.9.4. One **of** these cards may be used for offering access to MNs. Notice that antennas are omnidirectional and a link **is** established between two nodes if they have cards assigned to **the** same channel. In this way, **the** topology **of** **the** testbed can be easily modified by modifying channel assignment. For simplicity, channels are assigned in **the** network so that all **the** links are in different channels in order to minimize contention and interferences. External interference with other wireless networks usually configured in 2.4 GHz band **is** avoided by configuring **the** wireless cards to 5 GHz band (i.e., 802.11a mode). Experiment automation benefits from **the** capabilities **of** **the** EXTREME Testbed ®

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Prove that it is always possible to choose the number h so that the rectangles completely cover the interior of the n-gon and the total area of the rectangles is no more than twice the a[r]

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{ ( π − 1 ( i ) , i ) , ( π − 1 ( j ) , j ) } contains at most s other diagram points. Since each half has size n/ 2, this gives us **the** quadratic term. For **the** linear term, we calculate **the** internal degrees **of** vertices, i.e. **the** **number** **of** neighbors they have in their own half. For extreme vertices that are one **of** **the** leftmost or rightmost 3 s points in each half, we will take **the** simple estimate that their internal degrees are not negative. A non-extreme vertex in an ( s/ 2)-run **is** adjacent to **the** vertices diagrammed on **the** right side **of** Figure 4; this yields an internal degree **of** 9 s/ 2 − 1. Any non-extreme vertex in an s -run that **is** **the** first or last vertex **of** its run (call it an “endpoint vertex”) **is** adjacent to **the** vertices diagrammed on **the** left side **of** Figure 4; this yields an internal degree **of** 7 s/ 2 + 1. **The** rest **of** **the** non-extreme vertices in s -runs have internal degree 7 s/ 2 + 2.

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with T k-1 () denoting **the** complement **of** **the** Student's-t distribution function with k-1 degrees **of** freedom (that **is**, T k-1 (x) = P(t k-1 x)) and F , k-1, n-p denotes an percentage point **of** **the** F distribution with k-1 and n-p degrees **of** freedom, with n-p denoting **the** error degrees **of** freedom. **The** value **of** represents **the** fraction **of** directions included by **the** confidence cone. **The** smaller **is**, **the** wider **the** cone **is**, with . Note that the inequality equation and **the** " goodness measure" equation are valid when operating conditions are given in coded units.

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Going back to components in **the** network that were disconnected from **the** largest component, we find similar patterns **of** homophily, **the** tendency **of** like to associate with like. Two **of** **the** components recommended technical books about medicine, one focused on dance music, while some others predominantly purchased books on business and investing. Given more time, it **is** quite **possible** that one **of** **the** cus- tomers in one **of** these disconnected components would have received a recommenda- tion from a customer within **the** largest component, and **the** two components would have merged. For example, a disconnected component **of** medical students purchasing medical textbooks might have sent or received a recommendation from **the** medical community within **the** largest component. However, **the** medical community may also become linked to other parts **of** **the** network through a different interest **of** one **of** its members. At **the** very least many communities, no matter their focus, will have recommendations for children’s books or movies, since children are a focus for a great many people. **The** community finding algorithm on **the** other hand **is** able to break up **the** larger social network to automatically identify groups **of** individuals with a par- ticular focus or a set **of** related interests. Now that we have shown that communities **of** customers recommend types **of** products reflecting their interests, we will examine whether these different kinds **of** products tend to have different success rates in their recommendations.

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Multi-story multi-bay indeterminate frame. We make nine cuts that separate **the** original frame into four “trees” **of** frames as shown. Nine cuts pointing to 27 degrees **of** indeterminacy. We can verify easily that each **of** **the** stand-alone trees **is** stable and statically determinate, i.e. **the** **number** **of** unknowns **is** equal to **the** **number** **of** equations in each **of** **the** tree problems. At each **of** **the** nine cuts, three internal forces are present before **the** cut. All together we have removed 27 internal forces in order to have equal numbers **of** unknowns and equations. If we put back **the** cuts, we introduce 27 more unknowns, which **is** **the** degrees **of** indeterminacy **of** **the** original uncut frame.

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35.2.2 Data-driven Protection Procedures Given a data set, data-driven protection procedures construct a new data set so that the new one does not permit a third party to infer conﬁdential information present in **the** original data. Different methods have been developed for this purpose. We will focus on **the** case where **the** data set **is** a standard ﬁle deﬁned in terms **of** records and attributes (microdata following **the** jargon **of** statistical disclosure control). As stated above, we can also consider other types **of** data sets as e.g. aggregate data (tabular data following **the** jargon **of** SDC).

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rom producttto customer proft contriiution Companies are increasingly attempting to replace or expound product-orientated strategies by customer- orientated strategies. For this reason, **the** quantiication **of** customer relations within **the** scope **of** **the** balanced scorecard **is** increasingly achieving signiicance as an implementation instrument for strategies and as a supplement to classic product proitability analysis.

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≤ V ( S n ) 10 2 = . 01 . 11. No, we cannot predict **the** proportion **of** heads that should turn up in the long run, since this will depend upon which **of** **the** two coins we pick. If you have observed a large **number** **of** trials then, by **the** Law **of** Large Numbers, **the** proportion **of** heads should be near **the** probability for **the** coin that you chose. Thus, in the long run, you will be able to tell which coin you have from **the** proportion **of** heads in your observations. To be 95 percent sure, if **the** proportion **of** heads **is** less than .625, predict p = 1 / 2; if it **is** greater than .625, predict p = 3 / 4. Then you will get **the** correct coin if **the** proportion **of** heads does not deviate from **the** probability **of** heads by more than .125. By Exercise 7, **the** probability **of** a deviation **of** this much **is** less than or equal to 1 / (4 n ( . 125) 2 ) . This will be less than or equal to . 05 if n > 320. Thus with 321 tosses we can be 95 percent sure which coin we have.

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Of the fifteen roads linking all possible pairs of six cities, what is the minimum number of crossings of two roads. A prime number is called an absolute prime if every permut[r]

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Abstract **The** use **of** flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) in H.264/AVC improves error resiliency at **the** expense **of** reduced coding efficiency with added overhead bits for slice headers and signalling. **The** trade-off **is** most severe at low bit rates, where header bits occupy a significant portion **of** **the** **total** bit budget. To better manage **the** rate and improve coding efficiency, we propose enhancements to **the** H.264/AVC frame layer rate control, which take into consideration **the** effects **of** using FMO for video transmission. In this article, we propose a new header bits model, an enhanced frame complexity measure, a bit allocation and a quantization parameter adjustment scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed improvements achieve better visual quality compared with **the** JM 9.2 frame layer rate control with FMO enabled using a different **number** **of** slice groups. Using FMO as an error resilient tool with better rate management **is** suitable in applications that have limited bandwidth and in error prone environments such as video transmission for mobile terminals.

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Case presentation A one-month-old Caucasian breastfed baby was admitted to **the** emergency department (ED) with respiratory distress. **The** parents mentioned that the baby showed superficial breathing with pauses during **the** past hour. On physical examination, our patient pre- sented with generalized cyanosis, fixed and constricted pupils, muscular hypotony and respiratory failure. **The** mother admitted consumption **of** cannabis and beer **the** night before followed by breastfeeding **of** **the** baby after- ward. A blood cell count and serum biochemistry were unremarkable, but **the** venous gasometrical results showed respiratory acidosis. At that point, **the** mother

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Thus, for all the cubies to return to their starting points, the number of moves M must be a multiple of both 4 and 7, and therefore 28 is the smallest possible number of repeats of M in[r]

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OVERTRADING, in securities, **is**: a. excessive buying and selling by a broker in a discretionary account, or, b. practice **of** a member **of** an underwriting group inducing a brokerage client to buy a portion **of** a new issue by purchasing other securities from **the** client at a premium. In finance, it **is** when a firm expands sales beyond a level that can be financed with normal working capital.

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Current Trends and Challenges in RFID 290 2.3.3 EDFSA (Enhanced Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA) This algorithm estimates **the** **number** **of** unread tags instead **of** **number** **of** tags to determine **the** frame size. H. Vogt’s algorithm shows poor performance when **the** **number** **of** tags becomes large because **the** variance **of** **the** tag **number** estimation **is** increased according to **the** **number** **of** tags increase [Rom90]. Therefore, to handle **the** poor performance **of** large **number** **of** tag identification EDFSA algorithm restricts **the** **number** **of** responding tags as much as **the** frame size. Conversely, if **the** **number** **of** tags **is** too small as compared with **the** frame size it reduces **the** frame size. To estimate **the** **number** **of** unread tags equation (2) **is** used. **The** procedure **of** EDFSA algorithm’s read cycle **is** shown in Figure 12.

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A common weakness of local search metaheuristics, such as Simulated Annealing, in solving combinatorial optimisation problems, is the necessity of setting a certain number of parameters. This paper is motivated by the goal of overcoming this drawback by employing parameter-free techniques in the context of automatically solving course timetabling problems.

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experiments (Experiment Set 2, Section 5.3.2.2), images were taken from **the** sample while slow mixing was still in progress, that **is**, particles were photographed in situ. A schematic **of** **the** general experimental setup **is** shown in Figure 5.2. Images **of** **the** suspended particles were illuminated by a strobe light, which provided a coherent backlighting source. Depending on conditions for a particular experiment, **the** strobe pulse rate and intensity were adjusted to produce one pulse during **the** time **the** camera shutter was open. **The** projected images were captured by a computer-controlled CCD camera (Kodak MegaPlus digital camera, model 1.4) placed on **the** opposite side **of** **the** mixing jar from **the** strobe. Generally **the** shutter exposure time was between about 80 and 147 ms. **The** camera captured digital images on a sensor matrix consisting **of** 1320 (horizontal) × 1035 (vertical) pixels. Each pixel was recorded using 8 bit resolution, that **is**, with 256 gray levels. For **the** present tests, a resolution **of** 540 pixels per mm was achieved. This was determined by imaging a known length on a stage micrometer and counting **the** **number** **of** pixels corresponding to that length. **The** cam- era was mounted on a traversing device so that it could be moved in each **of** **the** three coordinate directions, and images were stored on **the** hard drive **of** a PC. Camera settings were varied to obtain **the** best quality (greatest contrast between aggreg- ates and background) for each set **of** experimental conditions (see Chakraborti 25 for further details), but pixel resolution was held constant throughout **the** tests. Pixel resolution was always sufficient to adequately describe **the** smallest particles in these experiments. 26 Experiments were conducted in a darkened room to eliminate light contamination.

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