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# combinatorial approach The total number of possible committees is

## Đề thi Olympic Toán SMO năm 2012

This continues until one team is completely eliminated and the surviving team emerges as the final winner - thus yielding a possible gaming outcome.. Find the total number of possible ga[r]
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## PROPERTY ESTATE MODELLING AND FORECASTING_5 DOCX

● Finally, as stated above, it is also often said that near-multicollinearity is more a problem with the data than with the model, with the result that there is insufﬁcient information in the sample to obtain estimates for all the coefﬁcients. This is why near-multicollinearity leads coefﬁcient estimates to have wide standard errors, which is exactly what would happen if the sample size were small. An increase in the sample size will usually lead to an increase in the accuracy of coefﬁcient estimation and, consequently, a reduction in the coefﬁcient standard errors, thus enabling the model to better dissect the effects of the various explanatory variables on the explained variable. A further possibility, therefore, is for the researcher to go out and collect more data – for example, by taking a longer run of data, or switching to a higher frequency of sampling. Of course, it may be infeasible to increase the sample size if all available data are being utilised already. Another method of increasing the available quantity of data as a potential remedy for near-multicollinearity would be to use a pooled sample. This would involve the use of data with both cross-sectional and time series dimensions, known as a panel (see Brooks, 2008, ch. 10).
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## REAL ESTATE MODELLING AND FORECASTING HARDCOVER_7 POT

An alternative philosophy of econometric model building, which pre- dates Hendry’s research, is that of starting with the simplest model and adding to it sequentially so that it gradually becomes more complex and a better description of reality. This approach, associated principally with Koopmans (1937), is sometimes known as a ‘speciﬁc-to-general’ or ‘bottom- up’ modelling approach. Gilbert (1986) terms this the ‘average economic regression’, since most applied econometric work has been tackled in that way. This term was also indended to have a joke at the expense of a top economics journal that published many papers using such a methodology. Hendry and his co-workers have severely criticised this approach, mainly on the grounds that diagnostic testing is undertaken, if at all, almost as an afterthought and in a very limited fashion. If diagnostic tests are not performed, or are performed only at the end of the model-building process, however, all earlier inferences are potentially invalidated. Moreover, if the speciﬁc initial model is generally misspeciﬁed, the diagnostic tests them- selves are not necessarily reliable in indicating the source of the problem. For example, if the initially speciﬁed model omits relevant variables that are themselves autocorrelated, introducing lags of the included variables would not be an appropriate remedy for a signiﬁcant DW test statistic. Thus the eventually selected model under a speciﬁc-to-general approach could be suboptimal, in the sense that the model selected using a general-to-speciﬁc approach might represent the data better. Under the Hendry approach, diagnostic tests of the statistical adequacy of the model come ﬁrst, with an examination of inferences for real estate theory drawn from the model left until after a statistically adequate model has been found.
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## BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC BLIND IDENTIFICATION OF OUT OF CELL USERS IN DS CDMA POTX

Claim 2. Given C C P M with k C 2 , there always exists a 2 P matrix G such that the k -rank of GC is two. For a proof of Claim 2, note that the objective can be eas- ily shown equivalent to proving that there exists a 2 P ma- trix G such that the determinants of all 2 2 submatrices of GC are not zero. G is determined by its 2P complex entries. The determinant of each 2 2 submatrix of GC is a polyno- mial in those 2P variables, and hence analytic. Sincek C 2, for each specic 2 2 submatrix of GC, for instance, the sub- matrix comprising the rst two columns of GC, it is not hard to show that there always exists a G 0 such that the determi- nant of the corresponding submatrix of G 0 C is not zero. In- voking [7, Lemma 2], we conclude that the set of Gs which yield zero determinant for any specic submatrix of GC con- stitutes a measure zero set in C 2P . The number of all 2 2 sub- matrices of GC is nite, and any nite union of measure zero sets is of measure zero. The existence of the desiredG thus follows. Not only does such aG exist, but in fact a random G drawn from, for example, a Gaussian product distribution, will do with probability one. This establishesClaim 2.
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## BÁO CÁO TOÁN HỌC: "COMBINATORIAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE JACOBI-STIRLING NUMBERS" POT

Abstract The Jacobi-Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds were introduced in the spectral theory and are polynomial refinements of the Legendre-Stirling numbers. Andrews and Littlejohn have recently given a combinatorial interpretation for the second kind of the latter numbers. Noticing that these numbers are very similar to the classical central factorial numbers, we give combinatorial interpretations for the Jacobi-Stirling numbers of both kinds, which provide a unified treatment of the combinatorial theories for the two previous sequences and also for the Stirling numbers of both kinds.
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## SAT MATH ESSENTIALS - PRACTICE TEST 2

y = ( x + c ) 2 . The equation of a parabola with its turning point d units above the x -axis is written as y = x 2 + d . The vertex of the parabola formed by the equation y = ( x + 1) 2 + 2 is found one unit to the left of the y -axis and two units above the x -axis, at the point (–1,2). Alternatively, test each answer choice by plugging the x value of the choice into the equation and solving for y . Only the coordinates in choice c , (–1, 2), repre- sent a point on the parabola ( y = ( x + 1) 2 + 2, 2 = (–1 + 1) 2 + 2, 2 = 0 2 + 2, 2 = 2), so it is the only point of the choices given that could be the ver- tex of the parabola.
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## THE GRE ANLYTYCAL WRITTING SECTION 5 PPT

Examples: .45 = 45% .07 = 7% .9 = 90% ■ To change a fraction to a percentage, first change the fraction to a decimal. To do this, divide the numerator by the denominator. Then change the decimal to a percentage by moving the decimal two places to the right.
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## AN INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS PHẦN 10 POTX

∆ ∆ P nR T V = In the following discussion, we can assume that the limits discussed are all well behaved. In most instances, no difficulty arises at the specific values of interest. Even if a few of them are not readily evaluated at a particular point, provided they appear well behaved on approaching that point from below and from above, we will be justified in evaluating the limits by standard methods. A.3 Differential Calculus An equation usually relates two or more variables, showing the values assumed by one quantity as the other variable, or variables, take on different possible values. For example, the pressure, volume, and temperature of an ideal gas are related by the equation (A1) in which n is the number of moles of gas, R is a universal constant (8.3144 J/mol·K, independent of which real gas is being considered, to the approximation that the real gas follows this equation), and the temperature is an “absolute” temperature, usually on the Kelvin scale. Derivatives. One of the important questions that can be answered from such an equation concerns the rate at which one variable changes with changes in another. For example, we may ask how the volume changes with changes in temperature, for a fixed pressure. We can write (A2a) (A2b)
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## ORGANIC POLLUTANTS: AN ECOTOXICOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE - CHAPTER 13 POT

A shortcoming of bioassay systems is the difficulty of relating the toxic responses that they measure to the toxic effects that would be experienced by free-living organ- isms if exposed to the same concentrations of chemicals in the field. These simple systems do not reproduce the complex toxicokinetics of living vertebrates and inver- tebrates. As explained earlier in Chapter 2 , toxicokinetic factors are determinants of toxicity, and there are often large metabolic differences between species that cause correspondingly large differences in toxicity. With persistent pollutants, this prob- lem may be partially overcome by conducting bioassays upon tissue extracts, but even here there are complications. How closely does the use of an extract reproduce the actual cellular concentrations at the site of action in the living animal? How simi- lar are the toxicodynamic processes of a test system to those operating in the living animal? The site of action may very well differ when, as is usually the case, the spe- cies represented in the test system differs from the species under investigation. This may also be the case when comparing a resistant with a susceptible strain of the same species. It is clear from many examples of resistance to pesticides that a difference of just one amino acid residue of a target protein can profoundly change the affinity for the pesticide, and consequently the toxicity (see Chapter 2, Section 2.4 , and various examples in Chapters 5 – 14 ). Thus, the use of material from a susceptible strain in a test system raises problems when dealing with resistant strains from the field.
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## HISTORY OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS PART 69 PPS

did some writers of scientific standing, such as Sismondi, 99 who, mostly, derived from them another argument against saving. Most English economists saw deeper than that and did in this matter exactly the same kind of thing that they did in others, as, for example, in the matter of international trade: preoccupied with what they considered to be fundamental truth and fighting the public’s propensity to attend too exclusively to temporary phenomena, they attended too little to temporary phenomena themselves. With the engaging frankness that was justly commended by Marx, Ricardo explained on the first page of his chapter on machinery that he had shared the prevailing view that, barring temporary difficulties of transition, 100 labor-saving machinery had no effect other than to benefit all classes as consumers. Like increase in foreign trade, therefore, the process of mechanization was a matter of welfare—which it was sure to increase—rather than a matter of that value (Ricardian value), with which he was chiefly concerned, except of course that mechanization would reduce the real and the relative values of the products affected by it, a fact to which Ricardo points again and again. 101 The reason why he thought that no (permanent) reduction in wages (total real wages in our sense of the word) would be induced by it, was that mechanization would not decrease the wage fund. 102 But then he went on to confess that he had discovered reasons for believing that it would.
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## KIỂM SOÁT VÀ ỔN ĐỊNH THÍCH ỨNG DỰ TOÁN CHO CÁC HỆ THỐNG PHI TUYẾN P5 PPT

where we assume D is a compact set. Thus, we may write where w(z) is the representation error, and from the universal approxima- tion property we know that W(X) 5 VV for some W > 0. That is, for a given approximation structure our representation error T/I/ is finite but generally unknown. However, as discussed above, simply by properly increasing the size of the approximator structure we can reduce W to be arbitrarily small so that if we pick any W > 0 a priori there exists an approximator struc- ture that can achieve that representation accuracỵ Also, note that D is a compact set. Normally, to reduce W by choosing the approximator struc- ture we have to make sure that the structure’s parameters result in good “coverage” of D so that appropriate parameters 8 in F(x, 0) can be tuned to reduce the representation error over the entire set D. Next, we will study some properties of our Lipschitz continuous approximators that will later allow us to tune parameters when dealing with adaptive systems.
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## trường thcs hoàng xuân hãn

The number of students who like badminton is twice the total of those who like football and basketball.. The rest of the cake was eaten by brother and I in a ratio of 3:1.[r]
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## NUCLEAR POWER PART 2 POTX

Ryuta Takashima Department of Risk Science in Finance and Management, Chiba Institute of Technology 1. Introduction Currently, there exist 54 commercial nuclear power plants, which have a total capacity of 48.85 GW, in Japan. These power plants that have been operating for more than 40 years emerge in 2010 and onward. The framework for the nuclear energy policy describes the measures to be followed for aging nuclear power plants and the enhancement of safety under the assumption of a nuclear power plant operating for 60 years (AEC, 2006). The Tokai Nuclear Power Plant of the Japan Atomic Power Company, and units 1 and 2 of the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant of the Chubu Electric Power Company are currently under decommissioning, and this decom- missioning can be decided at the discretion of the electric power supplier. In the future, it is also likely that the firm will determine the decommissioning of aging nuclear power plants, taking into account the economics of the plant. Moreover, it is necessary to make decisions not only regarding decommissioning but also regarding the replacement. In this context, although decommissioning and replacement as well as new construction have become important prob- lems, there exist many factors that need to be solved, such as large costs, electricity demand, that is, profit of electric power selling and electricity deregulation.
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## SOLUTION MANUAL FOR INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS AND DATA ANALYSIS 5TH EDITION BY PECK

As with the distribution of the total number of visits, the distribution of the number of unique visitors has the greatest density of points for the smaller numbers of visitors, with the[r]
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## BÁO CÁO TOÁN HỌC: "SYMMETRIC LAMAN THEOREMS FOR THE GROUPS C2 AND CS" DOCX

Abstract For a bar and joint framework ( G, p ) with point group C 3 which describes 3-fold rotational symmetry in the plane, it was recently shown in (Schulze, Discret. Comp. Geom. 44:946-972) that the standard Laman conditions, together with the condition derived in (Connelly et al., Int. J. Solids Struct. 46:762-773) that no vertices are fixed by the automorphism corresponding to the 3-fold rotation (geometrically, no vertices are placed on the center of rotation), are both necessary and sufficient for ( G, p ) to be isostatic, provided that its joints are positioned as generically as possible subject to the given symmetry constraints. In this paper we prove the analogous Laman-type conjectures for the groups C 2 and C s which are generated by a half-turn and a reflection in the plane, respectively. In addition, analogously to the results in (Schulze, Discret. Comp. Geom. 44:946-972), we also characterize symmetry generic isostatic graphs for the groups C 2 and C s in terms of inductive Henneberg-type constructions, as well as Crapo-type 3Tree2 partitions - the full sweep of methods used for the simpler problem without symmetry.
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## SAS ETS 9 22 USER''''S GUIDE 61 POTX

NSERIES, a numeric variable that gives the total number of unique time series variables having data for the BY group NSELECT, a numeric variable that gives the total number of selected t[r]
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## Lecture Purchasing and supply chain management (3rd/e): Chapter 12 - W. C. Benton

Chapter 12 is entitled “Total quality management (TQM) and purchasing.” Preliminary studies indicate that assembly time is roughly proportional to the number of parts assembled. It has been shown that the number of parts in a design can be decreased by 20–40 percent when engineers are told to design the product to minimize the number of parts.
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## MANAGING AND MINING GRAPH DATA PART 22 PPT

17: end while 18: return the set of chaincode ( 𝑣 𝑖 ) for every 𝑣 𝑖 ∈ 𝐺; all chains is the entire set of nodes in 𝐺, and the intersection of nodes in any two chains is empty. The optimal chain cover of 𝐺 is a chain cover of 𝐺 that contains the least number of chains among all possible chain covers of 𝐺.
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## TÀI LIỆU CHAPTER XXIV CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS DOC

 To have a quantum-mechanical treatment we model a crystalline solid as matter in which the atoms have long-range order , that is a recurring (periodical) pattern of atomic positions that extends over many atoms.  We will describe the wavefunctions and energy levels of electrons in such periodical atomic structures.
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## WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS 2010 PART 12 POTX

4.1 Wireless mesh networking testbed An indoors wireless mesh networking testbed was built to evaluate the VIMLOC distributed location management scheme in conjunction with greedy forwarding and to compare it with simple proactive and reactive schemes. The experimental setup includes a 12-node multi-radio backbone WMN, as shown in Fig. 2(a), over an approximate area of 1200 square meters. All nodes run Click 1.6.0 over a Linux kernel 2.6.24. Backbone nodes (WMRs) are built based on a mini-ITX board (Pentium M 1.6 GHz) and mount up to four CM9 wireless cards (802.11abg) with Madwifi driver v0.9.4. One of these cards may be used for offering access to MNs. Notice that antennas are omnidirectional and a link is established between two nodes if they have cards assigned to the same channel. In this way, the topology of the testbed can be easily modified by modifying channel assignment. For simplicity, channels are assigned in the network so that all the links are in different channels in order to minimize contention and interferences. External interference with other wireless networks usually configured in 2.4 GHz band is avoided by configuring the wireless cards to 5 GHz band (i.e., 802.11a mode). Experiment automation benefits from the capabilities of the EXTREME Testbed ®
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## trường thcs hoàng xuân hãn

Prove that it is always possible to choose the number h so that the rectangles completely cover the interior of the n-gon and the total area of the rectangles is no more than twice the a[r]
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## BÁO CÁO TOÁN HỌC BOUNDING THE NUMBER OF EDGES IN PERMUTATION GRAPHS PDF

{ ( π − 1 ( i ) , i ) , ( π − 1 ( j ) , j ) } contains at most s other diagram points. Since each half has size n/ 2, this gives us the quadratic term. For the linear term, we calculate the internal degrees of vertices, i.e. the number of neighbors they have in their own half. For extreme vertices that are one of the leftmost or rightmost 3 s points in each half, we will take the simple estimate that their internal degrees are not negative. A non-extreme vertex in an ( s/ 2)-run is adjacent to the vertices diagrammed on the right side of Figure 4; this yields an internal degree of 9 s/ 2 − 1. Any non-extreme vertex in an s -run that is the first or last vertex of its run (call it an “endpoint vertex”) is adjacent to the vertices diagrammed on the left side of Figure 4; this yields an internal degree of 7 s/ 2 + 1. The rest of the non-extreme vertices in s -runs have internal degree 7 s/ 2 + 2.
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## ENGINEERING STATISTICS HANDBOOK EPISODE 7 PART 6 PDF

with T k-1 () denoting the complement of the Student's-t distribution function with k-1 degrees of freedom (that is, T k-1 (x) = P(t k-1 x)) and F , k-1, n-p denotes an percentage point of the F distribution with k-1 and n-p degrees of freedom, with n-p denoting the error degrees of freedom. The value of represents the fraction of directions included by the confidence cone. The smaller is, the wider the cone is, with . Note that the inequality equation and the " goodness measure" equation are valid when operating conditions are given in coded units.
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## THE DYNAMICS OF VIRAL MARKETING ∗ POT

Going back to components in the network that were disconnected from the largest component, we find similar patterns of homophily, the tendency of like to associate with like. Two of the components recommended technical books about medicine, one focused on dance music, while some others predominantly purchased books on business and investing. Given more time, it is quite possible that one of the cus- tomers in one of these disconnected components would have received a recommenda- tion from a customer within the largest component, and the two components would have merged. For example, a disconnected component of medical students purchasing medical textbooks might have sent or received a recommendation from the medical community within the largest component. However, the medical community may also become linked to other parts of the network through a different interest of one of its members. At the very least many communities, no matter their focus, will have recommendations for children’s books or movies, since children are a focus for a great many people. The community finding algorithm on the other hand is able to break up the larger social network to automatically identify groups of individuals with a par- ticular focus or a set of related interests. Now that we have shown that communities of customers recommend types of products reflecting their interests, we will examine whether these different kinds of products tend to have different success rates in their recommendations.
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## TREATMENT WETLANDS CHAPTER 17 DOCX

The first two of these are technology-based because they pro- vide prescriptions that imply a general level of treatment rather than specific numerical concentration or loading goals. Tech- nology-based volume or area specifications are attractively simple because they do not require any information about the incoming water chemistry. They suffer from an inabil- ity to be adjusted for removal targets other than the origi- nal presumptions. The second two are performance-based methods, which depend on forecasts of wetland reductions of target pollutants. Performance-based sizing calculations may be either on an average basis, usually annual, or on a short time scale to capture the full dynamics, usually daily. For example, annualized performance can be related to hydrau- lic loading and inlet TSS by using Equation 14.8 as a design prediction tool. Exploration of this formulation shows that it is consistent with the technology-based procedures in the 75–80% removal range.
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## FUNDAMENTALS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS EPISODE 1 PART 6 DOC

Multi-story multi-bay indeterminate frame. We make nine cuts that separate the original frame into four “trees” of frames as shown. Nine cuts pointing to 27 degrees of indeterminacy. We can verify easily that each of the stand-alone trees is stable and statically determinate, i.e. the number of unknowns is equal to the number of equations in each of the tree problems. At each of the nine cuts, three internal forces are present before the cut. All together we have removed 27 internal forces in order to have equal numbers of unknowns and equations. If we put back the cuts, we introduce 27 more unknowns, which is the degrees of indeterminacy of the original uncut frame.
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## DATA MINING AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY HANDBOOK, 2 EDITION PART 72 POTX

35.2.2 Data-driven Protection Procedures Given a data set, data-driven protection procedures construct a new data set so that the new one does not permit a third party to infer conﬁdential information present in the original data. Different methods have been developed for this purpose. We will focus on the case where the data set is a standard ﬁle deﬁned in terms of records and attributes (microdata following the jargon of statistical disclosure control). As stated above, we can also consider other types of data sets as e.g. aggregate data (tabular data following the jargon of SDC).
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## BERLINER BALANCED SCORECARD CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE

rom producttto customer proft contriiution Companies are increasingly attempting to replace or expound product-orientated strategies by customer- orientated strategies. For this reason, the quantiication of customer relations within the scope of the balanced scorecard is increasingly achieving signiicance as an implementation instrument for strategies and as a supplement to classic product proitability analysis.
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## INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY - ANSWERS EXERCISES PPT

≤ V ( S n ) 10 2 = . 01 . 11. No, we cannot predict the proportion of heads that should turn up in the long run, since this will depend upon which of the two coins we pick. If you have observed a large number of trials then, by the Law of Large Numbers, the proportion of heads should be near the probability for the coin that you chose. Thus, in the long run, you will be able to tell which coin you have from the proportion of heads in your observations. To be 95 percent sure, if the proportion of heads is less than .625, predict p = 1 / 2; if it is greater than .625, predict p = 3 / 4. Then you will get the correct coin if the proportion of heads does not deviate from the probability of heads by more than .125. By Exercise 7, the probability of a deviation of this much is less than or equal to 1 / (4 n ( . 125) 2 ) . This will be less than or equal to . 05 if n > 320. Thus with 321 tosses we can be 95 percent sure which coin we have.
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## trường thcs hoàng xuân hãn

Of the fifteen roads linking all possible pairs of six cities, what is the minimum number of crossings of two roads. A prime number is called an absolute prime if every permut[r]
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## BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC FMO BASED H 264 FRAME LAYER RATE CONTROL FOR LOW BIT RATE VIDEO TRANSMISSION PPT

Abstract The use of flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) in H.264/AVC improves error resiliency at the expense of reduced coding efficiency with added overhead bits for slice headers and signalling. The trade-off is most severe at low bit rates, where header bits occupy a significant portion of the total bit budget. To better manage the rate and improve coding efficiency, we propose enhancements to the H.264/AVC frame layer rate control, which take into consideration the effects of using FMO for video transmission. In this article, we propose a new header bits model, an enhanced frame complexity measure, a bit allocation and a quantization parameter adjustment scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed improvements achieve better visual quality compared with the JM 9.2 frame layer rate control with FMO enabled using a different number of slice groups. Using FMO as an error resilient tool with better rate management is suitable in applications that have limited bandwidth and in error prone environments such as video transmission for mobile terminals.
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## BÁO CÁO Y HỌC ACUTE HEROIN INTOXICATION IN A BABY CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO COCAINE AND HEROIN A CASE REPORT DOC

Case presentation A one-month-old Caucasian breastfed baby was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with respiratory distress. The parents mentioned that the baby showed superficial breathing with pauses during the past hour. On physical examination, our patient pre- sented with generalized cyanosis, fixed and constricted pupils, muscular hypotony and respiratory failure. The mother admitted consumption of cannabis and beer the night before followed by breastfeeding of the baby after- ward. A blood cell count and serum biochemistry were unremarkable, but the venous gasometrical results showed respiratory acidosis. At that point, the mother
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## trường thcs hoàng xuân hãn

Thus, for all the cubies to return to their starting points, the number of moves M must be a multiple of both 4 and 7, and therefore 28 is the smallest possible number of repeats of M in[r]
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## Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Targeted Therapy and Multidisciplinary P27 docx

the same technique as in situ cold perfusion with some key differences. The supra- hepatic IVC requires circumferential control and cephalad length in order to place a clamp, divide, and then reanastomose it. Greater exposure of the suprahepatic IVC is obtained by dividing the phrenic veins and gently pushing the diaphragm away from the IVC circumferentially. The pericardium may be opened anteriorly to control the intrapericardial IVC/right atrium. As much of the liver transection is performed without inflow occlusion and prior to cold perfusion, veno-venous bypass is recommended for this procedure, although many patients tolerate IVC clamping for short limited periods with volume loading. The steps for cold perfusion follow those described for in situ perfusion, but the venotomy to vent the perfusate is in the suprahepatic IVC where it will eventually be transected. Dividing the suprahep- atic IVC allows the liver to be rotated forward and upward, allowing greater access to the area immediately around the IVC- hepatic vein junction. If further access is required, the infrahepatic IVC can also be divided allowing the liver to be com- pletely rotated up onto the abdominal wall. With this technique continuous slow cold portal perfusion prevents excessive warming of the liver. The liver transec- tion is completed, dividing the hepatic vein within the liver and then resecting the
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## ACCOUNTING GLOSSARY DICTIONARY 7 PDF

OVERTRADING, in securities, is: a. excessive buying and selling by a broker in a discretionary account, or, b. practice of a member of an underwriting group inducing a brokerage client to buy a portion of a new issue by purchasing other securities from the client at a premium. In finance, it is when a firm expands sales beyond a level that can be financed with normal working capital.
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## CURRENT TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN RFID PART 11 DOC

Current Trends and Challenges in RFID 290 2.3.3 EDFSA (Enhanced Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA) This algorithm estimates the number of unread tags instead of number of tags to determine the frame size. H. Vogt’s algorithm shows poor performance when the number of tags becomes large because the variance of the tag number estimation is increased according to the number of tags increase [Rom90]. Therefore, to handle the poor performance of large number of tag identification EDFSA algorithm restricts the number of responding tags as much as the frame size. Conversely, if the number of tags is too small as compared with the frame size it reduces the frame size. To estimate the number of unread tags equation (2) is used. The procedure of EDFSA algorithm’s read cycle is shown in Figure 12.
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## A time-predefined approach to course timetabling

A common weakness of local search metaheuristics, such as Simulated Annealing, in solving combinatorial optimisation problems, is the necessity of setting a certain number of parameters. This paper is motivated by the goal of overcoming this drawback by employing parameter-free techniques in the context of automatically solving course timetabling problems.
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## FLOCCULATION IN NATURAL AND ENGINEERED ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS CHAPTER 5 POTX

experiments (Experiment Set 2, Section 5.3.2.2), images were taken from the sample while slow mixing was still in progress, that is, particles were photographed in situ. A schematic of the general experimental setup is shown in Figure 5.2. Images of the suspended particles were illuminated by a strobe light, which provided a coherent backlighting source. Depending on conditions for a particular experiment, the strobe pulse rate and intensity were adjusted to produce one pulse during the time the camera shutter was open. The projected images were captured by a computer-controlled CCD camera (Kodak MegaPlus digital camera, model 1.4) placed on the opposite side of the mixing jar from the strobe. Generally the shutter exposure time was between about 80 and 147 ms. The camera captured digital images on a sensor matrix consisting of 1320 (horizontal) × 1035 (vertical) pixels. Each pixel was recorded using 8 bit resolution, that is, with 256 gray levels. For the present tests, a resolution of 540 pixels per mm was achieved. This was determined by imaging a known length on a stage micrometer and counting the number of pixels corresponding to that length. The cam- era was mounted on a traversing device so that it could be moved in each of the three coordinate directions, and images were stored on the hard drive of a PC. Camera settings were varied to obtain the best quality (greatest contrast between aggreg- ates and background) for each set of experimental conditions (see Chakraborti 25 for further details), but pixel resolution was held constant throughout the tests. Pixel resolution was always sufficient to adequately describe the smallest particles in these experiments. 26 Experiments were conducted in a darkened room to eliminate light contamination.
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