Let us discuss the formation of the monochloramine versus the formation of the nitrogen gas. The oxidation state of the nitrogen atom in ammonia is − 3. And, again, its oxidation state in NH 2 Cl is − 1. Thus, forming the monochloramine from ammonia needs the abstraction of two electrons from the nitrogen atom. Now, again, the oxidation state of nitrogen in the nitrogen gas is zero, which means that to form the nitrogen gas from ammonia needs the abstraction of three electrons; this is harder than abstracting two electrons. Thus, in the reaction of HOCl and NH 3 , the monochloramine is formed rather than the nitrogen gas, and the gas is formed only when the conversion into monochloramine is complete by more additions of HOCl. Consider the formation of the nitrate ion. The oxidation state of nitrogen in the nitrate ion is + 5. Thus, this ion would not be formed from ammonia, because this would need the abstraction of eight electrons. If it is formed from the monochloram- ine, it would need the abstraction of six electrons, and if formed from the dichloram- ine, it would need the abstraction of four electrons. Thus, in the chloramine reactions with HOCl, the nitrate is formed from the dichloramine. We will, however, compare which formation forms first from the dichloramine: trichloramine or the nitrate ion. The oxidation state of the nitrogen atom in trichloramine is + 3. Thus, to form the trichloramine, two electrons need to be abstracted from the nitrogen atom. This may be compared to the abstraction of four electrons from the nitrogen atom to form the nitrate ion. Therefore, the trichloramine forms first before the nitrate ion does.