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(Luận văn thạc sĩ) a study on using games to teach vocabulary to third graders at du hang kenh primary school, hai phong (with reference to tieng anh 3)

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  • (Luận văn thạc sĩ) a study on using games to teach vocabulary to third graders at du hang kenh primary school, hai phong (with reference to tieng anh 3)

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST- GRADUATE STUDIES BÙI THỊ THÚY NGA A STUDY ON USING GAMES TO TEACH VOCABULARY TO THIRD GRADERS AT DU HANG KENH PRIMARY SCHOOL, HAI PHONG (WITH REFERENCE TO TIENG ANH 3) (Nghiên cứu việc sử dụng trò chơi để dạy từ vựng cho học sinh lớp trường Tiểu học Dư Hàng Kênh, Hải Phòng (theo sách giáo khoa Tiếng Anh 3) M.A MINOR THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 60 14 10 HANOI, 2012 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST- GRADUATE STUDIES BÙI THỊ THÚY NGA A STUDY ON USING GAMES TO TEACH VOCABULARY TO THIRD GRADERS AT DU HANG KENH PRIMARY SCHOOL, HAI PHONG (WITH REFERENCE TO TIENG ANH 3) (Nghiên cứu việc sử dụng trò chơi để dạy từ vựng cho học sinh lớp trường Tiểu học Dư Hàng Kênh, Hải Phòng (theo sách giáo khoa Tiếng Anh 3) M.A MINOR THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 60 14 10 Supervisor: Pr Dr Hoàng Văn Vân HANOI, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS vi Part A: Introduction Rationale Aims of the study Methods of the study Scope of the study Design of the study Part B: Development Chapter 1: Literature Review Introduction Vocabulary in language teaching and learning 2.1 Definitions of vocabulary 2.2 The role of vocabulary in language teaching and learning 2.3 What about vocabulary teachers should teach students 2.3.1 Aspects of meanings 2.3.1.1 Lexical meaning vs grammatical meaning 2.3.1.2 Denotational meaning vs connotational meaning 2.3.1.3 Meaning relationships 2.3.2 Aspects of forms 2.3.3 Aspects of usage of a word Review on some common methods associated with vocabulary teaching 3.1.The grammar translation method 3.2 The direct method 10 3.3 The reading method 11 3.4 The audio- lingual method 11 i Principles of teaching vocabulary 11 Games and its application in teaching vocabulary 12 5.1 Definitions of games 12 5.2 Classification of games 13 5.3 Benefits of using games in teaching vocabulary 14 5.4 Requirements of a good game for teaching vocabulary 15 Teaching English to young learners vs Teaching English to adults 16 Concluding remarks 18 Chapter 2: Current situation of teaching and learning Tieng Anh at Du Hang Kenh Primary School 19 Introduction 19 Overview of the school 19 The English teachers 20 The third graders 20 Overview of the textbook Tieng Anh 21 Concluding remarks 22 Chapter 3: How to use games to teach vocabulary to third graders at Du Hang Kenh Primary School (with reference to Tieng Anh 3) 23 Procedures in teaching a game 23 Class observation 24 2.1 Class 3A1 24 2.1.1 Game “Stand up when you hear” 25 2.1.2 Game “Crossword Puzzle” 26 2.1.3 Game “Bingo” 27 2.2 Class 3A2 28 2.2.1 Game “Slap the board” 28 2.2.2 Game “Pass the word” 29 2.2.3 Game “Spelling bee” 30 2.3 General comments 31 My teaching 31 3.1 Game “Hangman” 32 ii 3.2 Game “Word completion” 33 3.3 Game “Jumbled words” 33 Teachers‟ reactions and expectations about games given in Tieng Anh Learners‟ attitudes towards using games in Tieng Anh through interviews Suggestions 34 35 36 6.1 How to choose a game 36 6.2 When to use a game 36 6.3 Suggested games to teach vocabulary in Tieng Anh 37 Part C: Conclusion Summary of the study 39 The limitation of the study 39 Suggestions for further research 40 References 41 Appendix 1…………………………………………… Appendix 2………………………………………… iii PART A: INTRODUCTION Rationale of the study It can be seen easily that English nowadays plays an important role than ever before It has become an international language which is used widely all over the world and in all fields of social life such as economy, technology, diplomacy, foreign trade, education and tourism Therefore, teaching and learning English have become necessary for everyone In many countries in the world, in general, and in Vietnam, in particular, English has been widely taught Recently, English has been taught in the light of the communicative and learner-centered approach which gives students more chances to communicate However, both teaching and learning English has been far away from satisfaction Both teachers and students face difficulties when teaching and learning English vocabulary There is a common fact that a lot of students cannot remember words and certainly cannot use them despite teachers‟ efforts as well as their own efforts At Du Hang Kenh Primary School, the situation is that the students find it hard to learn new words and that the techniques exploited during a lesson such as roleplays, reciting chants, singing songs, telling stories …are not quite effective Hence, there is a need to find out more games and more techniques to teach vocabulary in the most effective way Games have proved themselves not as “time filler activities” but also a factor which can motivate students in the process of learning and using English From the above-mentioned reasons, the writer would like to carry out a research to find out the real situation of teaching and learning English at Du Hang Kenh Primary School, the effectiveness of using games in teaching vocabulary to kids, which techniques are used in using games to teach vocabulary by the teachers and to make some suggestions for the better use of games in helping children acquire fully English words in Tieng Anh Aim and objectives of the study As the title of the thesis suggests, the aim of the study is to make a research on how to use games to teach vocabulary to the third graders at Du Hang Kenh Primary School (with reference to the textbook Tieng Anh 3) To achieve this aim, the following tasks are set for study:  examining the importance of using games to teach English to young children; and  carrying out a small research to find out how the teachers at Du Hang Kenh Primary School have been using games to teach their students with the current textbook Tieng Anh To make it manageable, the research raises following questions for exploration: What is the current situation of teaching and learning English vocabulary (with reference to Tieng Anh 3) at Du Hang Kenh Primary School? What are the main difficulties of students‟ learning and teachers‟ teaching English vocabulary? How have the teachers at Du Hang Kenh Primary School been using games to teach vocabulary in Tieng Anh 3? Methods of the study This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods which provide background data Da ta collections for analysis come from the teachers and students at Du Hang Kenh Primary School by : - Class observation - Survey questionnaire - Interviews Scope of the study Since the school year 2011-2012, there have been a number of schools in Hai Phong City have used in which Tieng Anh to teach English to students is taught In Le Chan District, in the school year of 2011-2012, there are only three primary schools using Tieng Anh 3, including Du Hang Kenh Primary School Although I know that choosing all three schools for my study is a better choice, my study focuses only on Du Hang Kenh Primary School due to time limitation In my study, I focus on the use of games to teach vocabulary, more exactly to consolidate learnt words, to third graders who are learning Tieng Anh However, I can just observe three classes among six ones in which some games are applied in vocabulary lessons, interview and survey five English teachers who are teaching textbook Tieng Anh and interview thirty third graders to find out their level of satisfaction and expectation Design of the study The study is divided into three parts: Part A – Introduction – provides the rationale for the study, aim and objectives of the study, scope, methodology and design of the study Part B – Development – consists of three chapters: - Chapter focuses on four main issues relating to vocabulary in language teaching and learning, some common methods associated with vocabulary teaching, the application of games in teaching vocabulary and teaching English to young learners - Chapter is devoted to the provision of an overview of current situation of teaching and learning Tieng Anh at Du Hang Kenh Primary School Detailed information about the teachers, students and especially textbook Tieng Anh is given there - Chapter is concerned with collecting data from Du Hang Kenh Primary School and analysing these data to find out the teachers‟ attitudes towards using games to teach vocabulary to young learners, teachers‟ methods and techniques in using games to teach vocabulary and teachers‟ expectations about games given in Tieng Anh Besides, data will also be collected to find out students‟ reaction towards games in Tieng Anh and their expectations about their teachers‟ teaching methodology Part C – Conclusion – summarizes what has been studied, points out the limitation of the thesis, and makes some suggestions for further study PART B: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Every language consists of sounds, vocabulary and grammatical structures Each of these three components plays an equal role in language teaching and learning One cannot communicate in a language without the sounds of that language One cannot communicate in a language without learning the vocabulary – the bricks which help interactants to build the “communication building” Vocabulary is so important that British linguist David Wilkins (1972) stated “While without grammar little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” Obviously, the importance of vocabulary is undeniable It can be seen as an element that links four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing together So as to be successful at those four skills, a student should acquire a certain number of words and know how to use them accurately in different situations There is a fact that students can “know a word” in written forms quite well but they cannot use words in different contexts in real life properly In recent years, CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) has shown some of its advantages in helping students become more active Playing vocabulary games is one common activity in a CLT classroom It creates more reallife chances for students to practice their English In this chapter, I will give an overview of (1) vocabulary in language teaching and learning, (2) some common methods associated with vocabulary teaching, (3) principles of teaching vocabulary, (4) the application of games in teaching vocabulary (its definitions, classification, benefits and requirements of a good game) and (5) teaching English to young learners in comparison with teaching English to adults Vocabulary in language teaching and learning 2.1 Definition of vocabulary The term vocabulary appears to be a simple concept but in fact, up to now, there have been no linguists whose definition meets all the characteristics of vocabulary Thus, various definitions should be given below In his book A course in language teaching, Penny Ur (1996, p.60) stated that “vocabulary can be defined, roughly, as the words we teach in a foreign language” He also said “a new item of vocabulary may be more than a single word, a compound of two or three words and multi-word idioms” Vocabulary seen from this view consists of all the words in a language, regardless of the number of words in a word Vocabulary is used as one means to communicate by making utterances from words This can be seen in the viewpoint of Pyles and Algeo (1970, p.96) They saw vocabulary as “the focus of language” In their opinion, words “allow us to communicate with one another” and we arrange words “to make sentences, conversations and discourse of all kinds” According to Morgan and Rinvolucri (1986), “A word is a basic unit of a language denoting concepts, things and phenomena in the society” Palmer (1981) also pointed “the semantic unit may be a sequence of several words” Word is the smallest meaningful of language In short, these statements show that vocabulary is the total number of words that exist in a language including not only single words but also two-word items or three-words ones or even multi-word idioms It serves as a means for people to communicate Without it, mutual understanding between people may be hard to be obtained 2.2 The role of vocabulary in language teaching and learning As mentioned above, vocabulary can be considered as the most important part of a language among three parts: grammar, phonetics and vocabulary It is indicated clearly in the saying of Wilkins, a famous British applied linguist, which echoes what Henry Sweet had said over one hundred years before that “without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing conveyed” This saying is also similar to the advice given by Dellar and Hocking (Innovations, 2000) “If you and “Jumbled Words” The aim of these games is to revise words students have learnt in previous lessons 3.1 Game “Hangman” I taught this game at the beginning of review I came in the class and greeted students in English They greeted me in English too I introduced the game in Vietnamese “Các chơi trò Hangman chưa? Hangman có nghĩa treo cổ ấy” I saw some reserved and frightened faces I continued “Các đừng sợ Khơng phải treo cổ nghĩ đâu Trị chơi mơ hình ảnh thơi Để giải thích rõ Cơ gợi ý cho từ Cô cho biết từ có chữ Các đốn chữ từ Nếu đốn khơng Nếu sai vẽ phận hangman Các nhìn lên hình nhé” Then I showed on the slide the hangman diagram and continued “Hangman nhóm xong trước nhóm thua nhé” Then I gave an example on the slide Then I asked them again to make sure they knew the rules I started the game with choosing two groups Then I instructed in Vietnamese the first word “Đây từ thuộc chủ đề School things, có sáu chữ cái” The students in group A gave the wrong answer “p” and group B gave correct answer “rubber” We continued with five more words until the hangman diagram of group A was finished The games lasted for five minutes All the students were very happy During the game, I walked around the classroom to remind students to pay attention to the game 3.2 Game “Word Completion” This game was taught at the end of lesson 3- Unit 19: Our pets I used powerpoint in this game After greeting the students, I asked them to tell me all the words in the topic “Our pets” they have learnt before I called four students Two of them gave answers quickly but the others were very shy I encouraged them “Nào, cố gắng nhớ xem học vật nào? Bạn H vừa kể ba nhé: dog nay, cat này, rat Con có nhớ khơng nào?” After that, I showed on 32 the slide pictures of pets and their words and asked the whole class to read them aloud Then I gave them two minutes in groups of five to learn by heart these words And then I introduced and explained the game‟s rules in Vietnamese “Hơm cho chơi trị Điền chữ cịn thiếu từ Cơ đưa hình từ từ lại bị thiếu vài chữ Các giúp điền chữ cịn thiếu Nhóm đốn trước ghi điểm đương nhiên nhóm nhiều điểm thắng Nhớ Các để ý thật tinh xem từ thiếu chữ nhé.” Then I showed the words in turns “d_g, ca_, r_bb_t, g_ldf_sh, p_rr_t, t_rto_s_e” Whenever a group added the letters correctly, I complimented them “Good”, “Very good”, or “Excellent” They seemed to be happy At the end of the game, I asked them to read one more all the words 3.3 Game “Jumbled Words” This is the last game I taught at the beginning of Review when the students learnt nearly all units in the textbook At that time, they had a number of English words And there are a variety of games suitable for them The aims of this game are to consolidate letters in each word, to revise spelling and pronunciation, and to make sentences basing on learnt patterns I used powerpoint to teach this game At the start, I asked them how many units they had learnt and which topic they liked best Different answers were given I chose “Toys”, the latest topic I showed the pictures of some toys on the slide and asked them to read out the words twice Then I called three students to read again And then I introduced the game “Jumbled words” in Vietnamese “Các hôm chơi trò chơi Trò chơi giống trị chơi hồn thành từ lần trước Các phải nhớ từ có chữ Cô chia lớp thành hai nhóm, dãy nhóm Nhóm xếp trước điểm Chúng thử chơi lần Lần khơng tính” I gave the word “a c r” Very quickly one student said “car” I congratulated her and asked again if my students understood the rules Then we continued with other words The class was noisy but I observed that all of the students got involved in the game After each word completed, I asked the students 33 to read it aloud At the end of the game, I checked the scores and complimented both groups in Vietnamese “Các hôm chơi ngoan Cô khen lớp Chúng cố gắng phát huy nhé” Teachers’ reactions and expectations about games given in Tieng Anh After observing classes, I carried out a small survey to know more about teachers‟ attitudes and expectations about games given in Tieng Anh Options Questions A b c d 20% 20% 60% 100% 60% 80% 80% 100% 100% 100% What you think of games given in Tieng Anh 3? a very useful and interesting b rather useful and interesting c useful and interesting d not useful and interesting at all Which of the games below you use often? (You can choose more than one option) a Bingo b Spelling bee c Crossword puzzle d Circle words and phrases Which games you think should be used as supplementary ones? (You can choose more than one option) a Hangman b Word completion c Jumbled words Table 1: Teachers’ attitude towards games given in Tieng Anh 34 As what is stated in Table 1, all of the teachers find games in Tieng Anh interesting and useful They use bingo games, spelling bee, crossword puzzle and word circling very often There is a fact that many students like bingo and crosswords These games encourage the students to remember words easily Besides, these games have variants that can be applied to different levels of students and different topics in different amount of time Also from Table 1, we can see some games are thought to be used by the teachers as supplementary ones Notably all of the teachers choose all three games When being interviewed, one teacher said that these games can be used at any stage of lesson and for any topic It is fact that these games are used flexible There are many more games which can be used to supplement main activities Learners’ attitudes towards using games in Tieng Anh through interviews After using those games to teach vocabulary to my students, I had the teachers of three classes interview ten randomly- chosen students of each class, using four questions below: Do you like your teachers‟ games? Do you find your teachers‟ teaching games interesting? How often you want to play games? Among those games, which ones you like? For the first and the second questions, most of the students raised up their hands Then I asked those who raised hands for the third question All of them said they often wanted to play games because games were fun and they could both learn and play at the same time After that, I asked them the last question The answers varied Some of them liked Bingo; some liked Spelling Bee, some liked Crossword Puzzle and some liked Pass the Word The reason the children gave is very simple “I like it” That‟s the way the children are It is notable here that although the learning conditions are not really good, the effectiveness of games is highly appreciated Students‟ positive attitudes towards games may show that they like games This also may mean that they really want to 35 play games in their classrooms This is partly due to the enthusiasm, responsibility and creativeness of the teachers who are devoted to their teaching They always encourage their students to take part in the games and help them during the games However, there is a fact that a minority are shy and hesitant to play games Teachers should motivate them more and give more interesting games to change their mind Suggestions 3.1 How to choose a game Choosing a good game is a hard job for any teacher When choosing a game, the teacher should take some factors into consideration, such as number of students, their level of proficiency, their interests, their feelings and needs, timing, learning topic and classroom settings The level of difficulty must be equal to the level of the students If the game is too easy, it may be boring If it is too hard, it may dispirit students In some cases, students want to play games in groups but in others, they want to play individually Also in some classes, students want to play games to learn more new words, while in other they just want play games to revise old words It is teachers that understand their learners and choose the appropriate games 3.2 When to use a game Actually, there is no fixed time for using games in teaching Teachers can use games at the stage of presentation, practice, production or even revision Traditionally, games are used as warm-up activities or fill-in ones when there is some time left before the class ends or consolidation activities According to Mc Callum (1980), “games can be used in any language teaching situation and with any skill area whether reading, writing, listening or speaking” Hadfield (1987) held the same point of view “Games can be used at any stage of the lesson once the target language has been introduced and explained They serve both as a memory aid and repetition drill and as a chance to use language freely, as a means to an end rather than an end itself” He also affirmed that “the most useful place for these games is at the free stage of the traditional progression from presentation through practice to 36 free communication, to be used as a culmination of the lesson, as a chance for students to use language they‟ve learnt freely.” The role of games is highly appreciated Games must be played as a part of the lesson They must contribute to the success of the lesson to some extent They should not be regarded as marginal activity This is stated in Lee‟s opinion (1979), “games should not be regarded as marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to Games ought to be the heart of teaching foreign languages.” Rixons (1981) suggested in his book that “games can be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.” His opinion is very clear When to use a game depends on the purposes of the teachers and the features of the games 3.3 Suggested games to teach vocabulary in Tieng Anh * Lee, W.R (1986): + Remembering: Teachers have members from each team to draw simple sketches and their English words on the board The class is given a few moments to look at the words Then teacher rubs them out The class looks at the drawings and writes them from memory + Word- race: Each group has the same picture In a limited time, each group has to write down the names of as many things as possible + Write what you see: There are various ways to play this game (copying words, Kim‟s game…) + Write what you hear: There are different ways to play this game (“What‟s your word?”, “Second tries”, ) + Stepping stones: A river and some stepping stones are drawn on the board For each stone, a word has to be spelt The river and stepping stones can be replaced by ladders + The same or different: The teacher says two words or sentences and the learners decide if they are the same or different 37 + How many: Somebody claps a number of times and then ask “How many?” The members of each team have to draw the same number of stars or circles + Matching games: There are pictures and simple words, phrases or sentences The words and sentences have to be put under the correct picture * Michael Carrier and the Centre for British Teachers: + Sharks: This is a variation of Hangman game + Word chain: The teacher says or writes a word and asks students to give another word beginning with the last letter of that word No repetition of words is allowed Good - door- red- dog – green + Odd man out: A list of words or pictures is given All but one item in the list must have something in common The players decide which word is the odd man out and why + Words from word: The teacher chooses a word, containing at least two vowels and a mixture of consonants The students have to make other words from the letters it contains Students can word individually, in pairs or in groups Elephant: Ant, hat, let… 38 PART C: CONCLUSION Summary of the study The study is aimed at investigating the situation of teaching and learning vocabulary in Tieng Anh at Du Hang Kenh Primary School to find out how the teachers there have been using games to teach vocabulary and what types of games should be used to teach vocabulary to young learners In fact, the study contains a literature review which summarises all theoretical points related to teaching vocabulary in general, teaching vocabulary to young learners, using games in teaching a foreign language as well as in teaching vocabulary, especially using games to teach vocabulary to third graders This part set a solid background for the study Secondly, the study has reliable subjects for data collection and analysis Methodology of data collection is presented clearly in part two Also, findings and discussions are given for each research question The study shows that using games to teach vocabulary to young learners is indeed effective and interesting Both teachers and students realize that and confirm that However, teachers should be sensitive enough to choose a good game, which at the same time educate and entertain their students Teachers should prepare students with necessary things to exploit the games most effectively An outstanding finding in this study is that both teachers and students appreciate games provided in Tieng Anh They have a positive attitude towards them It may not be appropriate to generalize the outcomes of this minor thesis to other contexts because different contexts have different features However, based on what I have collected and observed, I confirm that the use of games in Tieng Anh encourages students‟ interaction, word memorization and enhances students‟ motivation In conclusion, using games can be considered as a good way to teach vocabulary to young learners in a relaxed and comfortable learning environment The limitation of the study Due to the limitation of time for research and the limited knowledge of the researcher, the study inevitably has mistakes The subjects for collecting and 39 analyzing data are rather small The thesis just works with 105 third- grade students and five English teachers That‟s why the findings are not as many as expected It is hoped that in the future the researcher can carry out a research in all primary schools in Hai Phong city at which this book is taught Another limitation that cannot be ignored is that the number of games applied in class for data analysis is not enough In fact, there are a variety of games that can be used I hope to have more time to applying all those games Suggestions for further research In this minor thesis, some games for teaching vocabulary to third graders learning Tieng Anh have been suggested However, there may be many other games that both help learners remember and use words better and entertain them as well It is highly suggested that more games should be invented and exploited to help students learn vocabulary in the most interesting and useful way Further research should focus on:  a selection of games for kids,  a selection of games for third graders,  different selections of games for different levels/grades,  the use of games in teaching different English skills: speaking, reading and writing,  the effectiveness of games in building learners‟ confidence, and  the use of games in the light of communicative approach of teaching 40 REFERENCES Canh, L.V (2002) Local mind, global practice: English language teaching in the context of globalization- Kumamoto Gakuen University, Japan Canh, L.V (2004) Understanding foreign language teaching, Hà Nội: NXB Quốc Gia Hà Nội Dellar, Hugh and Hocking, Darryl (2000) Innovations [Students' book] Language Teaching, Hove, UK Ersoz, Aydan (2000) Six games for the ESL/EFL classroom The Internet TESL Journal, Vol VI, No 6, retrieved from http://Iteslj.org/Lessons/ErsozGames.html Gibbs, G I (1974) Handbook of games and simulation exercises, London, E and F.N Spon Granger, C (1981) Play games with English Great Britain: Heinemen Internationl Greenal, S (1984) Language games and activities Great Britain: Hulton Educational Publication Hadfield, J (1987) Elementary Communication Games UK: Thomas Nelson and Sons Hadfield, J (1999) Intermediate Vocabulary games Longman 10 Hoang et al (2010) Tiếng Anh Bộ GD & ĐT 11 Hubbard, P., Jones, H., Thornton, B., & Wheeler, R (1983) A Training Course for TEFL Oxford: OUP 12 Hong, L (2002) Using games in teaching English to young learners retrieved from http://Iteslj.org/Lessons/Linusinggames.html 11 Khan, J (1996) Using games in teaching English to young learners „ in (eds) Brumfit, C, Teaching English to Children From Practice to Principle England: Longman 41 11 Krashen, Stephen D (1981) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition English Language Teaching series London: Prentice-Hall International (UK) Ltd 13 Lee, W.R (1986) Language teaching games and contests Oxford University Press 14 Mark Hancock, (1995) Pronunciation games Cambridge University Press 15 Mccallum (1980) 101 word games for students of English as a second or foreign language Oxford University Press 16 Mc Carthy, M (1990) Vocabulary New York Oxford University Press 17 Morgan J & Mario Rinvolucri (1986) Vocabulary Oxford University Press 18 Nation, I.S.P (2001) Learning vocabulary in another language Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 19 Nation, I.S.P (2003) Vocabulary In D.Nunan (Ed) Practical English Language Teaching Hong Kong: Higher Education Press 20 Nattinger, J (1988) Some current trends in vocabulary teaching In Carter and McCarthy (eds) 21 Nelson (1980) Take Games and Activities for the Language Learner The Centre for British Teachers HongKong 22 Nguyen, T T H and Khuat, T T N (2003), Learning Vocabulary through games Asian EFL Journal, retrieved from http://www.asian_efl_Journal.com/de 03 sub.vn.html 23 Palmer, F r (1981) Semantics Cambridge University Press 24 Pyles, T & Algeo, J (1970) English – An Introduction to Language New York: Harcourt, Brace 25 Richard-Amato, P.A (1998) Making it happen: Interaction in the second language classroom: From theory to practice New York: Longman 26 Rivers, V.W (1981) Teaching foreign language skills Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 42 27 Rixon, S (1981) How to use games in language teaching London: Macmillan Publishers 28 Slattery M & J Willis (2001) English for Primary Teacher Oxford: Oxford University Press 29 Ur, P.(1996) A course in Language Teaching Cambridge: CUP 30 Wendy A Scott and Lisbeth H Ytreberg (1990) Teaching English to children New York: Longman 31 Wilkins, D A (1972) Linguistics in Language Teaching London:Edward Arnold 32 Wright, A; Betteridge, D.& Buckly, M.(1983) Games for language learning Cambridge University Press 43 APPENDIX CLASS OBSERVATION SHEET Date:………………………… Class:………………… Number of students:……….Male:……….Female:………… Unit:…………………………Lesson:………… Classroom: Number of tables:………… and chairs:……… Tables are arranged traditionally or in the shape of letter U, L or O or others (please specify…………………………………………) (Circle the right way of arrangement) Teaching equipment and references (Please tick the right column) Yes No Cassette player Video clips Visual aids Pictures or flashcards Other references (magazine, newspaper, book…) The use of English and Vietnamese of the teacher in class (Please tick the right column) Yes Teacher speaks English all the time Teacher speaks Vietnamese all the time Teacher speaks English most of the time Teacher speaks Vietnamese most of the time Teacher speaks English half the time I No Teacher‟s procedures in using games to teach vocabulary (Please tick the right column) Yes Teacher introducuces the game‟s name and objectives Teacher teaches new words or revises words for students to play the game Teacher explains the rules of the game (if yes, how many times:…………….) Teacher gives example or illustration Teacher lets the students play game individually Teacher devides the class into pairs Teacher divides the class into groups (If yes, please specify the number of students in each group:……………) Teacher himself/ herself sorts students into groups When students are playing the game, teacher goes around the class to offer help to those in need 10 When students are playing, teacher sits at one place and says nothing 11 Teacher corrects students‟ mistakes while they are playing 12 Teacher checks the answer 13 Teacher compliments the winners and losers at the end of the game 14 Teacher has presents for the winner when the game ends 15 Teacher revises words used in the game when the game ends II No APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS This questionnaire is designed with an aim to survey teachers’ attitudes and expectations about the games given in textbook Tieng Anh at Du Hang Kenh primary school Your answers play an important part in my study Thank you in advance for your cooperation! Please circle the answer you choose What you think of games given in Tieng Anh 3? a very useful and interesting b rather useful and interesting c useful and interesting d not useful and interesting at all Which of the games below you use often? (You can choose more than one option) a Bingo b Spelling bee c Crossword puzzle d Circle words and phrases Which games you think should be used as supplementary ones? (You can choose more than one option) a Hangman b Word completion c Jumbled words - The endThank you once again III ... 3: How to use games to teach vocabulary to third graders at Du Hang Kenh Primary School (with reference to Tieng Anh 3) 23 Procedures in teaching a game 23 Class observation 24 2.1 Class 3A1 24... Denotational meaning vs connotational meaning In actual usage, vocabulary may differ in their stylistic aspect This leads to denotational meaning and connotational meaning Denotational meaning can... VOCABULARY TO THIRD GRADERS AT DU HANG KENH PRIMARY SCHOOL (WITH REFERENCE TO TIENG ANH 3) To assess the effectiveness of using games given in textbook Tieng Anh to teach vocabulary to third- graders,
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Xem thêm: (Luận văn thạc sĩ) a study on using games to teach vocabulary to third graders at du hang kenh primary school, hai phong (with reference to tieng anh 3) ,

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