Advances in agronomy volume 56

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V O L U M E 56 $ Advisory Board Martin Alexander Cornell University Eugene J Kamprath North Carolina State University Kenneth J Frey Larry P Wilding Iowa State University Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee P S Baenziger J Bartels J N Bigham L P Bush M A Tabatabai, Chairman R N Carrow W T Frankenberger, Jr D M Kral S E Lingle G A Peterson D E Rolston D E Stott J W Stucki D V A N C E S I N onomy V O L U M5 6E Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware W ACADEMIC PRESS San Diego New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Toronto This book is printed on acid-free paper.@ Copyright 1996 by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Academic Press, Inc A Division of Harcourt Brace & Company 525 R Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495 United Kingdom Edition published by Academic Press Limited 24-28 Oval Road, London N W I 7DX International Standard Serial Number: 0065-2 I 13 International Standard Book Number: 0-12-000756-8 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 96 97 9 00 01 BB Contents vii PREFACE ix CONrRIBUrOKS SOILHEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY J W Doran M Sarrantonio and M A Liebig I Overview II Soil - A Vital Living and Finite Kesource I11 Early Proponents of Soil Health Concepts Iv Soil Health and Human Health V Agriculturc and Soil Health VI Assessment of Soil Quality and Health VII Soil Assessment - Need for Producer/Scientist Interaction VIII Summary and Conclusions References 11 14 20 28 39 44 45 PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SOILSCONTAMKNATED WITH ORGANIC POLLUTANTS Scott D Cunningham Todd A Anderson A Paul Schwab and F C Hsu Introduction I1 “Phytoremediation” I11 Xenobiotics in Soil N Plants as Kemediation Structure for Organics V Phytoreniediation ex Plmta VI Modeling Phytoremediation VII Practical Considerations VIII Current Phytoremediation Research and Development Lx Conclusions References 56 61 67 71 82 91 92 99 107 107 BIOLOGICALCONTROL OF WEEDSWITH PLANT PATHOGENS AND MICROBIAL PESTICIDES David TeBeest I I1 I11 Introduction Strategies for the Control o f Weeds with Plant Pathogens Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens V 115 116 117 vi CONTENTS IV Biological Control of Weeds by Microbial Management of Seed Banks V Synergisms That May Affect the Effectiveness of Microbial Agents VI The Environmental Impact of Microbial Herbicides VII Summary References 125 125 129 131 132 ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY SOILS F Iyamuremye and R P Dick I I1 111 IV V Introduction Aerobic Soils: Organic Acids and Phosphorus Sorption Aerobic Soils: Plant Residues and Animal Manures Waterlogged Soils Research Needs References 139 146 156 167 176 178 ADVANCES m DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN PLANTS John S Boyer I Introduction I1 Water Use Efficiency 111 N Water Deficits and Reproduction v VI Conclusions References 187 188 196 204 207 210 212 THE AFLATOXINPROBLEM WITH CORNGRAIN Neil W Widstrom I Introduction tion of Aflaroxins as Contaminants of Corn I1 111 Conditions Impacting Asperg and Aflatoxin Accumulation owth and Ear Development N Managing Conditions during V Handling the Grain Crop a t Harvest VI Storage and Utilization of the Final Product VII Long-Range Solutions VIII Conclusions., References 220 220 I N I ~ E X 281 226 236 247 249 256 260 261 Contributors Numl)crs in p~rcnthcscsindicatc thc pages on which the authors’ contriburlons t q i n TODD A ANDERSON (59, Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 5001 JOHN S B O E R (187), College ofAyicuiture and Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lemes, Delnwai-e 19958 SCOTT D CUNNINGHAM (5 5), Du Pont Environmental Biotechnology, Glasgow Site, Newark, Delaware 19714 R P DICK (1 39), Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Cornallis, Oregon 7331 J W DORAN (I), Soil and W4ter Conservation Research Unit, United States Depnr-t.ment of Agriculture, Agrirultumi Research Senice, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 F C HSU (SS), Du Pont Envir-onnrental Biotechnology, Glasgow Site, Newark, Delaware 19714 F IYAMUREMYE (1 39), Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Conwllis, Oregon 97331 M A LIEBIG (l), Depnrtment of Agronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 M SARRANTONIO (l), Rodale Institute Research Center, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530 A PAUL SCHWAB (55), Department of Agronomy, Krrnsas Stnte University, Mnnbattan, KNnsas 66506 DAVID TEBEEST (1 15), Department of Pinnt Pathology, Unive~+y of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 NEIL W WIDSTROM (2 19), United States Deparhnent of Agriculture, Agriadturai Research Senice, Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tqton, Georgia 1793 vii This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface Volume 56 contains six cutting-edge reviews on topics that should be of broad interest to crop and soil scientists and, indeed, to professionals in many other fields The first chapter is a comprehensive review on soil health and sustainability Subjects that are covered include: an historical perspective on soil health, soil health and its relationship to human health and agricultural sustainability, ways to assess soil quality and health, and integration of soil health concepts into farm management The second chapter is a state-of-the-art treatise on the use of plants to remediate soils contaminated with organic chemicals Topics are presented on concepts of phytoremediation, plants as remediation structures for organic pollutants, effects of plant-associated microflora on phytoremediation, and overall advances in phytoremediation research The third chapter discusses innovative aspects of biological control of weeds with plant pathogens and microbial pesticides Discussions are included on techniques and strategies, synergisms that can affect biological weed control effectiveness, and environmental impacts of nonchemical approaches The effect of plant residues, animal manures, and organic acids on the phosphorus chemistry of aerobic and anaerobic soils is fully discussed in in the fourth chapter Chapter five is a review on advances in drought tolerance in plants Physiological and molecular biological aspects of water use efficiency are provided as well as the current status of research on drought and desiccation tolerance and water deficits and reproduction Chapter six deals with the aflatoxin problem in corn grain Background on the topic, ways to identify aflatoxins, conditions affecting their accumulation, and management regimes and long-term solutions are included I appreciate the excellent contributions of the authors DONALD L SPARKS ix 76 N W WIDSTROM Sinha, K K., and Sinha, A K (1992) Impact of stored grain pests on seed deterioration and aflatoxin contamination in maize J Stored Prod Res 28, 21 1-219 Sippel, W L., Burnside, J E., and Atwood, M B (1953) A disease of swine and cattle caused by eating moldy corn froc Am Vet Med Assoc (Toronto, Canada) 19, 174-181 Sisson, P F (1987) The effect of climatic conditions on the incidence and severity of aflatoxin in the USA I n “Aflatoxin in Maize” (M S Zuber, E B Lillehoj, and B L Renfro, Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop, pp 172-177 CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F Smith, F H.(1981) Information on mycotoxins in South Carolina Clemson Univ Coop Ext Sew Circ 623, Clemson, SC Smith, J W., and Hamilton, P B (1970) Aflatoxicosis in broiler chicken Poulr Sci 49, 207 Smith, M S , and Riley, T I (1992) Direct and interactive effects of planting date, irrigation, and corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damage on aflatoxin production in preharvest field corn J Econ Enromol 85, 998-1006 Smith, R L., (1990) Growing corn in Georgia Univ Ga Coop Ext Sew Bull 547, Athens Sorenson, W G., Simpson, J P., Peach, M I , Thedell, T D., and Olenchock, S A (1981) Aflatoxin in respirable corn dust particles J Toxicol Environ Health , 669-672 Squire, R A (1981) Ranking animal carcinogens: A proposed regulatory approach Science 214, 877 Stoloff, L (1979) The three eras of fungal toxin research J Am Oil Chem Soc 56, 684788 Stoloff, L., and Dalrymple, B (1977) Atlatoxin and Earalenone occumnce in dry-milled corn products J Assoc Of Anal Chem 60, 579-582 Stoloff, L., and Lillehoj, E B (1981) Effect of genotype (open-pollinated vs hybrid) and environment on preharvest aflatoxin contamination of maize grown in southeastern United States J Am Oil Chem Soc 58, 976A-980A Stoloff, L., and Trucksess, M W (1981) Effect of boiling, frying, and baking on recovery of aflatoxin from naturally contaminated corn grits or cornmeal J Assoc Of,Anal, Chem 64, 678-680 Stubblefield, R D (1979) The rapid determination of aflatoxin M, in dairy products J Am Oil Chem SOC 56, 800-802 Taubenhaus, J (1920) A study of the black and the yellow molds of ear corn Texas Agric Exp Sm Bull 270, 3-38 Thean, J E., Lorenz, D R , Wilson, D M.,Rodgers, K., and Gueldner, R C (1980) Extraction, cleanup, and quantitative determination of aflatoxins in corn J Assoc Of.Anal Chem 63, 63 1-633 Thompson, D L., Lillehoj, E B., Leonard, K J., Kwolek, W F., and Zuber, M S (1980) Aflatoxin concentration in corn as influenced by kernel development stage and postinoculation temperature in controlled environments Crop Sci 20, 609-612 Thompson D L., Payne, G A., Lillehoj, E B., and Zuber, M S 1983) Early appearance of aflatoxin in developing corn kernels after inoculation with Aspergillus ffavus Planr Dis 67, 1321- 1322 Thompson, D L., Rawlings, O., Zuber, M S , Payne, G A., and Lillehoj, E (1984) Aflatoxin accumulation in developing kernels of eight maize single crosses after inoculation with Aspergillus flavus Planr Dis.68, 465-467 Trenk, H L., and Hartman, P A (1970) Effects of moisture content and temperature on aflatoxin production in corn Appl Microbiol 19, 781-784 Trucksess, M W., Stoloff, L., and Mislivec, P B (1988) Effect of temperature, water activity and other toxigenic mold species on growth of Aspergillusflavus and aflatoxin production on corn, pinto beans and soybeans J Food Pmr 51, 361-363 Trucksess, M W., Stack, M E., Nesheim, S., Park, D L., and Pohland, A E (1989) Enzyme- THE AFLATOXIN PROBLEM WITH CORN GRAIN 277 linked immunosorbent assay of aflatoxins B , , B,, and G , in corn, cottonseed, peanuts, peanut butter and poultry feed: Collaborative study J Assoc Of Anal Chem 72, 957-962 Trucksess M W., Stack, M E., Neheim, S , Page S W., Albert, R H Hansen, T J., and Donahue, K F (1991) Immunoaffinity column coupled with solution fluorometry or liquid chromatography postcolumn derivitization for determination of aflatoxins in corn, peanuts, and peanut butter: Collaborative study J Assoc O f Anal Chem 74, 81-88 Trucksess, M W., and Wood, G E (1994) Recent methods of analysis for aflatoxins in foods and feeds I n “The Toxicology of Aflatoxins” (D L Eaton and J D Groopman, Eds.), pp 409431 Academic Press, San Diego, CA Tucker, D H Trevathan L E., King, S B., and Scott, G E (1986) Effect of four inoculation techniques on infection and aflatoxin concentration of resistant and susceptible corn hybrids inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Phytoparho1og.v 76, 290-293 Tuite, J., Sensmeier, R., Koh-Knox, C , and Noel, R (1984) Preharvest aflatoxin contamination of dent corn in Indiana in 1983 Plum Dis 68, 893-895 TLlpule, P G , Bhat, R V Nagarajan, V., and Priyadarshini, E (1977) Variations in aflatoxin production due to fungal isolates and crop genotypes and their scope in prevention of aflatoxin production Arch Insrir Pasreur Emis 54, 187- 193 Wallin, J R (1986) Production of aflatoxin in wounded and whole maize kernels by Aspergillus flavus Plant Dis 70, 429-430 Wallin J R., Widstrom, N W., and Fortnum, B A (1991) Maize populations with resistance to field contamination by aflatoxin B, J Sci Food Agric 54, 235-238 Watson, S A (1987) Measurement and maintenance of quality I n “Corn: Chemistry and Technology” (S A Watson and P E Ramstad, Eds.), pp 125-183 Am Assoc Cereal Chemists, St Paul MN Watson, S A., and Yahl, K R (1971) Survey of aflatoxins in commercial supplies of corn and grain sorghum used for wet-milling Cereal Sci T0da.Y 16, 153-155 Whitaker, T B , Dickens J W., and Monroe, R J (1979) variability associated with testing corn for aflatoxin J Am Oil Chem Soc 56, 789-794 Wicklow, D T., and Wilson D M (1986) Germination of Aspergillusflavus sclerotia in a Georgia maize field Trans Br Mycol Soc 87, 651-653 Wicklow D T., Hesseltine, C W., Shotwell L., arid Adams, G L (1980) Interference competition and aflatoxin levels in corn P hytoparhology 70, 761-764 Wicklow, D T., Horn, B W., and Cole, R J (1982) Sclerotium production by Aspergillusflavus on corn kernels Mycologia 74, 398-403 Wicklow, D T Horn, B W., Burg, W R., and Cole, R J (1984) Sclerotium dispersal of Aspergillus firrvus and Eupenirillium ochrosalmoneum from maize during harvest Trans Br M y d SOC 83, 299-303 Wicklow D T., Horn, B W and Shotwell, L (1987) Aflatoxin formation in preharvest maize ears coinoculated with Aspergillus,flar~irsand Aspergillus niger M.ycologia 79, 679-682 Wicklow, D T., Horn, B W., Shotwell, L., Hesseltine, C W and Caldwell, R W (1988) Fungal interference with Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize grown in a controlled environment Ph,ytupathology 78, 68-74 Widstrom, N W (1979) The role of insects and other plant pests in aflatoxin contamination of corn, cotton, and peanuts-A review J Environ Qual 8, - I Widstrom, N W (1987) Breeding strategies to control aflatoxin contamination of maize through host plant resistance I n “Aflatoxin in Maize” (M S Zuber, E B Lillehoj, and B L Renfro, Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop, pp 212-220 CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F Widstrom, N W (1992) Aflatoxin in developing maize: Interactions among involved biota and pertinent econiche factors I n “Handbook of Applied Mycology” (D Bhatnagar, E B Lillehoj, and D K Arora, Eds.), Vol pp 23-58 Marcel-Dekker New York 278 N W WIDSTROM Widstrom, N W., and Zuber, M S (1983) Prevention and control of aflatoxin in corn: Sources and mechanisms of genetic control in the plant In “Aflatoxin and Aspergillusflavus in corn (U.L Diener, R L Asquith, and J W Dickens, Eds.), So Coop Series Bull 279, pp 72-76 Alabama Agric Exp Stn., Auburn, AL Widstrom, N W., Sparks, A N., Lillehoj, E B.,and Kwolek, W F (1975) Aflatoxin production and lepidopteran insect injury on corn in Georgia J Econ Entomol 68, 855-856 Widstrom, N W., Lillehoj, E B., Sparks, A N.,and Kwolek, W F (1976) Corn earworm damage and aflatoxin B, on corn ears protected with insecticide J Econ Enromol 69, 677-679 Widstrom, N W., Wiseman, B R., McMillian, W W., Kwolek, W F., Lillehoj, E B., Jellum, M D., and Massey, J H (1978) Evaluation of commercial and experimental three-way corn hybrids for aflatoxin B, production potential Agron J 70, 986-988 Widstrom, N W., Wilson, D M., and McMillian, W W (1981) Aflatoxin contamination of prehawest corn as influenced by timing and method of inoculation Appl Environ Microbiol 42, 249-25 I Widstrom, N W., Wilson, D M., and McMillian, W W (1982) Evaluation of sampling methods for detecting aflatoxin contamination in small test plots of maize inoculated with Aspergillus fiavus J Environ Qual 1, 655-657 Widstrom, N W., McMillian, W W., Redlinger, L M., and Wiser, W J (1983) Dent inbred sources of resistance to the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) J Econ Entomol 76, 31-33 Widstrom, N W., McMillian, W W., Wilson, D M., and Glover, D V (1984a) Growth characteristics of Aspergillus f l a w s on agar infused with maize kernel homogendtes and aflatoxin contamination of whole kernel samples Phytopathology 74, 887-890 Widstrom, N W., McMillian, W W., and Wilson, D M (1984b).Contamination of prehawest corn by aflatoxin In Proc 39th Annu Corn and Sorghum Res Conf., Chicago, IL, pp 68-83 Widstrom, N W., Wilson, D M., and McMillian, W W (1984~).Ear resistance of maize inbreds to field aflatoxin contamination Crop Sci 24, 1155-1 157 Widstrom, N W., Wilson, D M., and McMillian, W W (1986) Differentiation of maize genotypes for aflatoxin concentration in developing kernels Crop Sci 26, 935-937 Widstrom, N W., McMillian, W W., and Wilson, D M (1987) Segregation for resistance to aflatoxin contamination among seeds on an ear of hybrid maize Crop Sci 27, 961-963 Widstrom, N W., McMillian, W W., Beaver, R W., and Wilson, D M (1990) Weather associated changes in aflatoxin Contamination of preharvest maize J Prod Agric 3, 196-199 Widstrom, N W., Bondari, K., and McMillian, W W (1992) Hybrid performance among maize populations selected for resistance to insects Crop Sci 32, 85-89 Widstrom, N W., Wilson, D M., Richard, J L., and McMillian, W W (1994) Resistance in maize to preharvest contamination by aflatoxin Trends Agric Sci (Plant Puthol.) , 49-54 Widstrom, N W., McMillian, W W., Wilson, D M., Richard, J L., Zummo, N., and Beaver, R W (1995) Preharvest aflatoxin contamination of maize inoculated with AspergillusJfavus and Fusarium moniliforme Mycoparhologia, 128, 119- 123 Wieman, D M., White, G M., Taraba, J L., Ross, I I., Hicks, C L., and Langlois, B E (1986) Production of aflatoxin on damaged corn under controlled environmental conditions Trans ASAE 29, 1150-1 155 Wilson, B J., Teer, P A., Barney, G.H., and Blood, F R (1967) Relationship of aflatoxin to epizootics of toxic hepatitis among animals in southern United States Am J Vet Res 28, 1217-1230 Wilson, D M., and Jay, E (1975) Influence of modified atmosphere storage on aflatoxin production in high moisture corn Appl Mirrobiol 29, 224-228 Wilson, D M., and Payne, G A (1994) Factors affecting Aspergillusflavus group infection and THE AFLATOXIN PROBLEM WITH CORN GRAIN 79 aflatoxin contamination of crops In “The Toxicology of Aflatoxins” (D L Eaton and J D Groopman, Eds.), pp 309-325 Academic Press, San Diego, CA Wilson, D M., Huang, L H., and Jay, E (1975) Survival of Aspergillus flaws and Fusarium moniliJorme in high-moisture corn stored under modified atmospheres Appl Microbiol 30, 592-595 Wilson, D M., McMillian, W W., and Widstrom, N W (1979) Field aflatoxin contamination of corn in South Georgia J Am Oil Chem Soc 56, 798-799 Wilson, D M., Widstrom, N W., Marti, L R., and Evans, B D (l981a) Aspergillusflawus group, aflatoxin, and bright greenish-yellow fluorescence in insect-damaged corn in Georgia Cereal Chem 58.40-42 Wilson, D M., Gueldner, R C , McKinney, J K., Lievsay, R H., Evans, B D., and Hill, R A ( I 98 lb) Effect of O-ionone on Aspergillus flawus and Aspergillus parasiricus growth, sporulation, morphology and aflatoxin production J Am Oil Chem SOC 58, 959A-961A Wilson, D M., McMillian, W W., and Widstrom, N W (1984) Differential effects ofAspergillus Jawus and A parmificus on survival of Heliorhis zea (Boddie) and Spodopierafrugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on inoculated diet Enwiron Entomol 13, 100- 104 Wilson, D M., McMillian, W W., and Widstrom, N W (1986) Use ofAspergillusflawus and A parasiticus color mutants to study aflatoxin contamination of corn In “Biodeterioration 6“ (G C Llewellyn and C E O’Rear, Eds.), pp 284-288 The Cambrian New Ltd., Aberystwyth, UK Wilson, D M., Walker, M E., and Gascho, G J (1989a) Some effects of mineral nutrition on aflatoxin contamination of corn and peanuts In “Soilborne Plant Pathogens: Management of Diseases with Macro- and Microelements” (A W Englehard, Ed.), pp 137-151 APS Press, St Paul, MN Wilson, D M., Widstrom, N W., McMillian, W W., and Beaver, R W (1989b) Aflatoxins in corn In Roc 44th Annu Corn and Sorghum Res Conf., Chicago, IL, pp 1-26 Wood, G E (1989) Aflatoxins in domestic and imported foods and feeds J Assoc Qfi Anal Chem 72, 543-548 Yahl K R., Watson, S A , , Smith, R J., and Barabolok, R (1971) Laboratory wet milling ofcorn containing high levels of aflatoxin and a survey of commercial wet-milling products Cereal Chem 48, 385-392 Zeringue, H J (1991) Effect of C, and C, alkenals on aflatoxin production in corn, cottonseed, and peanuts Appl Enwiron Microbiol 57, 2433-2434 Zeringue, H J., and Bhatnager, D (1994) Effects of neem leaf volatiles on submerged cultures of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Appl Enwiron Microbiol 60, 3543-3547 Zuber, M S (1977) Influence of plant genetics on toxin production in corn In “Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health (J V Rodricks, C W Hesseltine, and M A Mehlman, Eds.), pp 173-179 Pathotox Publishers, Park Forest South, 1L Zuber, M S., and Lillehoj, E B (1979) Status of aflatoxin prublem in corn J Environ Qua/ , 15 Zuber, M S., and Lillehoj, E B (1987) Aflatoxin Contamination in maize and its biocontrol I n “Biocontrol of Plant Diseases” (K G Mukerji and K L Gary, Eds.), Vol 2, pp 85-102 CRC Press, Boca Raton FL Zuber, M S , Calvert, H , Lillehoj, E B., and Kwolek, W F (1976) Preharvest development of aflatoxin B , in corn in the United States Phytoparhology 66, 1120-1121 Zuber, M S., Calvert, H , Kwolek, W F Lillehoj, E B., and Kang, M S (1978) Aflatoxin B , production in an eight-line diallel of Zea Mays infected with Aspergillusflawus fhyruparhdogy 68, 1346-1349 Zuber, M S , Darrah, L L., Lillehoj, E B., Josephson, L M., Manwiller, A., Scott, G E., 80 N W WIDSTROM Gudauskas, R T., Homer, E S., Widstrom, N W., Thompson, D L., Bockholt, A J., and Brewbaker, J L (1983) Comparison of open-pollinated maize varieties and hybrids for preharvest aflatoxin contamination in the Southern United States Planr Dis 67, 185-187 Zuber, M S., Darrah, L L., and Lillehoj, E B (1986) International maize genotype-environment study: Natural aflatoxin occurrence Trop Sci 26, 39-43 Zummo, N (1991) Concurrent infection of individual corn kernels with white and green isolates of Aspergi/!usflavus Plant Dis.75, 910-913 Zummo, N.,and Scott, G E (1990) Relative aggressiveness of Aspergihsflavus and A parasiricus on maize in Mississippi Planr Dis 74, 978-981 Zummo, N.,and Scott, G E (1992) Interaction of Fusariurn moniliforme and Aspergillusjavus on kernel infection and aflatoxin contamination in maize ears Planr Dis 76, 771-773 Zummo, N., and Scott, G E (1994) Pathogenicity of AspergillusJavus group isolates in inoculated maize ears in Mississippi I n “Biodeterioration Research 4” (G C Llewellyn, W.V Dashek, and C E O’Rear, Eds.), pp 217-224 Plenum Press, New York Index A Abortion, pollen and embryo, 205-206 Abscisic acid during dehydrating conditions, 204-205, 210 in xylem sap, 77 Additives, chemisorbent, for contaminated corn, 254 Aflatoxicosis, early identification, 220-22 I Aflatoxins accumulation, affecting factors, 226-236 contamination, and minimizing plant stresses, 236-246 detection and quantification, 221-224 Africa, corn contamination with aflatoxins, 225-226 Aging effect on bioavailability, 70-71 as phytostabilization process, 66 Agricultural research, shifting paradigm, 39-41 Agriculture internal resources, management practices 4-6 regenerative, 24-26 and soil health, 20-28 Agronomics in phytoremediation, 94-97 Air contaminants, remediation, 62 quality, soil effects, 15-16 Allernaria macrosporn, as mycoherbicide, I26 Aluminum hydroxy species, balancing, 155- I56 and iron, exchangeable, 158-159 Amendments, organic, see Organic amendments Ammoniation, contaminated corn, 253-254 Animal feeding studies, food produced by different methods, 19-20 Aspergillus flavus group infection, 226-236 Aspergillus spp., contamination of corn grain, 220-261 Assessments, soil quality and health, 28-44 Atrazine, mineralization rates, 103- 104 281 Augmentation strategy, in weed control, 117 Availability, see also Phytoavailability inorganic P to plants, 145-146 pollutants in soil, 68-71 B Bacteria as plant pathogens in weed control, 124- 129 polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading, 101- 102 Binding, irreversibile, as phytostabilization process, 66 Bioassay, plant enzymatic activity, 63-64 Bioherbicide strategy, in weed control, 116- 117 Biological control aquatic weeds, 123- 124 weeds, seed bank role, 125 Biological interference, toxin production, 258259 BIOMAL, mycoherbicide, 118-1 19 Biomass crops, 193 microbial, turnover, 21 -22 phosphorus, 144 Biotechnological improvements, in phytoremediation, 105- 107 Blending, good corn with contaminated corn, 253 Breeding, atlatoxin-resistant corn hybrids, 256258 Bright greenish-yellow fluorescence test, 223 Bromoxynil, metabolic degradation, 207 C Calcium carbonate, effect on P sorption constants, 165 Canopy, crop, genetic variations I95 Carbon pools, surface soils, 32-34 CdITotS insecticide uptakes, 78 nitrate content, 18 282 Carrots (continued) remediation of DDT-contaminated soil, 81 Casparian strip, waxy barrier, 74-76 Cato, on choosing a farmstead, 11-12 Cercosporu spp., in control of water hyacinth, 127 Chemical reactions, P in soils, 141-142 Chemicals interference with fungal toxin production, 258-259 synergism with pathogens, in weed control, 128- 129 Chemisorbent additives, for contaminated corn, 254 Chlorinated hydrocarbons remediation in pluntu, 102- 103 rhizosphere degradation, 99- 102 Classical strategy, in weed control, 117, 120123 Clay, adsorption of organics, 70 Cleaning, contaminated corn kernals, 253 Climate, and water use efficiency, 188-192 COLLEGO, control of northern jointvetch, 118 Colletorrichum spp as microbial pesticide, 118-121 synergy with chemicals, 128- I29 Communities decomposer, soil fauna, 20-24 Complexation reactions, organic acids with metals, 147-148 Composting rock phosphate solubilized during, 167 for soil health, 14 in tightening nutrient loop, 24 Contamination coin with aflatoxin and hybrid selection, 231 -236 and minimizing plant stresses, 236-246 scope, 224-226 groundwater, 15-16, 26-27 heavy metal and toxic element, 17 and infection, assessment at harvest, 248 soils, phytoremediation, 55- 107 Coin aflatoxins as contaminants, 220-226 contaminated, as animal feed, 251-252 grain crop, handling at harvest, 247-249 growth and ear development, 236-247 preplanting considerations, 229-236 stored, monitoring, 249-250 costs economic, of remediation, 60-61 environmental, of agricultural production, 26-28 phytoremediation, 66-67 Cmsulacean acid metabolism, and water saving, 191 Cropping systems advocated by philosophers, 11- 12 legume-based, 26 Crop species microsporogenesis during drought, 204-205 nutritional needs, 18 in phytoremediation agronomics, 94-97 water use efficiency, 189- 192 Crop yield indicator of sustainability, 44 nondeclining trends, 24 Crude oil, phytotoxic agents in, 98 Cultivation, and aflatoxin contamination, 24024 I Cultural heritage, soil as, Cuticle, importance to drought tolerance, 203204 D DDT, contaminated soil, remediation with carrots, 81 Decomposition processes, soil, Decontamination, see also Phytodecontamination processes aflatoxin-contaminated corn, 252-254 pesticides, with trees, 62 remediation technique, 57-58 Degradation environmental, 41-42 in rhizosphere, 87-88, 99-104 soil, Dehydration postponement and tolerance, 196- 197 seeds, 207-210 Desiccation tolerance, molecular features, 208210 Desorption, phosphorus under flooding-aerobic cycles, 175- 176 organic amendment effects, 163- 165 Disease resistance of corn hybrids, 233-236 role in atlatoxin contamination, 241-246 Distribution, pollutants in soil, 67-68 INDEX Diversity, in crop production, 25 Drinking water, presence of nitrate, 15- 16 Drought tolerance, improvements, 197-204 Dry mass, and water use efficiency, 189-192 Dry matter, relationship to water use, 198-199 E Ear development, managing conditions during, 236-247 Earthwornis, indicative of healthy soil, 22 Ecological function$, soil, 8- 10 Economics, of remediation, 60-61 Ecosystem, soil as, 6-8 Edaphic factors, affecting atlatoxin accumulation, 228-229 Eh, see Oxidation-reduction system Embryo, abortion due to water deficit, 205-206 Embryo maturation proteins, 209-210 Endophytes commercial use, 88-89 Environmental costs, agricultural production, 26-28 Environmental impact, microbial herbicides, 129- 13I Environmental quality, and sustainability, 3-6 Enzymes, desiccation effects, 208-209 Equation of life, 7-8 Ethanol production, use of contaminated grain, 254-255 Evapotranspiration, crop, 191- 193 F Farming, organic versu.y conventional, 18-20 32-34 Fate contaminant, in soil-microbe-plant system 63 phosphorus, from organic amendments, 160I63 xenobiotic, in plant system, 74-82 Feed aflatoxins in, detection methods, 222 animal, contaminated corn as, 25 1-252 Fermentation, atlatoxin-contaminated corn, 254255 Fertility, Soil, maintenance, 12 Fertilization, relationship to aflatoxin contamination, 239-240 Flooding-aerobic cycles, and P desorption, 175- I76 283 Food quality, soil effects, 16-20 Food web, microbial herbicide effects, 130- I3 I Forests, and global C balance, 37 Fulvic acid, effect on P sorption, 148-154 Fungus, see also speciJicfungi chemical inactivation, 249 ectomyconhizal, in bioremediation, 101 toxin production, interruption, 258-260 in weed control, 117-132 white-rot, targeted to pollutants, 84 G Gaia hypothesis, 23 Gas exchange efficiency, compared to water use efficiency, 193- 194 Genes, degradative, 105- 106 Genetic manipulation, fungus, 259-260 Genetic selection for earliness, 200-202 in enhancing phytoremediation, 95-96 Germplasm, corn, non-inbred, 257-258 Global function, and sustainability, 3-6 Grain contaminated for ethanol production, 254-255 and milling industry, 255 corn, adatoxin problem, 219-261 Grain-filling period, and aflatoxin contamination, 244-245 Grasses native range, genetic improvement, 203-204 as soil stabilizers, 99 Groundsel, control with rusts, 122- 123 Groundwater bioremediation, 56 contamination with agrochemicals, 26-27 nitrate-contaminated, 15- 16 Growing season, aflatoxin control during, 244246 H Harvest, corn, optimum timing, 247-248 Harvest index, part of water use efficiency, 192I93 Hazardous waste, definition, 93-94 Health human, impact of corn adatoxins, 250-251 human and animal, soil health effects, 14-20 rangeland, 37 84 INDEX Health (continued) soil definition, 10- I and sustainability, 1-45 Henry's Law, 72 Herbicides, see also Mycoherbicides microbes as, environmental impact, 129- 131 selectivity due to plant metabolism, 80-81 weed class-specific, 243-244 Horseradish, potential for soil remediation, 8384 Humic acid, effect on P sorption, 148-154 Humification, as phytostahilization process, 65, 83-84 Humus prevention of phosphate fixation, 152- 153 soil quality indicator, 13 Husk tightness in corn hybrid selection, 23 1-232 and resistance to insects, 234-235 Hybrids corn breeding, 256-258 selection for aflatoxin resistance, 23 1-236 maize, high dry-matter approach, 199 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, in corn decontamination, 254 Hydrocarbons, total petroleum, cleanup, 69 Hydrogen peroxide, in phytoremediation, 84 I Immobilization, and mineralization, P, 143144, 160-163 Imrnunochemical methods, in aflatoxin detection, 223-224 Indicators key, threshold values, 34-35 soil health earthworms, 22 use of minimum data set, 29-34 Infection Aspergillus flaws, 226-236 effect of maize weevil, 243, 246 and contamination, assessment at harvest, 248 mycorrhizal, in plant survival, 87 lnositol phosphate esters, in soil, 143-144 Insecticides plant-produced, 78-79 use on growing corn crop, 245-246 Insects resistance of corn hybrids, 233-236 role in aflatoxin contamination, 231, 241-246 synergism with pathogens in weed control, 126- I27 International conferences, soil sustainability, 34 Intrinsic value concept, Invertebrates, classification, 21-22 Invert emulsions, in weed control with hiological pesticides, 128-129 Iron and aluminum, exchangeable, 158- 159 crystalline ferrous hydroxides, 173- 174 Fe (111)-bound phosphate, 170-171 Irrigation, corn plants, 236-239 Isotope ratio, plant tissue, 194-195 K KO, lipophilicity related to, 73 in phytoremediation models, 92 transpiration stream concentration factor related to, 75-76 Land use, in determination of exposure to contaminant, 59 Leaching, soluble compounds during phytoremediation, 98 Lignification, as phytostabilization process, 66 Lignin, prevention of phosphate fixation, 152I53 Lipophilic compounds, associated with soil surfaces, 69-70 Lipophilicity, related to KO,, 73 Liver, plant analogy, 80 Losses, reproductive, related to water deficits, 204-207, 21 I M Maize cell enlargement, 204 hybrid, high dry-matter approach, 199 Maize weevil, effect on Aspergillusflavus infection, 243, 246 INDEX Management practices agricultural, 4-6 during corn growth and ear development, 236-247 farm, integration of soil health concepts, 39- 44 and food quality, 18-20 optimizing corn production, 260 Manure animal, and plant residues in aerobic soils, 156-167 effect on phosphorus availability, 145-146 Metabolism, xenobiotics in plants, 78-8 I Metarhizium anisopliue effects on nontarget species, 131 Microbes biomass, turnover, 21 -22 as herbicides, environmental impact, 129- 13 populations in bulk soil, 86-88 in weed control, synergisms affecting, 125-129 Microflora, plant-associated, in remediation, 85-90 Milling industry, and contaminated grain, 255 Mineralization atrazine, 103-104 chlorinated hydrocarbons, 100-101 and immobilization, P, 143- 144, 160- 163 organic P in flooded soils, 17 I - 172 Minimum data set in assessment of soil health, 29-34 Modeling phytoremediation, 91 -92 speciation, 159 Models, surface adsorption, 142 Moisture levels in stored corn 250 soil, monitoring, 238 Molecular biology, and water use efficiency, 195-196 Monitoring corn, during growth and grain-till, 246-247 nutrients, during phytoremediation, 96-97 soil moisture 238 stored corn, 249-250 Mutants, isolated from AsperRil/usJhus, 259260 Mycoherbicides, see also Herbicides Alrernaria macrospora, I26 BIOMAL, 118-1 I9 Mycorrhizal infection, in plant survival, 87 285 N Natural resource accounting, 26-28 Nematicides, band application before planting corn, 243 New Zealand, biodynamic and conventional farming, 32-34 Nitrate In drinking water, 15-16 free, antinutritive factor in food plants, 17-18 Nitrogen effect on aflatoxin contamination 239 mineralizable, 32-34 Nitrosamines, nitrate conversion to, 15- 17 Northern jointvetch, control COLLEGO, I 18 pathogenlinsect synergy, I27 Nutrient cycling, 6-9, 23-2.5 Nutrients monitored during phytoremediation, 96-97 replacement costs, 27 Nutrition, plant, 13-14, 23, 239-240 Organic acids effects on surface charge, 155- 156 role in P solubilization, 154-155 in soils, 146-147 complexation with metals, 146- 148 Organic amendments effects P reactions, 144-146 P sorption, I7 I - I76 and Eh and pH, in waterlogged soils, 167-170 enriched with inorganic P, 165-167 P fate from, 160-163 Organic matter, soil, see Soil organic matter Organic production, comparison with conventional farming, 18-20, 32-34 Organics plants as remediation structure, 71-82 soils contaminated with, remediation, 56-61 Orthophosphate adsorption, 155-156 and oxalate, sorbing site competition, 150- I51 reaction with soil constituents, 144- 146 Osmotic adjustment during water deficit, 197-198 wheat and cotton, 200 286 INDEX Ovary starch, mobilizable, 206 Oxalate, competition with P for sorbing sites, 150- 15 Oxidation-reduction system, and organic amendments, 167-168 Oxygen, partial pressure decrease, 97-98 P Pathogens, fungal and bacterial, in weed control, 116-129 Pentachlorophenol, mineralization, LOO Pesticides assessment for health effects, 16-17 microbial, in weed control, 115- I32 plant uptake, 73 rhizosphere degradation, 103- 104 Petroleum contamination, phytoremediation, 99 Petroleum hydrocarbons, total, cleanup, 69 PH and organic amendments, in waterlogged soils, 168-170 soil adjustments, 230 organic residue effects, 156- 158 as soil quality attribute, 34 Philosophers, Roman, proponents of soil health, 11-12 Phosphate phytoavailability, 156 precipitated, dissolution, 154- 155 rock solubilization, 167 utilization, 145 Phosphoric acid, solubility, 145 Phosphorus content of organic residues, 160 cycle, in soils, 140-144 inorganic, organic amendments enriched with, 165-167 from organic amendments, fate, 160-163 solubility in flooded soils, 170- I71 sorption organic amendment effects, I7 I - 176 plant residue effects, 163-165 sorption sites, competition, 148-154 Phyllosphere, microbiota composition, 89-90 Physicochemical effects, plant-produced, 90-91 Physiology, water use efficiency, 189- 192 Phytoavailability phosphate, 156 phosphorus, 165-167 Phytodecontamination processes, 64 Phytoextraction, important soil organic contaminants, 76-78 Phytophthora in weed control, 117-1 18 Phytoremediation apparent advantages, 66-67 biotechnological improvements, 105- 107 concepts and definitions, 61-66 ex planfa 82-91 limitations, 97-98 modeling, 91-92 site conditions and limitations, 92-94 Phytostabilization acceptability, 69-70 processes, 64-66 Planting date, associated aflatoxin contamination, 233 Plant pathogens, fungal and bacterial, in weed control, 116-129 Plant population, and risk of aflatoxin contamination, 232 Plants associated microflora, 85-90 C3 and C4, 95, 190-191, 196 drought tolcrance, 187-21 I enzymatic effects ex planfa, 82-85 green redefinition, 66 in remediation, 61-66 nontarget, microbial herbicide effects, 129- 13I nutrition, 13-14, 23, 239-240 physicochemical effects, 90-9 recombinant field trials, 67 for phytoremediation, 105-106 as remediation structure for organics, 71-82 transformation, 106 Pliny, on earth musty odor, 12 Poisoning, with contaminated soil, 15 Pollen abortion, 205 desiccation, 208 shed, early silking relative to, 206 Pollutants distribution and availability, 67-71 organic, contaminated soil, remediation, 56-61 INDEX Polychlorinated biphenyls, bacteria degrading, 101-102 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil, 99 volatilization, 72 Pools carbon, 32-34 phosphorus, 140-141 Precipitation, phosphate, 154- 155 Preharvest, aflatoxin contamination, 221 -222, 224-225, 234, 242-243 Preplanting, considerations for aflatoxin accumulation, 229-236 Prickly pear, control with pathogen/insect synergy, 126- 127 Producers interaction with scientists, 39-44 Prophylactic measures, before planting corn, 243-244 Proteins, embryo maturation, 209-210 Purcinia spp., evaluation for weed control in U S 120-123 R Recombinant plants field trials, 67 in phytoremediation, 105- 106 Record of decision, in cleanup process, 60 Regionalization, aflatoxin contamination, 227 Regulatory extraction protocols, I , 83 Remediation, see also Phytoremediation in planro, 102-103 plant-associated microflora in, 85-90 soils conrdminated with organics, 56-58 economics, 60-61 process and goals, 58-60 Reproduction, and water deficits, 204-207 Research agricultural, shifting paradigm, 39-41 P sorption and role of organic amendments, 176-178 Residues, organic effect on pH, 156-158 and exchangeable Al and Fe 158-159 P content, 160 Resistance corn hybrids to insects and disease, 233-236 host plant, hybrid breeding, 256-258 287 Resources finite, soil as, 3-1 I internal, agriculture, natural, accounting, 26-28 Respiration, soil, farming method effects, 3234 Revegetation, spontaneous, with hardy weed species, 79-80 Rhizosphere biasing, 85, 106-107 degradation with chlorinated hydrocarbons, 99- I02 pesticides, 103-104 structure and function, 86-87 Rice genetic variation for rooting, 202 upland and paddy, 196 Risk, in soil remediation, 59 Rock phosphate solubilization, 167 utilization, 145 Rodale, J I , 13-14 Rodale Robert, 24-26 Root concentration factor, 75 Root exudate, as nutrient for microorganisms, 86-88 Rooting, deep, importance to drought tolerance, 202-203 Roots peroxidase activities, 84 redefinition, 66 uptake of xenobiotics, 71-74 Rotations based on plant progressions, 25 crop, associated soil microflora, 230-231 Rush skeletonweed control with Pucciniu spp., 121 infestations, 116 Rust, evaluation for weed control in U.S., 120123 S Sandy soils, water-holding capacity, 238 Scientists interaction with producers, 39-44 19th and 20th century, on soil vitality, 13-14 Sclerotinia demtiorurn control of thistle 19I20 288 Seed banks, microbial management, in weed control, 125 Seeds, dehydration, 207-210 Selenium, soil concentrations, 17 Septoria passiflorae, control of Passifora weeds, 121- 122 Sequestration, xenobiotics within plants, 81-82 Simazine, uptake by barley, 74-75 Sites, remediable, conditions and limitations, 92-94 Soil aerobic, 146-167 attributes, estimation, 37-39 bulk, microbial populations, 86-88 contaminated with organic pollutants, remediation, 56-61 cultivated, aflatoxin spore load, 228 faunal communities, 20-24 as finite resource, 3- I flooded, and P solubility, 170- I7 moisture monitoring, 238 P cycle, 140-144 PH adjustments, 230 organic residue effects, 156- 158 phases, 72-74 pollutants, distribution and availability, 6771 waterlogged, and P behavior, 167-176 Soil amendments, organic, see Organic amendments Soil bulk density, and use of soil indicator ratios, 32-33 Soil depreciation allowance, 27-28 Soil health and agriculture, 20-28 assessment, 28-44 comparison with soil quality, 6- 1I concepts early proponents, 1 - 14 integration into farm management, 41-44 and human health, 14-20 Soil organic matter effects P fixation in flooded soils, 172-176 surface charge, 155-156 replenishment, 24-26 Soil quality assessment, 28-44 index, 36-37 comparison with soil health, 6-1 I test kit, 43-44 Soil water use by sorghum genotypes, 200-201 Solid phase, soil, 74 Sorghum, genotypes, usage of soil water, 20020 Sotption, phosphorus humic and fulvic acid effects, 148-154 organic amendment effects, 171-176 plant residue effects, 163- 165 in soils, 141-142 Speciation modeling, 159 Spontaneous revegetation, with hardy weed species, 79-80 Spurge, control with rust fungi, 122 Stabilization, remediation technique, 57-58 Starch, ovary, mobilizable, 206 Storage, and utilization of final corn crop product, 249-255 Stress, corn plant, minimization, 236-246 Sugar replacement hypothesis, 209 Suitability criteria, met by soil health indicators, 30 Surface charge, organic acid effects, 155-156 Survival, plant, role of mycorrhizal infection, 87 Sustainability and global function, 3-6 and soil health, 1-45 Synergism, pathogens with chemicals, 128- I29 insects, 126- 127 other pathogens, 125- 126 T Technology transfer, in soil assessment, 4244 Temperature associated with aflatoxin accumulation, 227228 leaf, effect on vapor pressure, 189 soil, and planting time, 95 Test kit, soil quality, 43-44 Thin-layer chromatography, allatoxins, 223 Thistle, control with fungi and rusts, 119-122 Threshold values, for key indicators, 34-35 Tillage and aflatoxin contamination, 240-241 minimization, 25 Tissue sampling, for nutritional problems, 240 89 INDEX Tolerance desiccation, molecular features, 208-210 drought, improvements, 197-204 Tomatoes organically and conventionally managed, 25 water use efficiency, 193-195 Total petroleum hydrocarbons, cleanup, 69 Toxin production, by fungus, interruption, 258259 Trait selection for earliness, 200-202 in enhancing phytoremediation, 95-96 Transformation phosphorus, 142-144, 160-163 plant, 106 Transpiration stream concentration factor, 7476 Transport, xenobiotics in plants, 74-78 Trees, in pesticide decontamination, 62 Trichloroethylene mineralization, 100- 101 plant uptake, 102-103 Trinitrotoluene, phytotoxicity, 98 U United States corn contamination with aflatoxins, 224-225 weed control with fuccinia spp., 120-123 quality, soil effects, 15-16 saving, and crassulacean acid metabolism, 191 soil, use by sorghum genotypes, 200-201 Water hyacinth, control with Cercospora spp., 127 Water phase, soil, 73 Water use, normalization for evaporative demand, 191-192 Water use efficiency definition and physiology, 188- 192 measurement, 193-195 and molecular biology, 195- 196 unchanged with stable water supply, 21 Wax deposition, native range grasses, 203-204 Weather, effect on aflatoxin accumulation, 226228 Weeds aquatic, biological control, 123- 124 control and aflatoxin contamination, 240-241 with plant pathogens, 116-124 as volunteers in contaminated soils, 79-80 Wetlands, constructed and natural, 61-62 Wheat genetic selection, 201 -202 osmotic adjustment, 200 Wound inoculation, corn ear, 233-234, 257 X V Vapor phase, soil, 72 Varro, on farm soil quality, 11-12 Virgil, on maintaining soil fertility, 12 Vitality, soil, 13-14 w Waste water, municipal, contaminant removal, 62 Water, see also Groundwater deficits, and reproduction, 204-207 drinking, presence of nitrate, 15-16 holding capacity of sandy soils, 238 Xenobiotics fate in plant system, 74-82 in soil, 67-71 uptake into roots, 71-74 Xylem sap, obtaining and measuring, 76-77 Y Yield crop indicator of sustainability, 44 nondeclining trends, 24 relationship to drought tolerance, 199-200 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... Parr, 1992; Rodale Institute, 1991) Forums were held in Washington, DC, in the winter of 1995 to ensure that emphasis on maintaining the quality of our soil resources was included in the 1995 Farm... within a year or two (Lehninger, 1973) Thus, there is a fine balance between CO, production and utilization in the biosphere Decomposition processes in soil play a predominant role in maintaining... perform multiple functions in maintaining productivity and environmental well-being Identifying and integrating the physical, chemical, and biological soil attributes which define soil functions is
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 56 , Advances in agronomy volume 56 , II. Soil— A Vital, Living, and Finite Resource, III. Early Proponents of Soil Health Concepts, IV. Soil Health and Human Health, V. Agriculturc and Soil Health, VI. Assessment of Soil Quality and Health, VII. Soil Assessment –Need for Producer/Scientist Interaction, Chapter 2. Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Organic Pollutants, IV. Plants as Remediation Structure for Organics, VIII. Current Phytoremediation Research and Development, III. Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens, V. Synergisms That May Affect the Effectiveness of Microbial Agents, VI. The Environmental Impact of Microbial Herbicides, Chapter 4. Organic Amendments and Phosphorus Sorption by Soils, II. Aerobic Soils: Organic Acids and Phosphorus Sorption, III. Aerobic Soils: Plant Residues and Animal Manures., Chapter 5. Advances in Drought Tolerance in Plants, IV. Water Deficits and Reproduction, II. Background and Identification of Aflatoxins as Contaminants of Corn, III. Conditions Impacting Aspergillus Flavus Group Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation, IV. Managing Conditions during Plant Growth and Ear Development

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