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Can Chính Truong's Archives LGUAGENA RTSAEXPLORERJUNIORPrepositionsoveruponacrossinby Katie MarsicoCherry Lake Publishing • ann arbor, michigan text:A note on theCertain wordsdare highlightefas examples oBold, cprepositions.olorfulwords arevocabulary woPublished in the United States of America by Cherry Lake PublishingrdsAnn Arbor, Michiganand can bwww.cherrylakepublishing.come foundin the glossaryContent Adviser: Lori Helman, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of.Curriculum & Instruction, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MinnesotaPhoto Credits: Page 9, ©oliveromg/Shutterstock, Inc.; page 12, ©DmitryNaumov/Shutterstock, Inc.; page 13, ©NatUlrich/Shutterstock, Inc.;page 15, ©Africa Studio/Shutterstock, Inc.; pages 16 and 19, ©MonkeyBusiness Images/Shutterstock, Inc.; page 20, ©Maria Dryfhout/Shutterstock, Inc.Copyright ©2014 by Cherry Lake PublishingAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized inany form or by any means without written permission from the publisher.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataMarsico, Katie, 1980–Prepositions / By Katie Marsico.pages cm. — (Language Arts Explorer Junior)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-1-62431-182-6 (lib. bdg.) —ISBN 978-1-62431-248-9 (e-book) — ISBN 978-1-62431-314-1 (pbk.)1. English language—Prepositions—Juvenile literature. I. Title.PE1335.M36 2013428.2—dc232013005599Cherry Lake Publishing would like to acknowledge the workof The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Please visit www.p21.orgfor more information.Printed in the United States of AmericaCorporate Graphics Inc.July 2013CLFA132 Table of Contentsc ha p t er o nePreparing for a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4cha pt er t woA Look at Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . 8cha pt er t h r e ePay Attention to Punctuation! . . . . . . 16Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22For More Information . . . . . . . . . . . 23Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 c ha p t er o n ePreparing fora ProjectAbby and her friend Nate laid a piece ofcardboard on the kitchen table at her house.They had a big job ahead of them. Their teacherhad asked them to build a model of their town.The assignment sounded like fun. Yet Abby andNate also knew it would take careful planning. “Ready for a little construction work?”asked Abby with a smile. “First, I think we4 should paint green around the edges of thecardboard.” “It will look just like grass,” added Nate. “We could cut up black construction paperinto strips with scissors. Then we can use thestrips to add roads,” said Abby. “I think thepaper is in my basement. I bought clay for thebuildings.” “Perfect,” replied Nate. “Now let’s getgoing. Remember, we need to finish this modelby tomorrow morning!”5 onfoatby n withifortomorf Abby and Nate used prepositions whenthey talked about their project. Prepositions showrelationships between words. The mostcommon prepositions are at, by, for, from, in, of,on, to, and with. Prepositions connect a noun orpronoun in a sentence to another word or groupof words. This noun or pronoun is called theobject of the preposition. Together, thepreposition and the object are called aprepositional phrase. Abby and Nate cut up thepaper with scissors. The prepositional phrasealso includes any adjectives connected to the6 object. These could be descriptive words, suchas red, big, and smart. They could also be wordsthat tell how many, such as some, or words thatindicate which one, such as a, the, or their. Theywere building a model of their town.nk about itihTExtra ExamplesNate put the lid on the paint bottle.Preposition: onObject of the preposition: bottlePrepositional phrase: on the paintConnection: The preposition connects the lid towhere Nate put it—on the paint.Abby cleaned the paintbrush with a rag.Preposition: withObject of the preposition: ragPrepositional phrase: with a ragConnection: The preposition connects thepaintbrush to how Abby cleaned it—with a rag.7 c ha p t er T woA Look atPrepositions“The paint should dry by the time we finishcutting the construction paper,” said Nate. Heput his brush in the sink. “We should leave italone for a little while. Otherwise we willsmear the paint.” The prepositions by and for showrelationships that involve time. For example,8 Nate used the preposition for to connect alittle while—the amount of time the paintneeded to dry. The words about, after, at,before, from, in, of, on, past, and to are alsoprepositions that deal with time. “I will glue 10 strips of black paper across therest of the cardboard to make the roads,” saidAbby. “Should we add a piece of blue paper onthe right side? I just remembered that a streamruns through the east part of our town.”You can also useprepositions such as beforeand after to talkabout where youare in a line.9 The prepositions across, of, on, and throughmake connections that involve places anddirections. Around, at, down, from, in, inside,to, up, and with also show location.osnsoracat throughfrom in todnfouoareidsinupwith10 EXP NIORJUvisitctivity,aishtities.fm/activa copy oot.cegginohTepubliserrylakh.cwwwSTOP!DON’’TT WRITEIN TINTHHE BOOK!ACTIVITYLocate and List!Locate and list all the prepositions in the followingsentences:“My mom keeps a pair of scissors in this drawer,”said Abby. “Hmm, they’re not there. No worries! Iwill check the craft box under her bed.”“I have scissors and glue inside my backpack,”replied Nate. “I keep them with the rest of myschool supplies.”“OK,” said Abby. “Then I will justmake a quick trip to the basement. Ithink the paper is on the shelf abovemy dad’s desk.”Answers: in, under, inside,with, of, to, on, above11 Prepositions helpshow how Nateand Abbywill make their model look like their town. “The stream is a great idea, Abby!” saidNate. “We want this model to look as muchlike our town as possible. I will cut the bluepaper and cover one side of it with glue.” Theprepositions like and with connect wordsinvolving how something appears. They alsohelp show the manner in which an action iscarried out. The terms by, in, and on are usedthe same way. For example, Nate used like toshow how he hoped the model would look.12 “I am going to start working on thebuildings,” said Abby. “I bought special clayfor our project.” In this case, the preposition for connects anaction and its purpose. It shows therelationship between the project and the reasonAbby bought special clay. “I got modeling clay for $5.00 at the craftstore,” Abby added. The preposition for can alsoconnect words to measurements and amounts.as for in manychsusontisipoePeople use prore.hen they visit a stwginudclin—nssituatio13 “Abby, I see our work as a great success,”said Nate once they finished everything. Thepreposition as connects words that deal withthe state of something, or the way somethingis. People use at, by, for, in, and on, the sameway. Here, as links success to the state ofNate and Abby’s work.14 EXP NIORJU!ST’TOWPRITE!DONBOOKEHTINTo get a copy of this activity, visitwww.cherrylakepublishing.com/activities.ACTIVITYRead and RethinkRead the following conversation between Nate andAbby. Then rewrite it, filling in the blanks usingprepositions:“Where did you get the green paint?” asked Nate.“I went shopping ___ the hardware store,” saidAbby. “I bought green paint ___ $6.00.”Why are prepositionsimportant when peopletalk about activitiessuchas shopping for paint?15 c ha p t er t h r e ePay Attention toPunctuation!nther punctuatioodnas,doriepCommas,ndour ideas clear ayekamlpehsmarkhen you write.wdntarsednueasy to“My mom will help us put our model in hercar,” said Abby. “Do you want to carry it intothe classroom with me tomorrow morning?” “Sure!” shouted Nate as he headed out herfront door. “I will see you at 8:00 in themorning! Let’s meet by your locker.”16 Commas, question marks, exclamationmarks, and periods are all examples ofpunctuation that follow prepositionalphrases. Punctuation usually comes after theobject of the preposition. It rarely comesdirectly after the preposition itself. Also, mostof the time, prepositions do not end sentences.?.! ,exclamationpointquestionmarkammcoperiod17 nk about itihTExtra Examples“With which friend did you work on your project?”asked Abby’s sister the next morning. Here, theword with sits right beside its object in Abby’ssister’s question. This is the best place for thepreposition. Sometimes, a person speaking might putit at the end of the sentence. Then the sentencewould be, “Which friend did you workon your project with?”gninginbeendpreposition “You guys did a super job with this model,”their teacher said Monday morning. “Thanks,” replied Abby. “We made it all byourselves. Nate and I worked on it for threehours on Sunday.”18 “Yep,” added Nate proudly. “We definitelyhad a great time with this project.” “I see that,” said their teacher. “How aboutwe keep the model outside the principal’soffice? That way, everyone who comes insidethe school will be able to see it!”epositions toPeople rely on prshare ideas.19 Prepositions are not just useful when itcomes to talking about class projects.Speakers and writers rely on them all the timeto show the relationships between words in asentence. Prepositions are like bridges. Theybuild connections to help people understand!prepositionsThink about whattime you talk toyou use the nexts or relatives!ndiefruryoofeon20 LARERROLEXP NIORJU STOP!DON’’TT WRITEIINN THE BOOK!ACTIVITYRead and Rethink!Read the conversation below. Then rewrite whatNate and Abby say to each other by filling in theblanks with prepositions:“The principal asked to see us ___ recess!” Natetold Abby. “Ugh,” replied Abby. “I hate when I get called___ his office.” “Don’t worry,” said Nate. “I think he wants tomeet ___ us ___ a good reason this time. He toldme he only needed to talk to us ___ a few minutes.” “I bet the discussion will be ___ our model,”Abby said. “Probably,” answered Nate. “He mentioned thathe planned to put it ___ his office. It will be thefirst thing people notice when they walk ___ thestairs.” “Now I am getting excited,” said Abby., visitactivitys.ishtfpy oactivitieo/cmaot.cegTo gblishinylakepurreh.cwww21 Glossarymanner (MAN-ur) the way in which something is donephrase (FRAYZ) a group of words that have a meaning but do notform a sentenceprepositions (prep-uh-ZISH-uhnz) words that show the relation of anoun or pronoun to other items in a sentencepunctuation (puhngk-choo-AY-shuhn) the use of periods, commas,and other marks to help make the meaning of a sentence clearpurpose (PUR-puhs) the reason or goal for somethingrelationships (ri-LAY-shuhn-ships) the ways in which two or morethings are connected22 For More InformationBookDoyle, Sheri. What Is a Preposition? North Mankato, MN:Capstone Press, 2013.Web SiteESL Games Plus—Prepositions Wheel Gamehttp://www.eslgamesplus.com/preposition-interactive-grammar-gamefor-esl-wheel-game/Try this game to test your knowledge of prepositions.23 Indexactions, 12, 13adjectives, 6–7amounts, 7, 9, 13appearances, 12common prepositions, 6descriptions, 7directions, 10placement, 18places, 10prepositional phrases, 6–7, 17pronouns, 6punctuation, 17purposes, 13relationships, 6, 8, 13, 20measurements, 13sentences, 11, 15, 17, 18, 21states of being, 14nouns, 6time, 8–9objects, 6, 7, 17, 18About the AuthorKatie Marsico is an author of reference books for children and young adults. Shelives outside Chicago, Illinois, with her husband and children.24 [...]... past, and to are also prepositions that deal with time “I will glue 10 strips of black paper across the rest of the cardboard to make the roads,” said Abby “Should we add a piece of blue paper on the right side? I just remembered that a stream runs through the east part of our town.” You can also use prepositions suc h as before and after to talk about where you are in a line 9 The prepositions across,... will be able to see it!” epositions to People rely on pr share ideas 19 Prepositions are not just useful when it comes to talking about class projects Speakers and writers rely on them all the time to show the relationships between words in a sentence Prepositions are like bridges They build connections to help people understand! prepositions Think about what time you talk to you use the next s or relatives!... a Preposition? North Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2013 Web Site ESL Games Plus Prepositions Wheel Game http://www.eslgamesplus.com/preposition-interactive-grammar-gamefor-esl-wheel-game/ Try this game to test your knowledge of prepositions 23 Index actions, 12, 13 adjectives, 6–7 amounts, 7, 9, 13 appearances, 12 common prepositions, 6 descriptions, 7 directions, 10 placement, 18 places, 10 prepositional... my dad’s desk.” Answers: in, under, inside, with, of, to, on, above 11 Prepositions help show how Nate and Abby will make their m odel look like th eir town “The stream is a great idea, Abby!” said Nate “We want this model to look as much like our town as possible I will cut the blue paper and cover one side of it with glue.” The prepositions like and with connect words involving how something appears... ACTIVITY Read and Rethink Read the following conversation between Nate and Abby Then rewrite it, filling in the blanks using prepositions: “Where did you get the green paint?” asked Nate “I went shopping _ the hardware store,” said Abby “I bought green paint _ $6.00.” Why are prepositions important when peop le talk about activities such as shopping for paint? 15 c ha p t er t h r e e Pay Attention... 10 EXP NIOR JU visit ctivity, a is h t ities f m/activ a copy o o t c e g g in o h T epublis errylak h c w w w STOP! DON’’T T WRITE IN T IN TH HE BOOK! ACTIVITY Locate and List! Locate and list all the prepositions in the following sentences: “My mom keeps a pair of scissors in this drawer,” said Abby “Hmm, they’re not there No worries! I will check the craft box under her bed.” “I have scissors and... L A R ER R O L EXP NIOR JU STO P! DON’’T T WRITE IIN N THE BOOK! ACTIVITY Read and Rethink! Read the conversation below Then rewrite what Nate and Abby say to each other by filling in the blanks with prepositions: “The principal asked to see us _ recess!” Nate told Abby “Ugh,” replied Abby “I hate when I get called _ his office.” “Don’t worry,” said Nate “I think he wants to meet _ us _ a good... activitie o / c m a o t c e g To g blishin ylakepu r r e h c www 21 Glossary manner (MAN-ur) the way in which something is done phrase (FRAYZ) a group of words that have a meaning but do not form a sentence prepositions (prep-uh-ZISH-uhnz) words that show the relation of a noun or pronoun to other items in a sentence punctuation (puhngk-choo-AY-shuhn) the use of periods, commas, and other marks to help make... all examples of punctuation that follow prepositional phrases Punctuation usually comes after the object of the preposition It rarely comes directly after the preposition itself Also, most of the time, prepositions do not end sentences ? ! , exclamation point question mark a m m co peri od 17 nk about it i h T Extra Examples “With which friend did you work on your project?” asked Abby’s sister the next ... Nate used prepositions when they talked about their project Prepositions show relationships between words The most common prepositions are at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, and with Prepositions. .. 978-1-62431-182-6 (lib bdg.) — ISBN 978-1-62431-248-9 (e-book) — ISBN 978-1-62431-314-1 (pbk.) English language Prepositions Juvenile literature I Title PE1335.M36 2013 428.2—dc23 2013005599 Cherry Lake... EXPLORER JUNIOR Prepositions over up on across in by Katie Marsico Cherry Lake Publishing • ann arbor, michigan text: A note on the Certain words d are highlighte f as examples o Bold, c prepositions
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