SÁNG KI N KINH NGHI MẾ Ệ TÀI:ĐỀ “MỘT SỐ BIỆN PHÁP ĐỂ PHÁT HUY TÍNH TÍCH CỰC HỌC
TIẾNG ANH CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 10 THÔNG QUA MỘT SỐ HOẠT ĐỘNG TRONG SÁCH GIÁO KHOA TIẾNG ANH” PART A: INTRODUCTION I . The Statement of This Problem: English nowadays has become more and more popular and has been widely used in Viet Nam. It is one of the major subjects in many schools and an indispensable means of communication at present. With such a trend of development, learning English is, therefore, important than ever before. All learning is active in a certain sense, but some kinds of learning are more active than others. Here, active learning is defined in one sense to mean that the learner uses opportunities to decide about aspects of the learning process. The stimulation of learning activities and regulation processes, or teaching students how to learn, is likely to lead to the best performance in the long run. 1. The Reality of The Problem Requiring The New Solution to solve: It is of great importance that we should take students' English language learning into consideration. However, in Viet Nam, many students are not fully interested in learning English in class. On the one hand, they seem to be shy and fearful of making mistakes. On the other hand, we lack a language environment and sufficient learning activities. In that reality, there have many problems catching pedagogues' attention, i.e, how to organize learning activities effectively, how to develop interesting study atmosphere in the classroom in order to enhance students' activeness in English language learning. Being aware of this urgent problem, I have a great desire to study the current activeness of students especially the 10 th form students at high schools in Tuy Phuoc High School and Quoc Hoc High School and to investigate the learning activities in the English textbook which contribute an important role in enhancing students' activeness in learning English. That is the reason why I choose the topic "A study on some ways to enhance the 10 th form students' activeness in learning English through some learning activities in the English textbook for my experience initiative. 2. The Meaning and Effect of the N ew Solution "Active learning has a long and distinguished history. Again and again the idea of learners getting involved in the learning process instead of passively receiving information from an instructor has been considered the essence of education. No doubt good teachers have always known that learning is enhanced when students get involved to discover, manipulate or personalize information". Active learning connects it to mental activity in another sense: it refers to the extent to which the learner is challenged to use his or her mental abilities while learning. Thus active learning on the one hand has to do with decisions about learning and on the other hand making active use of thinking. Active learning can be more attractive for learners than more passive forms of learning because they can become more motivated and interested when they have a say in their own learning and when their mental activity is challenged. Being involved in the decisions about learning they can connect to their prior knowledge and their own needs and interests. In finding out things independently, they can follow their own interests and motivation. In the process they can learn to make decisions and take responsibility. Moreover, active learning is important because of opportunities for learning to learn. Students can learn how to learn by practising how to do it. Giving them responsibility for parts of the decisions that can or should be made is one way to teach them how to learn. In earlier times, one thought that learning to learn and active learning were for the elite. Only the best students were expected to learn actively. For the weaker students highly structured forms of teaching were to be preferred, so was the conventional wisdom One reason why they are weak students turned out to be that they are not able to learn actively. When the weakest students learned how to learn and think, their learning performance improved drastically (see, for instance, Palincsar and Brown, 1984). Active learning is also important for teachers. Motivational and burn out problems of teachers may disappear when students are more motivated and more active learners. Besides, teaching will become more intellectually challenging when students are learning actively and independently. Hence, the problem I am concerning about which learning activities in the English textbook implemented in the class make student learn more actively. As an English teacher, I truly believed that this study would be a great contribution to my current teaching. 3. The scope of the study With a limited fund of time and ability, this study only investigates the activeness of 10 th form students in two high schools. The paper also only studies some learning activities in the English 10 textbook for enhancing students' activeness in learning English. II. Method and Procedure 1. Literature review and theoretical background 1.1.Literature Review There have been many pieces of writing about "active language learner" by foreign methodologists and linguistics. According to Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak (1999), a motivated learner can be viewed as " someone who is actively engaged in the learning process". They suggest some ways of promoting and maintaining active engagement through the concept of Interest. They also emphasize the important role of interest and give some strategies to increase interest such as capture students' attention, maintain students' involvement in the learning. In the book entitled "Teaching principles and practice" by Cole and Chan (1994), they mention student engagement as students' involvement and active participation in learning activities. They suggest the most frequently used measure of student engagement is the amount of time that a student engaged in learning tasks. They also refer to some techniques to promote active engagement and success rate among students. In addition, in "Language teaching methodology", David Nunan introduces some characteristics of the "good" language learners, and mention learning styles and learning strategies that mainly focus on learner as well. Regarding students' activeness, some Vietnamese writers such as Dang Thi Kiem (2003) and Nguyen Van Vien (2003) also mention students' activeness through reading comprehension and pairwork and groupwork activities. Although active learning has been mentioned in a number book, there has so far not been any study discussing how to enhance the activeness of high school students at grade 10. 1.2 . Theoretical Background: 1.2.1. Overview of communicative approach: 220.127.116.11. Theories of communicative approach: The origins of communicative language teaching (CLT) are to be found in the changes in the British language teaching tradition dating from the late 1960s. CLT is best considered an approach rather than a method. It is a theory of language teaching that starts from a communication model of language and language use. Because of the focus on communicative activities and the concentration on language as a means of communication, such an approach has been called the communicative approach [9,P.4]. It mainly focuses on communicative proficiency rather on merely the mastery of structures. In learning and teaching activities, the range of exercise types and activities compatible with a communicative approach is unlimited, provided that such exercises enable learners to attain the communicative objectives of the curriculum, engage learners in communication and require the use of such communication processes as information sharing, negotiation of meaning and interaction. Consequently, communication has been the major aim of language teaching and learning. The goal of language teaching is to develop what Hymes (1972) referred to as "Communicative competence". The term indicates the ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom. Elements of an underlying learning theory can be discerned on some CLT practices according to Little wood (1981) and Johnson (1982). _The 1 st element described as the communication principle: Activities that involve real communication promote learning. _The second element is the task principle: Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promoting learning. _The third element is the meaningful principle: Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process. Learning activities are consequently selected according to how well they engage the learner in meaningful and authentic language use. In short, communicative approach provides learners with a desired goal "Communicative competence". To obtain this, students need knowledge of language which can be enhanced through the use of learning activities appropriately. Also, through learning activities, students participate more in the learning process and therefore, promote students' activeness. 18.104.22.168. Purposes of communicative activities According to Littlewood (1990), what the teacher might hope to achieve through communicative activities in the classroom may be very important because this will determine his own attitude towards it and what place he gives it in his overall methodology. The followings are some typical purposes of communicative activities that can make to language learning: * They provide "Whole - task practice". In foreign language learning, teacher's means for providing learners with whole - task practice in the classroom is through various kinds of communicative activity, structured in order to suit the learners' level of ability. *They improve motivation. The learner's major objective is to take part in communication with others. Their motivation to learn is more likely to be sustained if they can see how their classroom learning is related to this objective and helps them to achieve it with increasing success. Also, most learners' conception of language is as a means communication rather than as a structural system. Their learning is more likely to make sense to them if it can build on this conception rather than contradict it. *They allow natural learning. Language learning takes place inside the learner and, as teachers know how to frequent frustration, many aspects of it are beyond their pedagogical control. It is likely, in fact, that many aspects of language learning can take place only through natural processes which operate when a person is involved in using the language for communication. Activity (inside or outside the classroom) is, therefore, an important part of the total learning process. *They can create a context with supports learning. Communicative activity provides opportunities for positive personal relationships to develop among learners and between learners and teachers. These relationships can help to "humanize" the classroom and to create an environment that supports the individual in his efforts to learn. [15,pl7-18] 1.2.2. Learner- centered Approach Today, the dominant view of language teaching and learning favors a great amount of student-centered learning instead of the traditional teacher-dominated classroom. "The learner-centered approach is based on the principle that learning is totally determined by the learner. As teachers we have an influence what we teach, but what learner learn is determined by the learner alone" . Along with this view, Nunan (1991) sees that a learner-centered approach is based on the belief that learners will bring to the learning situation different beliefs and attitudes about the nature of language and language learning and that these beliefs and attitudes need to be taken into consideration in the selection of content and learning experiences. [19, pl78] Obviously, there is an emphasis on the central importance of the learners and their attitudes to learning. According to Hutchinson and Waters (1989), learners were seen to have different needs and interests which would have an important influence on their motivation to learn and therefore on the effectiveness of their learning. This supports to the development of courses in which "relevance" to the learner' needs and interests was paramount. Moreover, Hutchinson and Waters also state that learning is seen as a process in which the learners use what knowledge or skills they have in order to make sense of the flow of new information. Learning, therefore, is an internal process, which is crucially dependent upon the knowledge the learners already have and their ability and motivation to use it. Furthermore, learning is not just a mental process. It is a process of negotiation between individuals and society. Society sets the target and individuals must do their best to get as close to the target as possible. The learners will certainly determine their own route to target. In the learner-centered classroom, the learners are not only involved in making choices about what and how to learn but also are actively involved in the learning process and they do all the work. Learners will pay more attention and learn better from one another since their performances and processes of negotiation of meaning are more closely adapted to one another's level of ability (Module 4, Language Teaching methodology, p5) Learners' ability to take responsibility for their own learning depends on their skills of independent learning. They need to learn how: - Manage the physical environment - Search for and discover information for themselves - Take appropriate risks and learn from mistakes - Determine their own targets and assignments and how best to achieve these through discussion with the teacher - Work individually - Work in groups, in pairs and cooperate with others - Read information for themselves - Evaluate their own learning, their efforts as well as the process they go through to achieve a goal - Use strategies to overcome communication breakdown - Use negotiated strategies - Develop specific skills in speaking, listening, reading and writing In addition, placing students at the center of learning requires important shifts in our teaching. According to Harmer [1991:35], "Language teaching is not just about teaching language, it is also about helping students to develop themselves". Teachers no longer merely present and explain topics. Instead, they guide learners' efforts to develop their own understanding. Arthur Combs (1965) assumed that all behavior of a person is the direct result of his field of perception at the moment of his behaving. From this assumption, we can see that the way a person perceives himself or herself is of paramount importance and that a basic purpose of teaching is to help each student to develop a positive self-concept. The role of teacher is, therefore, required as facilitator, encourager, helper, assister, colleague, friend of his students. Teacher should be sensitive, sincere and willing to meet the needs of students when necessary "Give a man a fish, you feed him for one day Teach a man how to fish, you feed him for a lifetime" (Chinese proverb) In this proverb, we can see that if a man is given a fish, he will have enough food for one day but if he is taught to fish he will have enough food for all his life. In the same way, if learners only depend on teachers and receive knowledge passively, they will not learn the language well. However, if teachers give learners a chance to do individually, teach them how to work with themselves, they will succeed in learning language and can develop communicative competence. In summary, learner-centered approach emphasizes the role learners rather than the role of teacher. In classroom, teacher works as a facilitator, a guide, a controller, an assessor, organizer, a resource, monitor, prompter, and a participant (Harmer, 1981) in order to identify goals, organize and sequence learning activities so that learners can be actively involved in the learning process and that enhances learners' motivation in English language learning. 1.2.3. Active Learning 22.214.171.124. Definitions Like many terms used to describe teaching or learning, active learning is defined in many different ways. This notion has developed over the last dozen years or so. "Learning is conceived of us something a learner does, not something that is done to a learner" [Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 1991, P7]. "Learning in which students by acting on object and interacting with other people ideas and events construct new understanding"[Luckner and Nadle, 1997, P13]. According to Meyers and Jones (1993), active learning has been defined as providing opportunities for students to meaningfully talk, listen, write, read and reflect on the content, ideas, issues and concerns of an academic subject. There are two basic assumptions of active learning: *That learning is by nature an active endeavor. *That different people learn in different ways. This definition was modified by Silberman (1996): _What I hear, I forget. _What I hear and see, remember a little. _What I hear, see and ask question about or discuss with someone, I begin to understand. _What I teach another, I master  To learn something well, it helps to hear it, see it, ask questions about it and discuss it with others. Above all, students need to do it by themselves, try out skills and do assignments that depend on knowledge they already have or must acquire. Silberman also states that "When learning is active, students do most of the work. They use their brain studying ideas, solving problems and applying what they learn. Active learning is fast -paced, fun, supportive and personally engaging"  In addition, in an active learning environment, students individually are encouraged to engage in the process of building their own mental models from the information they are acquiring. In such an environment students become active participants who engage in a dialogue with their teacher. Moreover, active learning is an approach to learning that involves the student as his/her own teacher and involves putting students in situations which force them to read, speak, listen, think and write . In an active learning, knowledge is directly experienced, constructed, acted, tested or revised by the learner working together in and outside of class. Most important, to be actively involved, students must engage in higher - order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, evaluation of information within the context, students also are expected to do things and think about what they are doing.  Mark Grabe and Cindy Grabe (1996) reported that "active learning is a more effective learning approach. When a student functions in an active role, he manipulates information to construct personal understanding when we advocate specific learning tasks, we do so bases on these tasks providing meaningful opportunities for students to think, solve problems and apply their knowledge. When students play a more active role in their own learning, there is a need of changing teacher's role from "dispenser of knowledge" to "facilitator of learning". One assumption behind such a shift is that learning is accomplished by the student and that the teacher's role is to consider how to assist students. A second assumption is that academic work extends beyond the mere storage of information. According to Joseph Pitts and Horton , the structure of active learning involves three categories: elements, strategies and resources. The elements refer to what we do during the presentation (i. e, talk, listen, read, write or reflect). The strategies determine what we do as a group (small groups, cooperative work, case studies, simulations problem solving or journal writing). The resources might include reading outside speakers, teaching technology, or commercially produced educational programs. In short, many researchers have mentioned the notion of "active learning". In classroom, in order to help learners participate in the learning process actively, the role of the teacher is of paramount importance to organize learning activities appropriately since it is a great opportunity for students to practice English effectively. 126.96.36.199. The "good" language learner Learners could be categorized into many types in which Jones, et al. (1987) found that effective learners are aware of the processes underlying their own learning and seek to use appropriately learning strategies to control their own learning. Nunan (1991) also found that one of the characteristic of the "good" language learner was an ability to reflect on and articulate the processes underlying their own learning. In the study of the "good" language learner, Rubin and Thomson (1983) suggest that good or efficient learners tend to exhibit the following characteristics as second language learning: - Find their own way - Organise infromation about language - Are creative and experiement with language - Make their own opportunities and find strategies for getting practice in using the language inside and outside the classroom - Learn to live with uncertainly and develop strategies for making sense of the target language without wanting to understand every word [...]... The population of the questionnaire: As mentioned above, questionnaire was distributed to 200 10 th form students at four classes of Tuy Phuoc 1 High School and Quoc Hoc High school.in Qui Nhon city To get more information, a questionnaire for 10 teachers in charge of 10 th was carried out at two above high schools In The process of getting information, teachers also gave useful and good ideas for the... Classroom observation was made in eight classes at two high schools, four classes at Tuy Phuoc 1 High school and four classes at Quoc Hoc High school 2.4 Data analysis: This study presents both qualitative and quantitative results basing on the data collected from the questionnaires and classroom observation In summary, questionnaire is chosen as the main method while observation is arded as a subordinate... classroom observation and questionnaires for teachers and students at Tuy Phuoc 1 High School and Quoc Hoc High school Thirdly, the data collected was quantitatively analyzed to discuss the research questions 2,2.Methods of data collection: As mentioned in the previous parts, the paper aims to some ways to enhance 10 th form students' activeness in learning English through some learning activities in... addition, the data collected form questionnaire will be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively PART B: CONTENT I Aim and Objectives: This paper aims at studying on how to enhance 10 th form students' activeness in learning English through some learning activities in the English textbook This paper is intended to: - Investigate how active the 10th form students are in learning English - Investigate learning... to respond without giving their names Thus, the information maybe objective and reliable The questionnaire for students consisting of 15 questions was distributed to 10 th form students of Tuy Phuoc 1 High School and Quoc Hoc High school The questions were translated into Vietnamese before handed to the informants so that students can understand all the questions easily The questions then were translated... ways are given by Eggen and Kauchak that affect classroom climate - Order and safety: Classroom as secure places to learn Effective schools are places of trust, order, cooperation and high morale For students to be motivated to learn, school must be physically and psychologically safe places - Success: According to Eggen and Kauchak (1990), once a safe and orderly environment is established, student's... reason, we can see that students learn English just because they like it, they consider it one of the most interesting and exciting subject in the school curriculum Being one of the most important subjects at school, English is compulsory to all high school students but few of the students learn English for this reason Obviously, students nowadays have a clear awareness of English learning; they learn... the ability of speaking English of the 10 th form students is quite limited They find it difficult to express their ideas in English so the students are less involved in the lesson This is the result of the syllabuses which focus on grammar, vocabulary and reading skill in previous school years The students have few opportunities to develop speaking skill Thus, 10 th form students now meet some difficulties... responses % % 20 60 20 0 10, 5 51,5 34,5 3,5 2 Learning activities making students learn Actively 20 14 - Lead-in 50 36 - Reading for information 0 18,5 - Writing a report/ a letter, etc 30 42 - Listening to a text/ a dialogue, etc 50 60 - Asking and answering questions 20 5,5 - Problem- solving 40 23,5 - Role-play 50 51,5 - Small group discussion 100 72 - Guessing game 20 23 - Cued dialogue 10 19,5 - Interview... important Not important at all 2 What are your reasons for learning English? 14,5 A compulsory subject at school 61 Better job in the future 19,5 18,5 Knowledge of another culture - Your favorite subject 0 According to what is shown from the table 2.1, it can be realized that a large number of high school students enjoy learning English (77, 5 %) while there are still 22, 5% of the students who have a . KI N KINH NGHI MẾ Ệ TÀI:ĐỀ “MỘT SỐ BIỆN PHÁP ĐỂ PHÁT HUY TÍNH TÍCH CỰC HỌC TIẾNG ANH CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 10 THÔNG QUA MỘT SỐ HOẠT ĐỘNG TRONG SÁCH GIÁO KHOA TIẾNG ANH PART A: INTRODUCTION I. study the current activeness of students especially the 10 th form students at high schools in Tuy Phuoc High School and Quoc Hoc High School and to investigate the learning activities in the. study only investigates the activeness of 10 th form students in two high schools. The paper also only studies some learning activities in the English 10 textbook for enhancing students'