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Phrasal verbs

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  • Phrasal verbs

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© Copyright 2020, 2017, 2009, 1999 by Carl W Hart All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions By payment of the required fees, you have been granted the non-exclusive, nontransferable right to access and read the text of this eBook on screen No part of this text may be reproduced, transmitted, downloaded, decompiled, reverse engineered, or stored in or introduced into any information storage and retrieval system, in any form or by any means, whether electronic or mechanical, now known or hereinafter invented, without the express written permission of the publisher Published by Kaplan, Inc., d/b/a Barron’s Educational Series 750 Third Avenue New York, NY 10017 www.barronseduc.com ISBN: 978-1-5062-6760-9 987654321 Kaplan, Inc., d/b/a Barron’s Educational Series print books are available at special quantity discounts to use for sales promotions, employee premiums, or educational purposes For more information or to purchase books, please call the Simon & Schuster special sales department at 866-506-1949 Table of Contents To the Teacher To the Student Unit 1: Definition of Phrasal Verbs, Separable/ Inseparable, and Transitive/Intransitive1 Unit 2: Phrasal Verbs and Do, Does, and Did Unit 3: Three-Word Phrasal Verbs Unit 4: Present and Past Continuous Phrasal Verbs Unit 5: Stress in Two-Word Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 6: Stress in Three-Word Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 7: Separable Phrasal Verbs with Long Objects Unit 8: Present Perfect Phrasal Verbs Unit 9: Two-Word Phrasal Verbs that Require a Preposition when Used with an Object, Part Unit 10: Phrasal Verbs Used as Nouns Unit 11: Phrasal Verbs Used in Compound Nouns Unit 12: Past Perfect Phrasal Verbs Unit 13: Passive Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 14: Participle Adjectives Formed from Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 15: Phrasal Verbs and Will or Be Going To Unit 16: Phrasal Verbs with Gerund Objects, Part Unit 17: Adverbs and Phrasal Verbs Unit 18: Phrasal Verbs and Can, Could, Will, and Would Unit 19: Phrasal Verbs and the Adverb Right Unit 20: Phrasal Verbs Followed by the -ing Form Unit 21: Phrasal Verbs and Should and Ought To Unit 22: The Particle Up and the Adverbs Right and All Unit 23: Two-Word Phrasal Verbs that Require a Preposition when Used with an Object, Part Unit 24: Stress and Phrasal Verbs Used as Nouns Unit 25: Phrasal Verbs and Have to, Have Got to, and Must Unit 26: Phrasal Verbs and the Adverb Back Unit 27: Phrasal Verbs with the Particle Off and the Adverb Right Unit 28: Passive Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 29: Phrasal Verbs and Might, May, and Can Unit 30: Participle Adjectives Formed from Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 31: Phrasal Verbs and Gerund Subjects Unit 32: Phrasal Verbs with the Particle Out Unit 33: Phrasal Verbs and Midsentence Adverbs Unit 34: Stress in Two- and Three-Word Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 35: Gerund Phrasal Verbs Unit 36: Phrasal Verbs with the Particle Down Unit 37: Phrasal Verbs Used as Nouns, Part Unit 38: The Verb Keep and Adverbs and Adverbials Showing Degrees of Variability Unit 39: Passive Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 40: Gerund Phrasal Verbs vs Phrasal Verbs Followed by the -ing Form Unit 41: Two-Word Phrasal Verbs with the Particle In that Require Into when Used with an Object Unit 42: Phrasal Verbs with Get, Part Unit 43: Modals and Present Perfect Phrasal Verbs Unit 44: Participle Adjectives and Passive Phrasal Verbs with the Verb Get Unit 45: Phrasal Verbs with the Verb Turn Unit 46: Stress in Phrasal Verbs with the Particle Into Unit 47: Particles Used Without Verbs Unit 48: Modals and Present Perfect Passive Phrasal Verbs Unit 49: Combinations of Get, Right, Back, and To Unit 50: Keep at it! Answers Index To the Teacher The inspiration for Phrasal Verbs came about when a student asked me for a textbook to help her learn the meanings of common English verbs The only textbook focusing on common verbs that I could give her taught the decidedly uncommon verbs arise, awake, and seek but made no mention of their much more common phrasal equivalents get up, wake up, and look for What Are Phrasal Verbs? Phrasal verbs are an essential part of spoken and written English at all levels No ESL student can afford to overlook them, yet many ESL students (and their teachers) Studies have shown that ESL students’ knowledge of and use of phrasal verbs often lag behind their overall level of fluency and vocabulary acquisition This can be ascribed, I believe, to two factors—their idiomatic nature (discussed below) and the false notion among some instructors that phrasal verbs are “informal.” Some are informal, of course, but in this regard they are no different from single-word verbs—the majority are perfectly acceptable and frequently used at all registers It is a mistake to give ESL students—especially those learning English for use in academia or business—the false impression that phrasal verbs are inherently informal and are therefore to be avoided in formal discourse It is important to understand that phrasal verbs are verbs, not idiomatic curiosities There is no logic to classifying take over with take the bull by the horns It is also important to understand that these verb + element constructions are verbs in their own right Take off, for example, is not a variation of take It is an entirely separate verb from take So what are phrasal verbs? As we will see, there is no universally agreed-upon definition What follows is what I prefer, but I will discuss alternative schools of thought As I see it, phrasal verb is the popular term often used for what are more accurately called multiword verbs Phrasal verbs are a type of multiword verb Multiword Verbs Multiword verbs consist of a verb and one or two additional elements These elements are sometimes prepositional adverbs (also known as adverbial prepositions) and sometimes prepositions They can be broken down into three broad categories—phrasal verbs, phrasal prepositional verbs, and prepositional verbs—with additional subcategories Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a particle A particle is a word that functions in other contexts as a preposition or an adverb, but not when part of a phrasal verb Whether a particle is an adverb, a preposition, or both is something that I don’t advise discussing with students In phrasal verbs, they are neither They are particles Phrasal verbs can be subcategorized as transitive and intransitive Transitive Phrasal Verbs Transitive phrasal verbs can be further subcategorized as separable or inseparable based on the allowable position of the object noun phrase in relation to the verb and the particle Separable Transitive Phrasal Verbs Separable transitive phrasal verbs can be further subcategorized as optionally separable or permanently separated Optionally Separable Transitive Phrasal Verbs Optionally separable transitive phrasal verbs permit and sometimes require particle movement When the noun phrase is a noun, an indefinite pronoun, or a quantifier, the particle may appear either before or after the noun phrase However, when the noun phrase is an object pronoun, the pronoun must be placed between the verb and the particle The concept of end weight comes into play here Native speakers not like to separate verbs and particles with especially long noun phrases Though grammatical, the result can be awkward and unclear This is discussed in Unit Permanently Separated Transitive Phrasal Verbs A small group of transitive phrasal verbs are permanently separated Among these are get down (depress), let off (not punish), let down (disappoint), and over In the case of permanently transitive separated phrasal verbs, the direct object must be placed between the verb and the particle Inseparable Transitive Phrasal Verbs Another group of transitive phrasal verbs cannot be separated at all, or at least that’s one school of thought—a traditional and well-established school of thought Among these transitive phrasal verbs are pick on, look after, run across, and fall for At a glance, it might seem that inseparable phrasal verbs are no different from separable phrasal verbs, apart from having particles which, for some unknown reason, cannot be separated But it’s not as simple as that There is one important difference between inseparable transitive verb + element constructions and separable transitive verb + element constructions Inseparable transitive verb + element constructions are followed by prepositions (which function as prepositions), not particles As we will see, this is also the definition of a prepositional verb Nevertheless, some maintain that inseparable transitive phrasal verbs are distinct from prepositional verbs, but those who maintain this distinction cannot agree on which criteria to base this distinction or, in many cases, cannot decide to which of the two classifications various verb + preposition constructions belong Those who make no distinction between inseparable transitive phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs are not in complete agreement either Some reject the whole notion that phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs are two distinct types of multiword verbs, a term they not recognize To them, all verb + preposition constructions are phrasal verbs Others take the opposite view —that all inseparable transitive verb + preposition constructions are prepositional verbs; there is no such thing, they say, as an inseparable transitive phrasal verb Intransitive Phrasal Verbs Intransitive phrasal verbs can be categorized as pure or ergative Pure Intransitive Phrasal Verbs Examples of pure intransitive phrasal verbs are take off (from an airport runway), come over (visit), and get together (meet) Pure intransitive phrasal verbs can be followed by a prepositional phrase When this occurs, they become phrasal prepositional verbs (discussed below), also known as three-word phrasal verbs (except when to changes to into, resulting in a phrasal verb that superficially remains a two-word phrasal verb Contrast break out of with break into) Ergative Intransitive Phrasal Verbs An ergative verb (phrasal or otherwise) is a verb whose action is experienced by the subject A few are only ergative (die down), but most have a transitive counterpart (burn down, blow up, wear out) You can burn down a building, or a building can burn down Phrasal Prepositional Verbs This category is a hybrid; phrasal prepositional verbs, more commonly known as three-word (phrasal) verbs, consist of a verb + particle + preposition Examples include look up to, come up with, and get out of All are transitive, with some allowing for gerund complements (I look forward to seeing you) Because the term phrasal prepositional verb is cumbersome (and is also used sometimes to describe inseparable transitive phrasal verbs) and would be meaningless to most ESL students, I use (and recommend that you use) the term three-word verb A small number of phrasal prepositional verbs, such as put up to and screw out of, are permanently separated because they require two objects These are not twoword separable phrasal verbs used with an optional preposition because without the preposition, they have no meaning or have a completely different meaning Prepositional Verbs As we have seen, our last category is the object of contention and confusion Prepositional verbs are verbs followed by a preposition At a glance, these may appear no different from transitive phrasal verbs The Great Debate In the case of separable transitive phrasal verbs, prepositional verbs are clearly different Prepositional verbs not allow for particle movement (and are always followed by prepositions, not particles) Moreover, a relative clause (also known as an adjective clause) in which the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition may be formed from a prepositional verb (She is the person on whom I depend) but cannot be formed with a separable transitive phrasal verb (*It’s a mystery out which I cannot figure) Finally, prepositional verbs generally allow for adverb insertion between the verb and the preposition (We decided ultimately on Plan B); separable phrasal verbs not (*I turned immediately off the light) But distinguishing between inseparable transitive phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs is a bit trickier, and some not distinguish between them at all In both categories (if one accepts that there are two), one can find examples where a good argument could be made for its inclusion in the other Some apply syntactic tests They claim that inseparable transitive phrasal verbs (as opposed to prepositional verbs) cannot pass the adverb insertion test I am not comfortable with this Some examples, while perhaps not likely among native speakers, not strike me as undeniably ungrammatical (He picks mercilessly on his sister) A somewhat better case can be made for maintaining a distinction between inseparable transitive phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs by applying the relative clause test Verb + element constructions generally accepted as inseparable transitive phrasal verbs usually sound awkward when plugged into a relative clause (They are the children after whom I look), but prepositional verbs usually not (The bus for which I am waiting is late) But a test that is only usually effective is not very precise or reliable What is awkward is in the ear of the beholder And, as every ESL teacher who has marked a student essay knows, awkward does not always equate to ungrammatical And it gets worse A thorough examination of ESL textbooks and discussions of phrasal/multiword verbs online reveals widespread disagreement Some textbooks accept the distinction between intransitive phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs but cannot decide on the category to which several verb + element constructions belong Come across is a good example Is come across a phrasal verb? Is it a prepositional verb? Apparently it’s both, depending on which of two textbooks (by the same publisher) you refer to Some say nothing of prepositional verbs Every verb + preposition construction is an inseparable transitive phrasal verb Others classify all verb + preposition constructions as prepositional verbs Even then there is disagreement Some are happy to include these prepositional verbs within the broader classification of phrasal verbs Some maintain that prepositional verbs are not phrasal verbs at all —that they are one of two members (the other being phrasal verbs) of the multiword verb classification Others rely solely on semantic tests If it’s idiomatic, it’s an inseparable transitive phrasal verb If it’s not, it’s a prepositional verb This strikes me as a particularly ineffective test Like awkwardness, the degree to which a lexical item is idiomatic is rather a hard thing to say with any precision—more of a continuum than either/or Regarding phrasal prepositional verbs, some combine them with two-word inseparable transitive phrasal verbs in a single category, which would mean, 47-2 He’s going to move in with his Uncle John It’s cutting back It’s a cutback You can’t figure out where they’re coming in It didn’t come in on time He’s moving out I ran out of money She’s pulling out She shouldn’t have put a pool in such a small backyard 10 She’s brushing up on Italian 11 He might pull out 12 She told me to cut back on candy 13 He’s going to come in late 14 She’s putting a lot of effort into learning Chinese 15 They ran out of time 16 He hasn’t put them in the washing machine 17 He asked her when she was moving in 18 He puts $1,000 into his checking account 47-3 tried on kicked out rips off get down conned into set out talked into conned out of make for 10 bumped into 11 shut up 12 gotten up 13 talk out of 14 get into 15 nodding off 16 freaked out 17 sneaked out 18 come to 19 squeeze into 20 get out 48-1 put back switch off knocked out looked up to put back switched on kicked out knocked out put back 10 throw out 11 hammer out 12 looks down on 13 put back 14 knock out 15 knocked out 48-2 General Johnston had to put back the attack General Johnston had to put the attack back General Johnston had to put it back Have you switched on the TV? Have you switched the TV on? Have you switched it on? Are you going to switch off the lights? Are you going to switch the lights off? Are you going to switch them off? Throwing out all this junk is going to be a big job Throwing all this junk out is going to be a big job Throwing it out is going to be a big job 48-3 It has put back your fight for justice He looks up to him It knocked him out It’s a knockout I switched it on It’s switched on They must have been switched off They’re switched off They hammered it out 10 He looks down on them 11 He would have been kicked out 48-4 turnoff cutback make-up turn-on pullout carryout runaround turnover rip-off 10 lookout 11 turnout 12 falling-out 48-5 put into talked out of carried away out of pulled out stick out bumped into turn up into 10 brush up 11 talked into 12 move in 13 Turn over 14 move out 15 blow out 16 stressing out 49-1 get to hang on get to start off get to get back to get on clogged up get on 10 gotten to 11 Throwing away 12 getting on 13 get to 14 get ahead 15 starts off 16 get on 17 Hang on 18 throw away 19 get to 20 got to 21 got on 22 Get to 49-2 She can’t get her shoes on He got to feeling depressed He threw them away You’re going to get back to work She’s going to get back to me It got clogged up It was clogged up He has never gotten to work after 9:30 I got on with my work 10 It should be taken out when the temperature gets to 190 degrees 11 He said he couldn’t hang on any longer 12 You’ve got to get to them 13 It must have been thrown away 14 He showed you how to get on a horse 15 It started off well, but things got worse 16 He told you that you shouldn’t let it get to you 17 She got to pet a baby tiger 18 He on to the ropes 19 He got on the diving board 20 He got right back on 21 She couldn’t have gotten to the airport already 22 He always starts off by introducing himself 23 It should help you to get ahead 49-4 cutting back come in conned into throw out looked up to look down on blurted out put back gets off on 10 hammered out 11 knocked out 12 turned down 13 letting in 14 get over 15 turn down 16 switch on 17 set out 50-1 paid back wear out turn around pay back deals with wore out comes down to turn around Hold on 10 dealt with 11 come by 12 hold on 13 taken up on 14 Hold on 50-2 He’s been holding on for ten minutes They wore out They’re wornout It’s turning around It comes down to the MBA program They wanted to know how Nicholas had come by it It was a turnaround He’s going to be paid back You took her up on the offer 10 She’ll deal with the problem 11 She held on to it 12 It wore her out 13 She felt worn-out 50-4 stressed-out worn-out turned on turned off grossed out beat-up clogged up mixed up locked up 10 pissed off 11 built-in 12 turned on 13 turned off 14 dumbed down 50-5 turned into get to turn in built into turn out get back to thrown away turned on get on 10 get ahead 11 Hang on 12 turn down 13 Turn off 14 clogged up 15 made for 16 turning up 50-6 give out put into pay back take up on dealt with running out came by get ahead hold on 10 turned around 11 get back to 12 gotten to 13 came down to 14 wore out 15 freaks out 16 started off Index act up, 135 aim at, 163 amount to, 270 back down, 316 back off, 98 back out, 183 back up, 84–86 beat up, 396 beef up, 243 bite off, 235 blow away, 126 blow off, 358 blow out, 385–386 blow up, 291 blurt out, 291 boil down to, 40 break down, 31–32 break in, 366–367 break off, 235–236 break out, 64–65 break through, 155 break up, 243–244 bring back, 164 bring up, 358–359 brush off, 328 brush up, 421 build in, 414 build up, 11 bump into, 414 burn down, 32 burn out, 56–57 burn up, 192–193 burst out, 359 butt in, 116 call back, 244 call for, 22 call off, 107 calm down, 317 carry away, 396 carry on, 135–136 carry out, 244–245 catch on, 292 catch up, 65 check in, 367 check out, 367–368 cheer up, chicken out, 65 chill out, 164 chop up, 347 clean out, 279 clear out, 280 clear up, 193 clog up, 441 close off, 107–108 come about, 292 come across, 99 come apart, 251 come back, 359–360 come by, 449 come down, 209 come down to, 449 come down with, 40 come in, 422 come off, 11 come on, 328–329 come out, 280–281 come over, 146 come through, 127 come to, 183 come up, 99 come up with, 41 into, 415 out of, 415 cool off, 164 count on, 136 count up, 193 cover up, 329–330 crack down, 200 cross off, 348 cut back, 422 cut down, 200–201 cut off, 86–87 cut out, 271 cut up, 46 deal with, 450 die down, 317 away with, 271 over, 300 with, 219 without, 272 doze off, 12 dress up, 116 drop in, 251 drop off, 87 drop out, 201 drown out, 245 dry off, 236 dry out, 128 dry up, 116–117 dumb down, 330 eat up, 193–194 end up, 172 fall apart, 146–147 fall behind, 292–293 fall for, 12 fall off, 74 fall out, 281–282 fall over, 57 fall through, 100 feel up to, 17 fight back, 57–58 figure on, 155 figure out, fill in, 74–75 fill out, 117 fill up, 348 find out, 32 fix up, 128–129 fizzle out, 156 flip out, 252 float around, 300 follow up, 88 fool around, 308 freak out, 415 get ahead, 442 get along, 66 get around to, 41 get at, 23 get away, 201–202 get back, 375–376 get back at, 147 get back to, 442 get behind, 376 get by, 376 get down, 377 get in, 377–378 get off, 156–157 get off on, 360 get on, 442–443 get out, 378–379 get out of, 41 get over, 379 get over with, 17 get through, 137 get to, 443 get together, 226 get up, 380 give away, 245–246 give back, give in, 12 give off, 23 give out, 386 give up, 66 go about, 147 go after, 23 go ahead, 75 go along with, 18 go around, 173 go away, 360 go back, 165 go back on, 42 go by, 309 go down, 317–318 go for, 137–138 go in for, 18 go off, 174 go on, 174–175 go out, 282 go over, 227 go overboard, 24 go through with, 42 go under, 252 go up, 227–228 go with, 129 goof around, 293 gross out, 386 grow out of, 147 grow up, 76 hammer out, 430 hand back, 32 hand in, 108 hand out, 76 hand over, 165 hang around, 175 hang on, 444 hang out, 330 hang up, 66–67 have on, 219 head back, 130 head for, 130 head into, 148 head toward, 387 heat up, 194 hit on, 108 hold against, 309 hold down, 318–319 hold off, 138 hold on, 450 hold out, 202 hold up, 47 hook up, 67 hurry up, 219–220 iron out, 13 keep at, 339 keep away, 339 keep down, 339–340 keep from, 340 keep off, 340 keep on, 341 keep to, 341 keep up, 342 kick back, 77 kick out, 396 knock off, 236 knock out, 431 knock over, 220 lay down, 319 lay off, 77 lead up to, 301 leave behind, 310 leave off, 109 leave out, 283 leave over, 331 let down, 331 let in, 368 let in on, 228 let off, 109 let out, 47–48 let up, 210 lie around, 176 light up, 110 lighten up, 220 line up, 157 lock in, 259–260 lock out, 260 lock up, 397 look at, 33 look down on, 431 look forward to, 18 look into, 272 look out, 252 look over, 184 look up, 24 look up to, 432 luck out, 252 make for, 415–416 make of, 310 make out, 253 make up, 203–204 man up, 194 max out, 293 melt down, 184 mess around, 58 mess up, 246 miss out, 283 mix up, 397 monkey around with, 42 move in, 423 move out, 423 narrow down, 310 nod off, 237 open up, 228 pass away, pass out, 260–261 pay back, 450–451 pay off, 332 pay up, 194 pick on, 184 pick out, 58 pick up, 348–350 pig out, 59 pile up, 33 piss off, 398 pitch in, 311 plug in, 369 plug up, 195 point out, 48 print out, 210 pull off, 294 pull out, 424 pull over, 166 pull through, 13 punch in, 261 punch out, 261 push around, 158 put away, 117–118 put back, 432 put down, 319–320 put in, 424–425 put off, 272 put on, 4–5 put out, 261–262 put past, 138 put to, 24–25 put together, 229 put up, 100–101 put up to, 301 put up with, 19 rip off, 398 rip up, 148 rule out, 273 run across, 254 run around, 361 run down, 320–321 run into, run out, 425 run over, 48–49 run up, 387 screw on, 101 screw out of, 19 screw up, 78 see about, 49 sell out, 350 set out, 387–388 set up, 34 settle down, 185 settle for, 220 shake up, 210–211 show off, 211 show up, shut off, 229 shut up, 388 sign in, 101 sign out, 102 slow down, 211 sneak in, 369 sneak out, 369 sort out, 262–263 space out, 263 squeeze in, 370 stand for, 301–302 stand up, 246 start off, 444 start out, 176 start up, 230 stay out, 204 stay up, 176 stick around, 302 stick out, 283–284 stick to, 302 stick together, 185 stick up, 118 stick with, 361 stop over, 212 straighten out, 351 stress out, 398 string along, 273 suck up to, 158 switch off, 432–433 switch on, 433 take after, 35 take apart, 49 take back, 303 take in, 50 take off, take out, 88–89 take out on, 186 take over, 351–352 take up on, 451 talk down to, 19 talk into, 416 talk out of, 416 tear down, 59 tell apart, 158 tell on, 130 think about, 139 think up, 221 throw away, 444 throw out, 433 throw up, 13 track down, 110 trade in, 212 trick into, 311 try on, 388 try out, 89 turn around, 451 turn down, 404 turn in, 404–405 turn into, 405 turn off, 405–406 turn on, 406–407 turn out, 407–408 turn over, 408–409 turn up, 409 use up, 119 wake up, 90 warm up, 166–167 wash off, 237 watch out, 204 wear down, 148 wear off, 237 wear out, 452 weasel out, 221 wind up, 119–120 wipe off, 238 wipe out, 352 work in, 59 work out, 90–91 work up, 67–68 wrap up, 25 ... Two-Word Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 6: Stress in Three-Word Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 7: Separable Phrasal Verbs with Long Objects Unit 8: Present Perfect Phrasal Verbs Unit 9: Two-Word Phrasal Verbs. .. Formed from Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 15: Phrasal Verbs and Will or Be Going To Unit 16: Phrasal Verbs with Gerund Objects, Part Unit 17: Adverbs and Phrasal Verbs Unit 18: Phrasal Verbs and Can, Could,... Phrasal Verbs Used as Nouns Unit 11: Phrasal Verbs Used in Compound Nouns Unit 12: Past Perfect Phrasal Verbs Unit 13: Passive Phrasal Verbs, Part Unit 14: Participle Adjectives Formed from Phrasal
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