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www.facebook.com/hocthemtoan Beginning READINGBuilding Skills for the TOEFL®iBT TRANSCRIPTSListening Section / Speaking Section / Writing SectionListening638TranscriptsChapter1Skill A01 Campus LifeM: I’m worried about my girlfriend.W: Why is that?M: She thinks she’s too fat.W: Is she?M: No, but she keeps skipping meals. Then, she only eats chipsand drinks cola.W: I used to do that. It’s called binging. It was no fun!M: Why did you stop doing it?W: Well, my doctor told me to eat when I’m hungry. She said, “Eattill you’re full or you’ll eat too much later.” She said a lot of girlsruin their health this way.M: Did she say what to eat?W: She said, “Eat fruit, vegetables, meats, and grains. Have regularmeals and snacks. Get exercise, too.”02Music HistoryM: We know that Ludwig van Beethoven was born in 1770 inBonn, Germany, but we are uncertain of the month. Beethovenwrote hundreds of songs. One of his most famous is his FifthSymphony. The first four notes go like this: dah dah dah da!Almost everyone recognizes them.He was the first to use trombones in a symphony. At age 28,he began to go deaf. Yet, he kept on writing and conducting.He never got married. But after he died, friends found somelove letters. We don’t know who he wrote them to. Beethovendied in 1827. 03 BiologyW: OK let’s talk about animals we don’t see in the winter. Manyanimals hibernate during the cold months of the year. Basically,they go to sleep. Some animals hibernate in holes in theground. Others sleep in caves, under bushes, or at the base oftrees. Bears hibernate. So do cold-blooded animals, like frogsand snakes.When animals are hibernating, it seems like they’re dead. Theyhave slow heartbeats, and they almost stop breathing. Theyhave stored extra energy and fat to keep them alive. By the endof winter, they are very weak. They must eat soon after wakingup. 04 Campus LifeM: Hey Julie, what’s up?W: Hi, Brian. Taking a break from studying. I’m surfing the Internetfor an MP3 player.M: Do you like the iPod?W: Yes, but I need a really small one.M: Oh, it’s small!W: Really? Someone told me it holds 5,000 songs!M: It’s 3.6 inches tall and two inches wide. I have one.W: What’s that in centimeters?M: The math textbook says one inch is 2.54 centimeters.W: OK, so first I need to multiply 3.6 by 2.54.M: Here! Use my calculator.W: Thanks! OK it’s 9.1 centimeters tall and 5 centimeters wide.Just what I need!05 AnthropologyW: Track and Field events happened long before they became asport. The San people in Africa are one example. They still holdwhat’s called a “Persistence” hunt. The men find the tracks of anantelope herd. They find the antelope and follow them forseveral days and nights. During this time, they study the animalsand choose one.Then, the hunt begins. Only the fastest runner will go after thechosen animal. He and the animal may run for as long as eighthours. If the hunter “persists,” the deer will finally get tired andfall. Then, he’ll slaughter it.06Business WritingW: When you’re writing a business letter, it’s important to be specific.That is, tell the reader exactly what he or she needs to know. Ifsomething is wrong, list what the problem is and what should bedone to fix it. If you need information, state clearly what you wantto know. Next, um, be positive. Say “no” in a good way.M: How can we do that?W: Use polite language. For example, “we regret to inform youthat ” or “we’re sorry, but ” Always keep in mind thisgolden rule: write the kind of business letter that YOU wouldlike to receive.07 Campus LifeM: Come on Holly, we’re going to be late.W: For what?M: Today’s the day of the parking-space lottery. I want to see if I geta parking space for next year.W: What?! You mean if they choose your number, you get a placeto park your car?M: Yes. Parking is very limited. Only a few students can bring theircars. And freshmen are never allowed to park on campus.W: If your number is chosen, do you get to park for free?M: No. It costs $120 a year.W: So, you’re hoping to win the privilege of paying money?M: Yes. Now, come on!08 EnglishW: Professor Smith, I forget many English words. What’s a goodtechnique to remember them?M: Try using index cards. Uh, small pieces of heavy paper.W: What do I do?M: On the front of the card, write the new word. On the back,write a definition of the word at the top in English.W: In English?M: Yes. No native language! Then, divide the bottom part of the backinto two halves. On the left, write a correct English sentence usingthe word. On the right, draw some kind of picture anything thathelps you remember the word.W: Then what?M: Review the cards every day.Note: Highlighting indicates a repeated listening sample.Transcripts 639Skill B01 GeographyW: Another name for the South Pole is Antarctica. This is acontinent, but no people live there. There’s a good reason for this.It’s the coldest, windiest place on Earth. The lowest temperatureever measured was in Antarctica. Minus 88 degrees celsius!Ninety-eight percent of the ground is permanently frozen, and thecontinent contains 87 percent of the world’s ice. Antarctica’sonly human occupants are scientists. They go there to learnhow Antarctica used to be millions of years ago, when it waslocated at the equator. Antarctica used to be connected toAustralia, before all the continents on the planet shifted. 02 Campus LifeW: Hey Joe, where are you going? Are you on your way to class?M: No. I’m on my way to the recreation center to play basketball.Want to come?W: I can’t. I’m not a member.M: If you’re a full-time student, membership is included in yourtuition. Do you have your student ID card?W: Yeah. Does that mean I can use any part of the rec center?M: Yes. You can use the swimming pool, the gym, the weightroom anything you want. All you need to do is show your IDcard at the door.W: Hey, cool. I’ll come with you. 03 LiteratureM: If a play makes you laugh, it’s a comedy. Comedies have humorouscharacters and happy endings. A good example of a comedy isShakespeare’s classic Much Ado About Nothing. Another popularstyle is called tragedy. Tragedies usually tell how a hero ruins hislife, falling from good fortune to bad fortune because of a“tragic flaw” in character. One example is the play Ghosts, byHenrik Ibsen. Um, modern years have produced a third style,called tragicomedy. In tragicomedies, the play seems as thoughit will end in tragedy but instead has a humorous or unclearending. An example is Saint Joan, by George Bernard Shaw.04 PhysicsW: It’s a beautiful blue sky today. Ever wonder why it’s blue? It’sbecause the sun’s rays scatter, or spread out, as they enter theEarth’s atmosphere. Blue rays are scattered most; they seem tobe all over the sky. Yellow rays are scattered less. This is why thesun looks yellow most of the time. But, after sunrise and justbefore sunset, the sun looks red. Why? Because then the raysmust travel a longer path into the atmosphere. More of the blueand yellow rays are scattered. The red rays are scattered theleast. So, they come through in the largest numbers.05 Campus LifeM: Hi, Ms. Jansen. Can we keep Romeo and Juliet in our dorm room?W: What on Earth !M: They’re our pet hermit crabs!W: Oh, poor crabs! Don’t you think they’d be happier on the beach? M: Well, at the store they were squished into a little box. Wethought they’d be happier with us. We let them out whenwe’re home. We give them baths too!W: I see. Do you know what to feed them?M: There’s free Internet information The Hermit Crab Association.They help crabs in captivity. And we will take them back to abeach someday.06 University 101M: As we study in university, we find we have a lot of reading. It’s veryproductive to learn how to read faster. To do this, you need toknow how fast you read now. I’ll show you a quick test to find out.But before I do, let me say this.In this test, it’s important to understand what you have read.Rushing to beat the clock is pointless. You won’t enjoy the readingor understand it well. You’ll also get a false measure of yourreading speed. When you finish, you should try to see what youremember.07 HealthW: We all know that we can get Vitamin D from sunshine. Longwinters make it hard to get enough. People who don’t getoutside often don’t get enough either. Without Vitamin D, wemay develop weak bones and teeth. We can get certain kinds ofcancer more easily, too. Few foods other than fish naturally havemuch Vitamin D, so it’s important to get some sunshine everyday. But be careful. Too much can cause skin cancer. Notice whatmost animals that live outside all the time do. They are mostactive during the hours before sunrise and after sunset.08 Campus LifeW: Ha ha! Hey Trevor, check this out!M: I’m trying to study here!W: Oh, sorry. But this is really funny.M: What is?W: This article about strange inventions.M: Like what?W: Well, one guy invented a ladder for spiders. It’s a rubber stripyou can put on the side of your bathtub.M: Ha! Yeah? What else?W: A portable seat. You carry it around your waist like a big cushion.M: Ha! That’s really stupid.W: Here’s the best one: A car license plate that tells if the driver’sa man or a woman.M: I like that one. Then I could stay away from women drivers.W: Yeah Hey!Skill C01 Campus LifeM: I’m interested in your course on Indian culture. Can you tell meabout it, please?W: Certainly. The course is eight weeks long. There will be a mid-termexamination, a final exam, and two essays.M: How do you determine the grades?W: The final will account for 30 percent of your mark. The mid-termis 15 percent, the first essay is 10 percent, and the second essayis 30 percent.M: Let’s see. 30, 15, 10, 30 that’s only 85 percent.W: The other 15 percent is based on your attendance and participationin the class.M: It sounds interesting. I think I’ll take it.640Transcripts02 EnglishW: One of the most effective ways to increase your vocabulary isthrough newspapers. They are cheap, and they have a widevariety of words. When you read an English newspaper, makea list of eight to ten words you don’t know. Look them up in adictionary. Then add them to your vocabulary notebook. If youlearn eight new words each day, you will be learning newwords faster than the average American.M: Professor?W: Yes?M: How can we remember the words after we write them?W: Spend 15 minutes each day reviewing words from the previousday. You’ll be surprised how fast you learn. 03 Campus LifeW: I really like art! Especially paintings.M: Really? Do you have a favorite one?W: Yes, Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci.M: What do you like about it?W: Her smile. If you look closely, it seems she’s not smiling at all.Look again, she’s smiling! So many artists try to copy that smile. M: It must be hard to paint something so beautiful. W: Did you ever notice that she doesn’t have any eyebrows?M: Really? No! I never noticed. I wonder why?W: Girls in that time shaved their eyebrows. I just read it in our arthistory textbook.M: Hey! That’s cool. Nowadays, she’d have an eyebrow ring!04 AnthropologyM: In North America, the best weavers are a group of people calledthe Pueblo that’s P-U-E-B-L-O. The Pueblo have been weavingclothes, baskets, and blankets since at least 1000 BC. At first,they used their fingers to weave together vegetable fibers andanimal hair. In the first century AD, they began growing cotton.About this time, they also started using a loom a kind of, um,machine that helped them weave the cotton into cloth morequickly and easily. By the year 1600, the Pueblos had sheep, sothey began weaving wool, using the same methods they hadused for weaving cotton.05 Campus LifeM: Have you heard about Mexican turtles disappearing?W1: Yes. It’s because they lay their eggs on the beach, right?M: Yeah, and people eat the eggs. But my professor said there’s aplan to save them.W1: What is it?M: I don’t know, but he gave us a phone number.W1: Let’s call!M: OK, here goes W2: Hello, Environmental Protection Hotline. How may I help you?M: I’d like to find out about the program to save Mexican turtles.W2: Yes, of course. I can send you something to read or you canlook at our website, www.enviro.com.M: Thanks! I’ll look at the website.W2: Thanks for calling!06 PhysicsW: And now, the winner of this year’s science fair, Choi Min-Soo!Min-Soo, tell everyone about your work.M: Thank you! Let me tell you about my “white noise” machine.Does noise ever annoy you or keep you awake? Well, we canlessen noise by using “white noise.” Think of water. Think ofsending one big wave toward another coming in. My machinedoes that with sound. It can tell how much noise is coming in,then send back “white noise.” You don’t hear it, but it shutsout the noise! I hope that my machine will help those whoneed quiet. Thank you!07 HealthM: Acupuncture is a way of treating sick people. The Chinesedeveloped it over 2,500 years ago, and it is still used today. Inacupuncture, small metal needles are inserted into spots on thehuman body. There are 787 of these spots. Each one is connectedto a special body part or system. If, um, your ear hurts, forexample, the doctor will put needles into all the spots connectedwith your ear. The needles don’t hurt because they don’t go invery far. Sometimes the doctor runs an electric current throughthe needles. We don’t understand exactly why this helps people.08 MathW: Geometry is the study of points. Now, a point is a small dot, likea period at the end of a sentence. If we have two points, weknow that there can be other points between them. There canalso be a line. The line is continuous. It has no space betweeneach point. Part of a line, with points at each end, is called aline segment. Two line segments can be the same length. Wecall these line segments congruent. That just means the linesegments are equal in length.Chapter 1Skill ReviewA-C01 Campus LifeW: What should I do to prepare for my exams? I have some oldexams from last year. Do you think it’s a good way to study?M: Yes, it can help. Being familiar with the way the test is made up isbeneficial. You may be less anxious at exam time. First, quicklylook over all the material you’ve studied. Then decide whichthings you need the most work on. Then use questions fromthe exams to practice.W: Great! I should just memorize all the answers!M: No, I don’t think that’s a good idea. Questions on the new examwill probably be different. You need a strong understanding ofthe material. Memorizing won’t replace a thorough knowledgeof the subject.W: I guess that’s probably true. So, what else can I do?M: Make sure you go to all the review sessions. Go to yourprofessor’s office hours too.W: I always do that. I really like my professor.M: Good! In the exam, be sure to read the directions carefully.They may be different from the practice exams. Also, make sureyou get to the exam in plenty of time. Get comfortable beforeit begins.W: OK! Thanks for your help.Transcripts 64102 Physical ScienceW: Some people once thought that only four things made up theEarth: earth, water, air, and fire.Earth, water, and air are all forms of matter, but fire is reallydifferent. It may seem the same in that you can see it, feel it, andsmell it. You can even move it from place to place, but it really isn’tmatter at all. It’s an activity. It is matter changing form.Of course, fire has to have something to burn. We call this fuel.Fire also has to have air so that it can burn. Usually, when webuild a fire, we first put down easily flammable material likenewspaper or dry leaves. Then, we carefully place pieces ofwood over it, leaving room for air.Since fire doesn’t start by itself, we need a spark or heat sourceto start it. Matches, lighters, even magnifying glasses can beused. That’s a glass piece, specially made for seeing smallthings. We can make sun shine through it to form a very hotspot of light.Wood has to reach about 150 degrees Celsius. Then, somethingin the wood changes. Part of the wood turns into gas. We seethis gas as smoke. The parts of the wood that don’t burnchange to ash. This is the soft, white powder left after a fire. Athird part of the wood becomes carbon, or char. This char, orcharcoal, burns slowly and hotly without smoke. This gives usenough time to cook food. Skill D01 Campus LifeM: Hey, Rita, what are you looking at?W: I’m looking at a Nova Scotia College of Art catalog. I’m goingto transfer there. They have a great lithography program.M: Oh, yeah? So you’ll have to send them your transcript.W: I guess so. What exactly is on my transcript?M: Well, basically all your courses and grades.W: How do I get it?M: At the transcript office. It’s $8. It takes the secretary three orfour days to do it for you.W: Great! I can do this soon. I really want to learn to do lithos!02 Communications W: Do you say what you really mean? We learn from listening toothers. It’s a good way to learn. But if we’re not careful, welearn other people’s mistakes, too. Here’s an example. You oftenhear, “We’ve reached a consensus of opinion.” “Consensus,”already means that all of the people have the same idea.Adding “of opinion” is not needed.A saying that’s used too often is called a cliche’. We have to becareful in using cliche’ s. For example, it’s easy to say somethinglike, “I love chocolate.” What we really mean is, “I like it a lot.” 03 SociologyM: More and more US parents are choosing to homeschool theirchildren. This means the parents teach them at home. They dothis for several reasons. Some think public schools are toodangerous. Some think the education level is too low. Andsome want to teach their children about their religion. This isnot allowed in public schools. At home, children can helpchoose which subjects to study. And since there are only one ortwo students, the teacher mom or dad can give them lotsof attention. Of course, homeschoolers might get lonely. Andparents are sometimes not the best teachers.04 HistoryW: Albert Einstein is considered the greatest scientist of the twentiethcentury. He was born in Germany in 1879, and was interested inscience from an early age. He had trouble in school. In fact, hefailed on his first try to enter university. In 1896, however, he didenter a university in Switzerland. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prizefor physics. When Hitler came to power in Germany, Einsteinmoved to the United States. He told the US president that Hitlerwas making an atomic bomb. The US made one first. This newbomb helped end World War II.05 Campus LifeM: YaaaahhW: Quit yawning! I’m trying to read.M: Sorry. I’m just tired today.W: Our biology professor said when you yawn, it’s because yourlungs need more oxygen. It cleans your blood.M: Hmm my blood must be filthy, then.W: You’re probably not breathing as deeply as you should. Whydon’t you go outside and take a few deep breaths? That’ll giveyou lots of oxygen.M: Yeah, but I’ll still be tired.W: Maybe a break and some fresh air will give you some energy.M: I need a break from this boring textbook.W: If you’re bored, go outside and try doing something interesting.M: Good idea. I think I’ll go for a bike ride.06 GeographyM: South America is a large continent, but it has only 12 countries.The largest country in South America is Brazil. It is almost as bigas the United States! A lot of people don’t realize that from justlooking at a map. Brazil takes up almost half the land in SouthAmerica. The smallest country is Surinam. This is smaller thanmany US states. South America lies between the Atlantic andPacific oceans. The equator crosses the northern part of thecontinent. At this point, South America is about 1,500 kilometerswide. The southern-most point in South America is a narrow tipcalled Tierra del Fuego. This is only about 300 kilometers northof Antarctica.07 Campus LifeW: Hello, Chad. What’s happening?M: Not much. What are you doing with that camera?W: I’m taking pictures for our class photo exhibit next week.M: Where’s that going to be?W: In the student center. I need to get three or four good shots ofnature on campus.M: Will all the photos be of nature?W: No. There are three other categories: students, professors, andbuildings.M: And students are taking all the pictures?W: Yes. We have to take them, develop them, enlarge them, andframe them.M: Wow. You’re going to be busy.W: Yep. Well, I’m gonna go photograph the cherry tree blossoms.See ya.642Transcripts08 Social StudiesM: A population is all the people, animals, or plants living somewhere.Taking a census means getting information about every memberof a population. Census information helps governments, especiallydemocracies, run well. In a democratic government, people votefor the leader. Democracies need to know everyone who is oldenough to vote.The two oldest known censuses were taken in China. One wastaken in 2 AD and the other in 140 AD. The Bible also tells ofthree different censuses. Censuses were taken by the RomanEmpire, too. The person counting Romans and getting the taxeswas called the “Censor.”Skill E01 Campus LifeM: Hey, neat! You got a telescope for your birthday!W: Yes. Now, we can look at the moon!M: Can we see any planets with this telescope?W: Yes. We can most easily see Mars it’s closest to Earth andVenus. It’s the next closest.M: Is it true that Mars once had rivers and oceans?W: A lot of scientists think so. Did you know it has two moons?M: No! Amazing! How many moons does Venus have?W: None!M: Do you think people will ever visit Mars? W: Maybe someday, but not Venus. It’s too hot.M: Well, at least we can see them with your new telescope!02 Phys. Ed.M: Soccer, or football, is one of the best liked sports around theworld. It’s an easy game to understand, but it has many rules.Each player must follow the rules carefully. A player who doesn’tcan be given a yellow card. This is a warning. A player whobreaks the rules many times may get a red card. A player whogets a red card is forced out of the game. He or she will not beallowed to play anymore.There is one very basic soccer rule. It is one that everyoneknows. A player cannot do anything that could hurt anotherplayer. 03 LiteratureW: There’s a famous story about Mark Twain. Once he got on atrain in New York. I don’t know where he was going, but thetrain was full. A ticket-office worker said there was no room onthe sleeping coach. But on the train, the conductor saw himand came right over. He showed him to a sleeping coach in firstclass. He made especially sure that Twain was comfortable.Then he said, “I’m so proud to have you on this train, sir!” MarkTwain asked, “Oh! Who am I?” and heard, “General McClellan.”You can imagine his surprise.04 PsychologyM: It’s important to choose a job that’s right for your personality.Are you a friendly person who enjoys meeting people andtalking with them? Perhaps you should become a salespersonor a teacher. If you’re quiet and thoughtful, maybe you shouldbe an accountant or scientist. Think about what your jobrequires. Will you be interacting with others or spending mostof your time alone? There are many factors to consider inchoosing a career. Money is certainly one of them. So is socialstatus. But remember, whatever you decide, you have to dothat job every day. Choose carefully!05 Campus LifeW: Hey, Tony. Want to go play basketball?M: I can’t. I’ve got to study for my mid-term exams.W: Man, you can’t study all the time. You’ve gotta exercise!M: How? I don’t have the time!W: You can do simple things. Like, instead of taking the elevatorto class, walk up the stairs. And when you’re studying, take arest every hour and go for a short walk.M: Hmm yeah, I could do that.W: You know, just squeezing a tennis ball makes your handsstronger and helps you relax.M: That’s easy. Anything else?W: Yeah. Walk backwards sometimes. It strengthens the back ofyour lower legs.M: Thanks. Have fun at basketball.06 AstronomyW: OK, mmm we all know that the Earth spins as it rotatesaround the sun. Does anyone know how fast it spins?M: Two thousand kilometers an hour?W: Close. About 2,200 kilometers an hour. It turns completelyaround once each day. Now, what would happen if the Earthstopped spinning so fast? If it slowed down to one rotationevery 365 days, every place on the planet would have eitherdaylight or darkness all year long. This is similar to the situationon the moon. For two weeks, the sun shines on the front side.Then, for two weeks, it shines on the back side. How do youthink a slower rotation would affect your lives?07 Campus LifeW: I finished writing my paper on the American Revolution.M: Wow! I’m still looking for information on George Washington.W: Well, I saw a TV show about it last week. I wrote down all theimportant people and then looked them up on the Internet.M: I wish I’d seen that show.W: You can still find information on the Internet. Just type thewords you’re looking for and then click the “search” button.M: I tried. But it gave me so many websites!W: Maybe you can ask Professor Cohen if there’s a good video youcould watch. That would help you know what to look for.08 PsychologyM: It’s easier to remember something if we make a picture, orimage, of it in our minds. You can remember a common objectby giving it three qualities: detail, color, and movement. Takesomething you often lose, like a key, for instance. Make the keyspecial in your mind. Give it detail. Imagine it has very sharpteeth. Then, give it color. Make it shiny gold. Finally, give itmovement. Imagine it is alive. If you don’t watch it, it couldjump up and lock you out. If you think of it this way, you’re notlikely to forget it again.Transcripts 643Skill F01HistoryW: Spain is a country in Southwest Europe, south of France andwest of Italy. In the 16th Century, it was the most powerfulnation in the world. After America was discovered in 1492,Spain sent many people there. They brought back lots of goldand silver. Trade with the new American colonies made Spainrich. It established colonies in other parts of the world, such asCuba and the Philippines. But in 1588, Spain lost a famous waragainst England. After that, its power began to decline. In1898, Spain lost Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War.02 Campus LifeW: Dr. Shin, how long have you been a university professor?M: Eighteen years, Sandra.W: Could you please tell our campus radio listeners what madeyou want to become an educator?M: I guess it was my mother. She was a writer. At an early age, shetaught me that “the pen is mightier than the sword.” So whenI entered university, I started to study writing.W: And you became a writer like your mother?M: No, I actually never wrote any books. But I did discover that Ilove teaching. So I’ve been a writing teacher ever since.W: Well, we’re certainly glad you became one. Personally, I reallyenjoyed your class. Thank you for being on the show today, Dr.Shin. 03 LiteratureM: Batman has changed several times since he first appeared in acomic book in May 1939. The first Batman is now called the“Golden Age” Batman. He was famous for using his mind, nothis strength, to catch criminals. In April 1940, Robin firstappeared as Batman’s partner. In April 1943, Batman and Robinwere joined by their butler, Alfred. He was the only one whoknew Batman and Robin’s real names. In 1952, Batman teamedwith Superman for the first time. In May 1964, the “new look”Batman appeared. His costume had a black bat in a yellow oval.The first Batman did not have the oval.04 EcologyW: The kind of oil that usually spills into the sea is called crude oil.Sometimes it leaks naturally. Other times, humans accidentallyspill it when digging for oil or carrying it on boats. When oil spills,three things happen: spreading, evaporation, and emulsification.In spreading, the oil forms long, narrow strips, called windrows.You can remember this word as “wind” plus “rows.” The windpushes the oil into long rows across the water. In evaporation, thelighter parts of the oil disappear. Only the heavier parts remain. Inemulsification, E-M-U-L-S-I-F-I-C-A-T-I-O-N, the waves mix waterinto the oil. This forms a heavy and sticky substance, which issometimes called chocolate mousse. The oil also mixes with otherthings floating in the water.05 Campus LifeW: I don’t feel well. I think I’ll skip class today.M: What’s wrong?W: I feel hot then cold, and I ache all over.M: Ooh! That doesn’t sound very good! You’d better take yourtemperature.W: Do you have a thermometer?M: Yes, I do. Here you go.W: Thanks, Joe. M:Here, let me read the thermometer for you Uh-oh, your temperatureis really high! You’d better go see the school nurse!W: You know, I could have malaria. These are malaria symptoms. Ijust came back from a trip to Africa with my parents. I wasn’tvery good about taking my medicine.06 ScienceM: Light travels at 297,600 kilometers per second. That’s prettyfast! Sound travels much more slowly at 1 kilometer per 3 seconds.Knowing this, we can judge the distance of a storm. When yousee a lightning flash, begin counting seconds. When you hearthe thunder, stop counting. How many seconds have passed?The lightning is one kilometer away for every 3 of those seconds.There’s another way to know how close a storm is. As rain falls,it cools the air. That cooler air may flow about 3 miles ahead ofthe storm. The air becoming suddenly cooler tells you abouthow close it is.07 Campus LifeM: Hi, Barb! How was your vacation?W: Great! We went to New Mexico.M: You went to Mexico?W: No, NEW Mexico. It’s a state in the southwestern US. Thelicense plates there say USA, so people don’t get confused.M: That’s funny. What did you do there?W: Well, on our way there we stopped at the Grand Canyon, inArizona. It was awesome! Then, we went to Albuquerque the biggest city in New Mexico. Then we visited Carlsbad Caverns.M: What are those?W: Caves sixty miles of them. In one cave, we had to wear hatswith lights so we could see in the dark.08HistoryW: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a great artist. He was also ascientist and inventor. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci, Italy.He began studying painting at age 14 and became famous justa few years later. His best-known paintings are Mona Lisa andThe Last Supper. But Leonardo was also an excellent scientist. Hekept detailed notebooks of observations about the naturalworld. And he cut open dead people to learn how the humanbody works. Finally, he was an inventor. But his two most famousinventions the parachute and the war tank weren’t builtuntil after he died.644TranscriptsChapter 1Skill ReviewA-F01 PsychologyW: Some people can remember things in a way that seems almostimpossible. It’s as if their minds just take photos. They might beable to repeat a lecture word for word. They can even accomplishthis feat many years later.Some very good chess players can play with their eyes covered.This is called “Blindfold Chess.” They can play against severalother players at once and win! Someone tells them the otherplayers’ moves. They can easily remember where the pieces areon all the boards. Scientists call this “eidetic memory,” though many people callit photographic memory. However, this may be misleading.Scientists believe the memories are not stored photographically,but in another way. A scientist named Dr. DeGroot did a test toshow this.A chessboard was set up a certain way, and some chess playerswere given fifteen seconds to look at it. Then, they were askedto set the pieces up again in the same way. The more seasonedchess players easily set up the pieces again. The beginners hada more difficult time doing it.In the next test, Dr. DeGroot began in the same way. However,this time he set them up in a way that would never happen ina real game. Now, the really good players had difficultyremembering, too, remembering only as well as the beginningplayers. It seemed they needed to apply their knowledge ofwhat was really possible in a game. That is, they needed toapply what they knew about chess to remember well. 02 General StudiesM: Some people really go overboard using their yellow markers tounderline everything. I’m going to suggest that this isn’t thebest strategy for studying. The first time you read a passage,don’t highlight. You can end up with an all-yellow text.Just read the passage first. Then ponder it for a while. Thenread it again, this time looking for the most important ideas. Inthe next reading, you can start highlighting. Only underline oneor two key words or phrases per page. Even better compilea list of the words and phrases. Write the page number besideeach one so you can look them up again. Now, when youreview, you won’t have pages and pages to read. This makes itmuch easier to review for an exam. W: Excuse me, Professor Hill.M: Yes, Jacqueline?W: Can you give us some suggestions on how to choose the wordsand phrases?M: Yes, of course! Here are some steps to help you decide what tochoose:1. Look for the main idea. Follow the way it’s being toldthrough the passage.2. Look at the beginning and ending paragraphs. They oftengive the information in a simple form.3. Pick out transitional words that give you important information.i.e., “the point is,” “in sum,” “most importantly,” and so on.4. Try reading the ending first, so you know where the passage isgoing.5. The next day, look over the passage again. Only read whatyou’ve underlined. Do it again a week later.Now, each night for several nights before a test, look atyour list. Take an hour or two. You’ll remember some thingsfrom class. When you find something you can’t remember,look it up. You’ll learn what you don’t remember this way.You’ll have no problem getting a high score on the exam.Learning this does take time, though. So don’t get discouraged.Keep practicing. You’ll get it.Chapter2Skill A01 CultureM: Let’s talk about sneezing. When someone sneezes Ah choo! the customary response is, “Bless you” or “God bless you.”Why do we say this?There are several theories. Some of these are superstitions that is, things that many people believe but that aren’t reallytrue. One superstition is that saying “bless you” keeps the devilfrom flying down your throat. Another is that “bless you”keeps your soul from flying out of your body. Actually, there isa historical reason for this custom.There was a pope in Rome named Gregory the Great. When hewas elected pope, the great plague was beginning all overEurope. Thousands of people were dying. In fact, the popebefore Gregory had died of the plague. To get rid of the plague,Pope Gregory ordered people to march through the streets,asking for God’s help. If someone sneezed, others wouldimmediately say “God bless you!” They hoped this would keepthe person who sneezed from getting the plague.Today, of course, we know that when you sneeze, the devil isn’ttrying to rush down your throat. Your soul won’t leave yourbody. And saying “bless you” to sneezers in the street is notgoing to cure disease. We do know, though, that each sneezeforces thousands of germs into the air. People keep germs outof public places by covering their mouths when they sneeze.And hearing an old-fashioned “bless you” from a stranger canmake us feel better when the sneezes begin.02 Campus LifeW: Hey Alex. How’s it going?M: OK. I just finished math class. Man, I hate math!W: Why? It’s easy!M: Yeah, right.W: I’ve got a secret that helps me in math class. Wanna know whatit is?M: OK. But it probably won’t help me.W: Listen and try it. Math is too abstract, right? Well, try to makeit real for yourself. My secret is I think about numbers in mathas if they were money.M: Huh?W: Yeah. I have a hard time picturing numbers. But if I see thenumbers as dollars and cents, then I can see them clearly in myhead.Transcripts 645M: Really?!W: Yeah. For example, if the teacher says, “What is 853 minus727,” I think of eight dollars and fifty-three cents minus sevendollars and twenty-seven cents. The answer is one dollar and26 cents one twenty-six. It’s easy!M: Hey, that’s awesome! I’ll try it tomorrow. Thanks.W: No problem. See you at the basketball game tonight.M: See you.03 Computer ScienceW: More people are buying home computers and using them forhome networks. They need faster ways to get information overthe Internet. Right now, there are mainly two avenues forinformation to be sent. These are cable modems and AsymmetricDigital Subscriber Lines or ADSL. These faster ways of sendinginformation are called broadband connections. Cable modemsand ADSL are both types of broadband connections. They aremuch faster than a 56K modem.There is another new kind of DSL connection. It is known asvery high bit rate DSL or VDSL. Some companies already havethis for certain places. VDSL isn’t everywhere yet, but it may bevery soon. Many people like it and are beginning to use it.VDSL accommodates a very, very large amount of bandwidth.It gives up to about 52 megabytes per second. In other words,it provides 52Mbps. In comparison, ADSL or cable modems canonly give 8 to 10 megabytes per second. It’s easy to see thatVDSL is a lot faster. VDSL will soon be more common, makinghome networks cost much less.In the United States, a telephone line has two copper wires.These wires have a very broad bandwidth. A telephone call onlyuses a very small part of the bandwidth. The telephone wirescan carry much more information than telephone calls. DSL canuse this extra bandwidth at the same time a call is being made.It can do this without changing the sound of the telephone call. 04 Campus LifeM: Hey Lucy, are you going to watch any of the movies at the filmfestival?W: No, I wasn’t thinking of it. I have too much homework to do.M: Aw, that’s no fun! Can’t you even take one night off? Your dor-mitory is so close to the Annenberg Center! It’ll take you fiveminutes to get there.W: Well, maybe I will go to one.M: How about tomorrow night? I can go then.W: What movie is playing?M: School of Rock. Have you seen it?W: No. What’s it about?M: Well, it’s a comedy and it’s really funny. It’s about this guy who’sreally trying to make it as a rock star. He gets kicked out of hisband and he really needs money. So he acts like he’s somebodyelse to get a teaching job. Then, he tries to turn his class into arock band.W: Sounds pretty crazy! OK, I’ll come see it.05 BiologyW: Most animals in the world have some kind of way to hidethemselves so that they can hunt for food and protect themselvesfrom other animals. This method of hiding is called camouflage:C-A-M-O-U-F-L-A-G-E. The simplest form of camouflage is foranimals to “blend in” with their surroundings. Their colors matchthe surroundings in which they live, which makes them hard tosee. Deer and other forest animals, for example, have lightbrown colors that help them blend in with the brown trees anddirt on the forest ground. Many fish have a gray-blue color. Thishelps them blend in with the soft light under water. Other animalsuse color patterns to help them blend in. A tiger’s pattern of blackstripes and orange fur blends into the long grass where ithunts. This makes the tiger difficult for its victims to spot untilit’s too late!Another form of camouflage is called copying. For instance, aking snake is red, yellow, and black. It copies the colors of thecoral snake. The coral snake is very dangerous; its bite can kill you.The king snake is not dangerous, but other animals are afraid toattack the king snake because it looks like a coral snake.A third form of camouflage is disguise: D-I-S-G-U-I-S-E. Thismeans that an animal looks like something else. For instance, acrocodile in the water can look just like a floating log. This disguisehelps it catch deer when they come near the water to drink.06 PsychologyW: Do you ever wonder why we dream? Many people do. Forcenturies, in fact, people have been trying to understand whatour dreams mean or if they mean anything at all. In ancientEgypt, about 2000 BC, people thought dreams were veryimportant. They believed that dreams foretold what wouldhappen in the future. The Egyptians wrote books that listedwhat dreams meant. If a man saw himself looking out awindow in his dream, it was considered a good omen. It meantthat his cry would be heard by a god. If a man saw himself inhis dream looking at people who were far away, it was considereda bad sign. It meant that he was soon going to die.In modern times, Sigmund Freud is famous for his research ondreams. Freud believed that dreams represent our suppresseddesires things we want to do, but can’t. Dreams allow ourminds to act out desires that we can’t express in our everydaylives. Usually, these suppressed desires involve sex. For example:A train going into a tunnel represents a man and womanhaving sex. According to Freud, this dream would mean youwant to have sex, but for some reason you can’t.Another famous dream researcher was Carl Jung um, J-U-N-G.Jung believed dreams allow us to think more about ourselves thanwhen we are awake and to solve problems that we haveduring the day.In 1973, researchers named Allan Hobson and Robert McCarleysaid dreams don’t mean anything. Dreams are just the result ofnatural activity in our brains.Skill B01 BiologyW: I’m still confused about the lecture today on blood types.M: OK. What questions do you have?W: Well, first, the way we classify blood types. We use the lettersA, B, and O, right?M: That’s right. There are four different types of blood: A, B, AB,and O. Each person on Earth has one of these types.W: And where do we get our blood types?M: They come from both our father and mother. Your bloodtype could be the same as one of your parents, or completely646Transcriptsdifferent.W: But everyone’s blood is red!M: Yes, it all looks the same, but it’s dangerous to mix two differentblood types together. If you get hurt and need blood, you haveto make sure the new blood is the same type as yours. If it’snot, you might die.W: But didn’t the professor say there was one type that could mixwith any of them?M: Yes. That’s type O.02 LiteratureW: Folktales are stories that grow out of the lives or imaginationsof people, or folk. Folktales began as an attempt to explain andunderstand the world around us. Many folktales all over theworld are nearly the same. Travelers passed them on from onecountry to another. Each person telling the folktale changes itslightly. The stories that traveled mostly over land changed agreat deal. The ones that traveled by water changed less. Thereare many different kinds of folktales. Some have simple plotswith lots of repeated phrases and words. These are calledcumulative folktales. One example is called “There Was an OldLady Who Swallowed a Fly.” This sentence is repeated onalmost every page of the story. In some stories, animals talk justlike humans. These are talking beast folktales. A famous exampleis “The Three Little Pigs.” Humorous tales are meant for funand nonsense. They are usually about someone who makesunbelievably funny mistakes, such as the Norwegian husbandwho has to take care of his house and nearly destroys it.Romances are stories in which lovers seem hopelessly separateduntil magic brings them back together. A good example is “Beautyand the Beast.” Tales of magic are types of stories we commonly callfairy tales. These include things like talking mirrors, enchantedforests, and magic kisses. “Snow White” is a popular example.03 Campus LifeW: Hello, Lance! What can I help you with today?M: I heard there’s a tutoring center for each department. Can youtell me where it is for the English Department?W: Yes! Ours is just next door.M: Can I go there right now?W: You can, but they might still be at lunch. You know, you’ll haveto sign up for an interview first, anyway. You can do that over theInternet, too.M: OK. Can you give me the address?W: Go to www.pentutoring.info. They’ll get in touch with you withinthree working days.M: What will they send me?W: They’ll send you the tutor’s name, phone number, email address Oh, yes, and how much you have to pay per hour.M: Uh-oh! I don’t have any money.W: That’s OK. You can get free tutoring. You’ll just need to agree todo a three-week feedback survey.M: That’s all?W: That’s all!M: Great! Thanks!W: No problem!04 BiologyM: Spiders can spin silk better than any other insect. Only a fewothers, like silkworms, can make silk.Spiders use silk in many different ways. They often use it thesame way a mountain climber uses rope. They’ll drop down ona silk strand. If they get into trouble, they can quickly run backup again. Another way they use silk is to make homes for theirbabies.Most kinds of spiders spin a thick silk covering around theireggs. Some spin it around the new little spiders.Spiders can make different kinds of silk strands. One way is tocoat a silk strand with different materials. They might make itsticky to catch a fly. I think we’ve all seen a fly getting stuck ona spider’s web. You sometimes notice because the fly buzzesloudly. Or a spider might water-proof the silk with something.Then, they can stay dry in a rainstorm. A trapdoor spider’s homeis a good example. The door over the trapdoor spider’s hole is awater-proof roof made of spider silk.05 PhysicsM: A good way to understand why balloons float in the air is tounderstand why things float in water. Let’s say that you have aplastic one-liter bottle of Coca-Cola. If you pour out the Cokeand put the cap back on, you have a one-liter bottle full of air.Now, tie a string around it and take it to the bottom of aswimming pool. What will happen when you let go of thebottle?W: It will rise to the top?M: Yes. If you sit on the bottom of the pool holding the string, thebottle will act just like a balloon does in the air. Does anyoneknow why the bottle rises?W: Uh, because the air is, um, lighter than the water?M: Exactly! The bottle and the air inside it weigh just a few grams,But a liter of water weighs about 1,000 grams. The air is lighterthan the water the air displaces, so the bottle floats. We callthis the law of buoyancy.Balloons work by the same law of buoyancy except balloonsare filled with helium, not air. Helium is a gas that is muchlighter than air. You can think of the helium balloon you areholding as floating in a huge “pool” of air. The helium balloondisplaces an amount of air, just like the empty bottle displacesan amount of water. As long as the helium and the balloon arelighter than the air they displace, the balloon will float in theair.06 HealthW: Mmm. I love coffee. It wakes me up! You know why? Becauseit has caffeine. Caffeine is a kind of drug. Ah! Caffeine is foundnaturally in many plants, such as coffee beans, tea leaves, andcocoa nuts. It’s also added artificially to many other kinds offood and drinks. So, it’s safe to say that the typical Americangets plenty of caffeine. As a matter of fact, most of us get toomuch. More than half of all adults in the United Statesconsume more than 300 milligrams of caffeine each day.Including me! Seriously, though too much caffeine is notgood for your body. Caffeine interferes with a chemical in yourbrain called adenosine. That’s A-D-E-N-O-S-I-N-E. Now normally,adenosine helps prepare your body for rest. This chemical slowsdown nerve cells, which causes you to become sleepy. To thenerve cells in your brain, caffeine looks just like adenosine, butcaffeine acts differently. Instead of slowing down your nervecells, caffeine speeds them up. As a result, your heart starts tobeat faster. Your breathing tubes open wider. Your blood pressurerises. Blood vessels tighten near the surface of your skin. The[...]... used to sail their boats back and forth across the equator on their way to trade things with other nations They depended on the wind to get them there quickly Hence the name, trade winds The trade winds begin in regions called the Horse Latitudes These are regions between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator The winds in the Horse Latitudes are light, and the weather there is hot... of the light winds, trading ships would become stalled in the Horse Latitudes Sailors were worried about running out of water, so they threw their horses into the sea This way, they could drink the water meant for the horses It also made their boats lighter, so they could go faster The trade winds blow from the Horse Latitudes toward the equator In the Northern Hemisphere, they blow from the northeast... crossed by the trade winds The Sahara Desert, in North Africa, is a trade wind desert Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains As clouds rise over the mountains, they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side So, these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains The Judean... M: Advertisements They’re everywhere You can’t hide from them There’s no escape Turn on the TV There they are Turn on the radio There they are Waiting for an elevator? There they are Using your computer? There they are Looking out your car window? Ahhhhhh! Ads, ads, ads! Aren’t you getting tired of them? W: Yes! Especially on my computer and on TV I wish there weren’t so many of them M: Well, would... crossed by the trade winds The Sahara Desert, in North Africa, is a trade wind desert Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains As clouds rise over the mountains, they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side So, these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains The Judean... control their vertical position The tail is like the shark’s propeller The shark swings it back and forth to move forward In an airplane, this forward movement pushes air around the wings For a shark, this forward movement pushes water around the fins In both cases, the forward movement creates lift -the airplane and shark both rise Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies These fins... position The tail is like the shark’s propeller The shark swings it back and forth to move forward In an airplane, this forward movement pushes air around the wings For a shark, this forward movement pushes water around the fins In both cases, the forward movement creates lift - the airplane and shark both rise Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies These fins are in about the same... markets If they do, they have to pay very high interest rates The World Bank gives them some money, low-interest loans, and interest -free credit It helps them take care of the money, too When the countries get loans, they have 35 40 years to pay them back They can have ten extra years if they need it In the year 2002, the bank agreed to give about $15 billion to low-income countries For some of the poorest... said men with tools formed the Causeway Others argued, quite correctly, that natural processes formed the Causeway Many people believed a legend that a giant named Finn McCool made the Causeway and named it The truth was, no one back then really knew for sure Well, nowadays, we know the truth Modern geologists know for sure the Causeway was formed by volcanic activity They compare the Causeway’s origin... position as the main wings and tail wings on an airplane The shark can position these fins at different angles This changes the path of the water around them and Transcripts 651 enables the shark to move quickly upward or downward The shark also has two vertical fins on its back These are like the stabilizer fin on an airplane They allow the shark to keep its balance as it moves through the water and . from the Horse Latitudes toward the equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, they blow from the northeast and are called the Northeast Trade Winds. In the Southern. Advertisements. They’re everywhere. You can’t hide from them.There’s no escape. Turn on the TV. There they are. Turn on the radio.There they are. Waiting for an
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